Next Issue
Volume 10, November
Previous Issue
Volume 10, September
 
 

Plants, Volume 10, Issue 10 (October 2021) – 255 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Waterlogging restricts about 10–12% of agricultural lands from reaching their true genetic potential globally. Functional relationships of corn growth to waterlogging are needed to develop management tools. Our study shows that waterlogging treatments caused soil oxygen levels to decline rapidly, reaching zero around eight days. The hypoxic and anoxic soils caused cascaded physiological processes, leading to restricted corn shoot and root growth under waterlogged conditions. Plant height and leaf numbers were least affected while plant component dry biomass accumulations declined exponentially as waterlogging duration was prolonged. The identified waterlogging-specific indices for growth and developmental processes should be helpful for modeling corn simulation models to improve management practices. View this paper
  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Readerexternal link to open them.
Order results
Result details
Section
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:
Article
Unique N-Terminal Interactions Connect F-BOX STRESS INDUCED (FBS) Proteins to a WD40 Repeat-like Protein Pathway in Arabidopsis
Plants 2021, 10(10), 2228; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10102228 - 19 Oct 2021
Viewed by 1060
Abstract
SCF-type E3 ubiquitin ligases provide specificity to numerous selective protein degradation events in plants, including those that enable survival under environmental stress. SCF complexes use F-box (FBX) proteins as interchangeable substrate adaptors to recruit protein targets for ubiquitylation. FBX proteins almost universally have [...] Read more.
SCF-type E3 ubiquitin ligases provide specificity to numerous selective protein degradation events in plants, including those that enable survival under environmental stress. SCF complexes use F-box (FBX) proteins as interchangeable substrate adaptors to recruit protein targets for ubiquitylation. FBX proteins almost universally have structure with two domains: A conserved N-terminal F-box domain interacts with a SKP protein and connects the FBX protein to the core SCF complex, while a C-terminal domain interacts with the protein target and facilitates recruitment. The F-BOX STRESS INDUCED (FBS) subfamily of plant FBX proteins has an atypical structure, however, with a centrally located F-box domain and additional conserved regions at both the N- and C-termini. FBS proteins have been linked to environmental stress networks, but no ubiquitylation target(s) or biological function has been established for this subfamily. We have identified two WD40 repeat-like proteins in Arabidopsis that are highly conserved in plants and interact with FBS proteins, which we have named FBS INTERACTING PROTEINs (FBIPs). FBIPs interact exclusively with the N-terminus of FBS proteins, and this interaction occurs in the nucleus. FBS1 destabilizes FBIP1, consistent with FBIPs being ubiquitylation targets SCFFBS1 complexes. This work indicates that FBS proteins may function in stress-responsive nuclear events, and it identifies two WD40 repeat-like proteins as new tools with which to probe how an atypical SCF complex, SCFFBS, functions via FBX protein N-terminal interaction events. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Herbicide Options to Control Naturalised Infestations of Cereus uruguayanus in Rangeland Environments of Australia
Plants 2021, 10(10), 2227; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10102227 - 19 Oct 2021
Viewed by 702
Abstract
While there are many high profile Opuntioid cactus species invading rangeland environments in Australia, Cereus uruguayanus Ritt. ex Kiesl. has also naturalised and formed large and dense infestations at several locations. With no herbicides registered for control of C. uruguayanus in Australia, the [...] Read more.
While there are many high profile Opuntioid cactus species invading rangeland environments in Australia, Cereus uruguayanus Ritt. ex Kiesl. has also naturalised and formed large and dense infestations at several locations. With no herbicides registered for control of C. uruguayanus in Australia, the primary aim of this study was to identify effective herbicides to control it using a range of techniques. This involved a large screening trial of twelve herbicides and four techniques, followed by a rate refinement trial for cut stump applications and another to test residual herbicides. Despite most treatments (except monosodium methylarsonate (MSMA)) taking a long time to kill plants, at least one effective herbicide was identified for basal bark (triclopyr/picloram), cut stump (aminopyralid/metsulfuron-methyl, glyphosate, metsulfuron-methyl, triclopyr/picloram, triclopyr/picloram/aminopyralid), stem injection (glyphosate, MSMA, triclopyr/picloram/aminopyralid) and foliar applications (aminopyralid/metsulfuron-methyl, MSMA, triclopyr, triclopyr/picloram/aminopyralid) due to their ability to kill both small and large plants. Ground application of residual herbicides was less conclusive with neither hexazinone nor tebuthiuron causing adequate mortality at the rates applied. This study has identified effective herbicides for the control of C. uruguayanus using several techniques, but further research is needed to refine herbicide rates and develop integrated management strategies for a range of situations and infestation sizes and densities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Weed Management in Rangeland Environments)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Communication
Alkaloid Biosynthesis in the Early Stages of the Germination of Argemone mexicana L. (Papaveraceae)
Plants 2021, 10(10), 2226; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10102226 - 19 Oct 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 870
Abstract
The synthesis of the benzylisoquinoline alkaloids, sanguinarine and berberine, was monitored in Argemone mexicana L. (Papaveracea) throughout the early stages of its hypocotyl and seedling development. Sanguinarine was detected in the cotyledons right after hypocotyl emergence, and it increased continuously until the apical [...] Read more.
The synthesis of the benzylisoquinoline alkaloids, sanguinarine and berberine, was monitored in Argemone mexicana L. (Papaveracea) throughout the early stages of its hypocotyl and seedling development. Sanguinarine was detected in the cotyledons right after hypocotyl emergence, and it increased continuously until the apical hook unbent, prior to the cotyledonary leaves unfolding, when it abruptly fell. In the cotyledonary leaves, it also remained at low levels. Throughout development, berberine accumulation required the formation of cotyledonary leaves, whereas it was quickly detected in the hypocotyl from the time it emerged. Interestingly, the alkaloids detected in the cotyledons could have been imported from hypocotyls, because no transcriptional activity was detected in there. However, after turning into cotyledonary leaves, important levels of gene expression were noted. Taken together, these results suggest that the patterns of alkaloid tissue distribution are established from very early development, and might require transport systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Plant Physiology and Metabolism)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review
Phytochemical, Pharmacological, and Biotechnological Study of Ageratina pichinchensis: A Native Species of Mexico
Plants 2021, 10(10), 2225; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10102225 - 19 Oct 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1055
Abstract
Ageratina pichinchensis (Asteraceae) has been used for a long time in traditional Mexican medicine for treating different skin conditions and injuries. This review aimed to provide an up-to-date view regarding the traditional uses, chemical composition, and pharmacological properties (in vitro, in vivo, and [...] Read more.
Ageratina pichinchensis (Asteraceae) has been used for a long time in traditional Mexican medicine for treating different skin conditions and injuries. This review aimed to provide an up-to-date view regarding the traditional uses, chemical composition, and pharmacological properties (in vitro, in vivo, and clinical trials) that have been achieved using crude extracts, fractions, or pure compounds. Moreover, for a critical evaluation of the published literature, key databases (Pubmed, Science Direct, and SciFinder, among others) were systematically searched using keywords to retrieve relevant publications on this plant. Studies that reported on crude extracts, fractions, or isolated pure compounds of A. pichinchensis have found a varied range of biological effects, including antibacterial, curative, antiulcer, antifungal, and anti-inflammatory activities. Phytochemical analyses of different parts of A. pichinchensis revealed 47 compounds belonging to chromenes, furans, glycosylated flavonoids, terpenoids, and essential oils. Furthermore, biotechnological studies of A. pichinchensis such as callus and cell suspension cultures have provided information for future research perspectives to improve the production of valuable bioactive compounds. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Medicinal Plant Extracts)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Supplemental Selenium and Boron Mitigate Salt-Induced Oxidative Damages in Glycine max L.
Plants 2021, 10(10), 2224; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10102224 - 19 Oct 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1028
Abstract
The present investigation was executed with an aim to evaluate the role of exogenous selenium (Se) and boron (B) in mitigating different levels of salt stress by enhancing the reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging, antioxidant defense and glyoxalase systems in soybean. Plants were [...] Read more.
The present investigation was executed with an aim to evaluate the role of exogenous selenium (Se) and boron (B) in mitigating different levels of salt stress by enhancing the reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging, antioxidant defense and glyoxalase systems in soybean. Plants were treated with 0, 150, 300 and 450 mM NaCl at 20 days after sowing (DAS). Foliar application of Se (50 µM Na2SeO4) and B (1 mM H3BO3) was accomplished individually and in combined (Se+B) at three-day intervals, at 16, 20, 24 and 28 DAS under non-saline and saline conditions. Salt stress adversely affected the growth parameters. In salt-treated plants, proline content and oxidative stress indicators such as malondialdehyde (MDA) content and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) content were increased with the increment of salt concentration but the relative water content decreased. Due to salt stress catalase (CAT), monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDHAR), dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR), glyoxalase I (Gly I) and glyoxalase II (Gly II) activity decreased. However, the activity of ascorbate peroxidase (APX), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione S-transferase (GST) and peroxidase (POD) increased under salt stress. On the contrary, supplementation of Se, B and Se+B enhanced the activities of APX, MDHAR, DHAR, GR, CAT, GPX, GST, POD, Gly I and Gly II which consequently diminished the H2O2 content and MDA content under salt stress, and also improved the growth parameters. The results reflected that exogenous Se, B and Se+B enhanced the enzymatic activity of the antioxidant defense system as well as the glyoxalase systems under different levels of salt stress, ultimately alleviated the salt-induced oxidative stress, among them Se+B was more effective than a single treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Oxidative Stress: Biology, Physiology and Mitigation)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Wheat Leaf Antioxidative Status—Variety-Specific Mechanisms of Zinc Tolerance during Biofortification
Plants 2021, 10(10), 2223; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10102223 - 19 Oct 2021
Viewed by 671
Abstract
In this study, we evaluated the leaf antioxidative responses of three wheat varieties (Srpanjka, Divana, and Simonida) treated with two different forms of zinc (Zn), Zn-sulfate and Zn-EDTA, in concentrations commonly used in agronomic biofortification. Zn concentration was significantly higher in the flag [...] Read more.
In this study, we evaluated the leaf antioxidative responses of three wheat varieties (Srpanjka, Divana, and Simonida) treated with two different forms of zinc (Zn), Zn-sulfate and Zn-EDTA, in concentrations commonly used in agronomic biofortification. Zn concentration was significantly higher in the flag leaves of all three wheat varieties treated with Zn-EDTA compared to control and leaves treated with Zn-sulfate. Both forms of Zn increased malondialdehyde level and total phenolics content in varieties Srpanjka and Divana. Total glutathione content was not affected after the Zn treatment. Zn-sulfate increased the activities of glutathione reductase (GR) and guaiacol peroxidase (GPOD) in both Srpanjka and Divana, while glutathione S-transferase (GST) was only induced in var. Srpanjka. Chelate form of Zn increased the activities of GST and GPOD in both Simonida and Divana. Catalase activity was shown to be less sensitive to Zn treatment and was only induced in var. Srpanjka treated with Zn-EDTA where GPOD activity was not induced. Concentrations of Zn used for agronomic biofortification can induce oxidative stress in wheat leaves. The antioxidative status of wheat leaves could be a good indicator of Zn tolerance, whereas wheat genotype and chemical form of Zn are the most critical factors influencing Zn toxicity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mechanisms of Plant Antioxidants’ Action Volume II)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Chemical Composition of Ambrosia trifida L. and Its Allelopathic Influence on Crops
Plants 2021, 10(10), 2222; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10102222 - 19 Oct 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 777
Abstract
Phytotoxic substances released by invasive plants have been reported to have anti-pathogen, anti-herbivore, and allelopathic activity. The aim of this study was to determine the allelopathic influence of the Ambrosia trifida L. on oxidative stress parameters (the lipid peroxidation process; reduced glutathione (GSH) [...] Read more.
Phytotoxic substances released by invasive plants have been reported to have anti-pathogen, anti-herbivore, and allelopathic activity. The aim of this study was to determine the allelopathic influence of the Ambrosia trifida L. on oxidative stress parameters (the lipid peroxidation process; reduced glutathione (GSH) content; and activity of antioxidant enzymes catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and peroxidase (PX)) and phenolic compounds (total phenolic and tannin content) in maize (Zea mays L.), soybean (Glycine max L.), and sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) crops to explore the effect of released allelochemicals through A. trifida root on crops. An analysis by HPLC confirmed the presence of protocatechuic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, vanillic acid, and syringic acid as major components in the A. trifida. Based on the obtained results for oxidative stress parameters, it can be concluded that the sunflower was the most sensitive species to A. trifida allelochemicals among the tested crops. The other two crops tested showed a different sensitivity to A. trifida. The soybean did not show sensitivity, while the maize showed sensitivity only 10 days after the sowing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Alternative Measures in Plant Protection)
Article
Serial Section-Based Three-Dimensional Reconstruction of Anaxagorea (Annonaceae) Carpel Vasculature and Implications for the Morphological Relationship between the Carpel and the Ovule
Plants 2021, 10(10), 2221; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10102221 - 19 Oct 2021
Viewed by 606
Abstract
Elucidating the origin of flowers has been a challenge in botany for a long time. One of the central questions surrounding the origin of flowers is how to interpret the carpel, especially the relationship between the phyllome part (carpel wall) and the ovule. [...] Read more.
Elucidating the origin of flowers has been a challenge in botany for a long time. One of the central questions surrounding the origin of flowers is how to interpret the carpel, especially the relationship between the phyllome part (carpel wall) and the ovule. Recently, consensus favors the carpel originating from the fusion of an ovule-bearing part and the phyllome part that subtends it. Considering the carpel is a complex organ, the accurate presentation of the anatomical structure of the carpel is necessary for resolving this question. Anaxagorea is the most basal genus in a primitive angiosperm family, Annonaceae. The conspicuous stipe at the base of each carpel makes it an ideal material for exploring the histological relationships among the receptacle, the carpel, and the ovule. In the present study, floral organogenesis and vasculature were delineated in Anaxagorea luzonensis and Anaxagorea javanica, and a three-dimensional model of the carpel vasculature was reconstructed based on serial sections. The results show that in Anaxagorea, the vasculature in the carpel branches in the form of shoots. The radiosymmetrical vasculature pattern is repeatedly presented in the receptacle, the carpel, and the funiculus of the ovule. This provides anatomical evidence of the composite origin of the carpel. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mechanisms of Plant Ovule Development and Plasticity)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review
Breeding Canola (Brassica napus L.) for Protein in Feed and Food
Plants 2021, 10(10), 2220; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10102220 - 19 Oct 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 960
Abstract
Interest in canola (Brassica napus L.). In response to this interest, scientists have been tasked with altering and optimizing the protein production chain to ensure canola proteins are safe for consumption and economical to produce. Specifically, the role of plant breeders in [...] Read more.
Interest in canola (Brassica napus L.). In response to this interest, scientists have been tasked with altering and optimizing the protein production chain to ensure canola proteins are safe for consumption and economical to produce. Specifically, the role of plant breeders in developing suitable varieties with the necessary protein profiles is crucial to this interdisciplinary endeavour. In this article, we aim to provide an overarching review of the canola protein chain from the perspective of a plant breeder, spanning from the genetic regulation of seed storage proteins in the crop to advancements of novel breeding technologies and their application in improving protein quality in canola. A review on the current uses of canola meal in animal husbandry is presented to underscore potential limitations for the consumption of canola meal in mammals. General discussions on the allergenic potential of canola proteins and the regulation of novel food products are provided to highlight some of the challenges that will be encountered on the road to commercialization and general acceptance of canola protein as a dietary protein source. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Quality Evaluation of Plant-Derived Foods Ⅱ)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Developing Novel Rice Genotypes Harboring Specific QTL Alleles Associated with High Grain Yield under Water Shortage Stress
Plants 2021, 10(10), 2219; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10102219 - 19 Oct 2021
Viewed by 777
Abstract
Rice is considered a strategic crop for many countries around the world, being the main cash crop for farmers. Water shortage stress occurrence as a result of climate change is among the main threats challenging rice breeders in the last few decades. In [...] Read more.
Rice is considered a strategic crop for many countries around the world, being the main cash crop for farmers. Water shortage stress occurrence as a result of climate change is among the main threats challenging rice breeders in the last few decades. In the current study, 19 Fn-lines were developed from four populations by crossing a reverse thermo-responsive genic male sterile (rTGMS) line, M.J.5460S, with the three high-quality Egyptian commercial cultivars Giza177, Sakha105, Sakha106 and the promising line GZ7768 as male parents. These newly developed lines, along with their parents, and two water shortage stress-tolerant international genotypes (Azucena and IRAT170), were cultivated under water-shortage stress conditions and compared with their performance under well-watered conditions. Results indicated that the yielding ability of the 19 newly developed lines exceeded those for the two Egyptian parents (Giza177 and Sakha105) under well-watered conditions. The lines M.J5460S/GIZA177-3 and M.J5460S/GIZA177-12 were the best performing genotypes under water shortage stress conditions. The genetic and heritability in broad sense estimates indicated that direct selection for grain yield (GY) under water-shortage stress is highly effective in the current study. Molecular marker analysis revealed that M.J5460S/GIZA177-3 had accumulated the quantitative trait loci (QTL)s, on the chromosomes 2, 3, and 9, which contribute to GY under water-shortage stress from their high yielding tolerant ancestor, M.J5460S. It could be concluded that those lines are high yielding under both well-watered and water-stress conditions harboring several QTLs for yield enhancement under both conditions and that the markers RM555, RM14551, RM3199, RM257, RM242, and RM410 are among the markers that could be used in marker-assisted selection (MAS) breeding programs for such stress condition. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Bioactive Compounds in Sarcocornia and Arthrocnemum, Two Wild Halophilic Genera from the Iberian Peninsula
Plants 2021, 10(10), 2218; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10102218 - 19 Oct 2021
Viewed by 911
Abstract
(1) Background: this study describes bioactive compounds in the following halophytes: Sarcocornia (S. alpini, S. pruinosa, and S. perennis) and Arthrocnemum (A. macrostachyum). The material comes from: coastal marshes in Tinto River, Guadiana River, and some interior [...] Read more.
(1) Background: this study describes bioactive compounds in the following halophytes: Sarcocornia (S. alpini, S. pruinosa, and S. perennis) and Arthrocnemum (A. macrostachyum). The material comes from: coastal marshes in Tinto River, Guadiana River, and some interior provinces from the Iberian Peninsula. (2) Methods: the techniques used were Folin–Ciocalteu, GC-MS, and ESI-MS/MS. (3) Results: Five phenolic acids were found in Sarcocornia: trans-cinnamic, salicylic, veratric, coumaric, and caffeic acids. In addition, in Arthronemum, ferulic acid was also detected. The obtained flavonoids were cyanidin-3-O-arabinoside, luteolin-7-glucoside, dihydroquercetin, and p-coumaroyl-glucoside. They also presented fatty acids, such as palmitic, linoleic, and oleic acids in Sarcocornia, while palmitic, linolenic, and stearic acids were the main fatty acids in A. macrostachyum. (4) Conclusions: the high diversity of the compounds identified confirms the relation between nutritional interest and salt tolerance in halophytes. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Cytotoxic and Genotoxic Evaluation of the Aqueous and Hydroalcoholic Leaf and Bark Extracts of Crataegus oxyacantha in Murine Model
Plants 2021, 10(10), 2217; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10102217 - 19 Oct 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 671
Abstract
Crataegus oxyacantha has been mainly used in traditional medicine for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. However, its safety profile has not been fully established, since only the genotoxic effects of C. oxyacantha fruit have been described. Therefore, the objective of this work was [...] Read more.
Crataegus oxyacantha has been mainly used in traditional medicine for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. However, its safety profile has not been fully established, since only the genotoxic effects of C. oxyacantha fruit have been described. Therefore, the objective of this work was evaluating the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of the aqueous and hydroalcoholic leaf and bark extracts of C. oxyacantha by means of the micronucleus test in a murine model. Doses of 2000, 1000, and 500 mg/kg of both extracts were administered orally for 5 days in mice of the Balb-C strain. Peripheral blood smears were performed at 0, 24, 48, 72, and 96 h after each administration. The number of polychromatic erythrocytes (PCEs), micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MNPCEs), and micronucleated erythrocytes (MNEs) was determined at the different sampling times. Our results showed that the leaf and bark of C. oxyacantha increase the number of MNEs at the 2000 mg/kg dose, and only the aqueous leaf extract decreases the number of PCEs at the same dose. Therefore, the aqueous and hydroalcoholic leaf and bark extracts of C. oxyacantha showed genotoxic effects, and only the aqueous leaf extract exhibited cytotoxic effects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Structural and Functional Analysis of Extracts in Plants II)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Nutrient Status of Cucumber Plants Affects Powdery Mildew (Podosphaera xanthii)
Plants 2021, 10(10), 2216; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10102216 - 19 Oct 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 718
Abstract
We examined the effects of applications of N, P, K, Mg, and Ca through an irrigation solution and spraying K, Ca, and Mg salts on cucumber powdery mildew (CPM, Podosphaera xanthii) in potted plants and under commercial-like conditions. Spraying CaCl2 and [...] Read more.
We examined the effects of applications of N, P, K, Mg, and Ca through an irrigation solution and spraying K, Ca, and Mg salts on cucumber powdery mildew (CPM, Podosphaera xanthii) in potted plants and under commercial-like conditions. Spraying CaCl2 and MgCl2, or KCl and K2SO4, decreased CPM. There were significant negative correlations between the anion-related molar concentrations of the salts and disease severity. Among the sprayed treatments, NaCl provided significantly less CPM control when applied at a low (0.05 M) concentration, as compared with CaCl2 and MgCl2. When sprayed applications of Mg and K salts were analyzed separately from the untreated control, the Cl salts were found to be more effective than the SO4−2 salts. High N and Mg concentrations in the irrigation water delivered to young, fruit-less cucumber plants reduced CPM, whereas more CPM was observed when the irrigation solution contained a medium amount of P and a high amount of K. In contrast, mature, fruit-bearing plants had less severe CPM at higher N, lower P, and higher K levels. Spraying mature plants with monopotassium phosphate, polyhalite (K2Ca2Mg(SO4)4·2H2O), and the salts mentioned above over an entire growing season suppressed CPM. CPM severity was also reduced by spray applications of Ca, Mg, and KSO4−2 and Cl salts. Spray applications provided better CPM control than fertigation treatments. Induced resistance is probably involved in the effects of nutrients on CPM. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Weaponizing Plants: Biocontrol and Biosecurity in Plant Protection)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Growth, Yield, and Bunch Quality of “Superior Seedless” Vines Grown on Different Rootstocks Change in Response to Salt Stress
Plants 2021, 10(10), 2215; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10102215 - 19 Oct 2021
Viewed by 1032
Abstract
The growth and quality of vines are negatively affected by soil salinity if enough salts accumulate in the root zone. As part of the current study, we estimated the remediating effects of rootstocks under salinity. For this reason, “superior seedless” vines were grafted [...] Read more.
The growth and quality of vines are negatively affected by soil salinity if enough salts accumulate in the root zone. As part of the current study, we estimated the remediating effects of rootstocks under salinity. For this reason, “superior seedless” vines were grafted onto three different rootstocks, such as SO4, 1103 Paulson, and own-root (“superior seedless” with their own-root). The experiment was conducted in the 2019 and 2020 seasons. This study examines the effects of different rootstocks on vine growth, yield, and quality using “superior seedless” vines grown in sandy soil with salinity. Four stages of berry development were examined (flowering, fruit set, veraison, and harvest time). At harvest, yield characteristics (clusters per vine and cluster weight) were also assessed. Each parameter of the growth season was influenced separately. The K+ and Na+ ratios were also significantly increased, as were the salinity symptoms index and bunch yield per vine and quality. Rootstock 1103 Paulson improved photosynthetic pigments, K+ accumulation, Na+ uptake, and cell membrane damage in “superior seedless” vines compared to other rootstocks, according to the study results. As determined in the arid regions of northwestern Egypt, the 1103 Paulson can mitigate salinity issues when planting “superior seedless” vines on sandy soil. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Growth Quality and Development of Olive Plants Cultured In-Vitro under Different Illumination Regimes
Plants 2021, 10(10), 2214; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10102214 - 18 Oct 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 761
Abstract
Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are useful for the in-vitro micropropagation of plants, but little information is available on woody species. This work compares the effects of light quality and intensity on the growth and development of micropropagated olive plants from two different subspecies. Illumination [...] Read more.
Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are useful for the in-vitro micropropagation of plants, but little information is available on woody species. This work compares the effects of light quality and intensity on the growth and development of micropropagated olive plants from two different subspecies. Illumination was provided with fluorescent and LED lamps covering different red/blue ratios (90/10, 80/20, 70/30, 60/40) or red/blue/white combinations, as well as different light intensities (30, 34, 40, 52, 56, 84, 98 and 137 µmol m−2 s−1 of photosynthetic photon fluxes, PPF). Olive plants exhibited high sensitivity to light quality and intensity. Higher red/blue ratios or lower light intensities stimulated plant growth and biomass mainly as a consequence of a higher internodal elongation rate, not affecting either the total number of nodes or shoots. In comparison to fluorescent illumination, LED lighting improved leaf area and biomass, which additionally was positively correlated with light intensity. Stomatal frequency was positively, and pigments content negatively, correlated with light intensity, while no clear correlation was observed with light quality. In comparison with fluorescent lamps, LED illumination (particularly the 70/30 red/blue ratio with 34 µmol m−2 s−1 PPF intensity) allowed optimal manipulation and improved the quality of in-vitro micropropagated olive plants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Crop Physiology and Crop Production)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
The Effect of Low Irradiance on Leaf Nitrogen Allocation and Mesophyll Conductance to CO2 in Seedlings of Four Tree Species in Subtropical China
Plants 2021, 10(10), 2213; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10102213 - 18 Oct 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1038
Abstract
Low light intensity can lead to a decrease in photosynthetic capacity. However, could N-fixing species with higher leaf N contents mitigate the effects of low light? Here, we exposed seedlings of Dalbergia odorifera and Erythrophleum fordii (N-fixing trees), and Castanopsis hystrix and Betula [...] Read more.
Low light intensity can lead to a decrease in photosynthetic capacity. However, could N-fixing species with higher leaf N contents mitigate the effects of low light? Here, we exposed seedlings of Dalbergia odorifera and Erythrophleum fordii (N-fixing trees), and Castanopsis hystrix and Betula alnoides (non-N-fixing trees) to three irradiance treatments (100%, 40%, and 10% sunlight) to investigate the effects of low irradiance on leaf structure, leaf N allocation strategy, and photosynthetic physiological parameters in the seedlings. Low irradiance decreased the leaf mass per unit area, leaf N content per unit area (Narea), maximum carboxylation rate (Vcmax), maximum electron transport rate (Jmax), light compensation point, and light saturation point, and increased the N allocation proportion of light-harvesting components in all species. The studied tree seedlings changed their leaf structures, leaf N allocation strategy, and photosynthetic physiological parameters to adapt to low-light environments. N-fixing plants had a higher photosynthesis rate, Narea, Vcmax, and Jmax than non-N-fixing species under low irradiance and had a greater advantage in maintaining their photosynthetic rate under low-radiation conditions, such as under an understory canopy, in a forest gap, or when mixed with other species. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Forest Environment and Ecology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Transcriptome Analysis of Potato Infected with the Necrotrophic Pathogen Alternaria solani
Plants 2021, 10(10), 2212; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10102212 - 18 Oct 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1081
Abstract
Potato early blight is caused by the necrotrophic fungus Alternaria solani and can result in yield losses of up to 50% if left uncontrolled. At present, the disease is controlled by chemical fungicides, yet rapid development of fungicide resistance renders current control strategies [...] Read more.
Potato early blight is caused by the necrotrophic fungus Alternaria solani and can result in yield losses of up to 50% if left uncontrolled. At present, the disease is controlled by chemical fungicides, yet rapid development of fungicide resistance renders current control strategies unsustainable. On top of that, a lack of understanding of potato defences and the quantitative nature of resistance mechanisms against early blight hinders the development of more sustainable control methods. Necrotrophic pathogens, compared to biotrophs, pose an extra challenge to the plant, since common defence strategies to biotic stresses such as the hypersensitive response and programmed cell death are often beneficial for necrotrophs. With the aim of unravelling plant responses to both the early infection stages (i.e., before necrosis), such as appressorium formation and penetration, as well as to later responses to the onset of necrosis, we present here a transcriptome analysis of potato interactions with A. solani from 1 h after inoculation when the conidia have just commenced germination, to 48 h post inoculation when multiple cell necrosis has begun. Potato transcripts with putative functions related to biotic stress tolerance and defence against pathogens were upregulated, including a putative Nudix hydrolase that may play a role in defence against oxidative stress. A. solani transcripts encoding putative pathogenicity factors, such as cell wall degrading enzymes and metabolic processes that may be important for infection. We therefore identified the differential expression of several potato and A. solani transcripts that present a group of valuable candidates for further studies into their roles in immunity or disease development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Plant-Fungal and Plant-Oomycete Interactions)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review
WRKY Transcription Factor Response to High-Temperature Stress
Plants 2021, 10(10), 2211; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10102211 - 18 Oct 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1174
Abstract
Plant growth and development are closely related to the environment, and high-temperature stress is an important environmental factor that affects these processes. WRKY transcription factors (TFs) play important roles in plant responses to high-temperature stress. WRKY TFs can bind to the W-box cis [...] Read more.
Plant growth and development are closely related to the environment, and high-temperature stress is an important environmental factor that affects these processes. WRKY transcription factors (TFs) play important roles in plant responses to high-temperature stress. WRKY TFs can bind to the W-box cis-acting elements of target gene promoters, thereby regulating the expression of multiple types of target genes and participating in multiple signaling pathways in plants. A number of studies have shown the important biological functions and working mechanisms of WRKY TFs in plant responses to high temperature. However, there are few reviews that summarize the research progress on this topic. To fully understand the role of WRKY TFs in the response to high temperature, this paper reviews the structure and regulatory mechanism of WRKY TFs, as well as the related signaling pathways that regulate plant growth under high-temperature stress, which have been described in recent years, and this paper provides references for the further exploration of the molecular mechanisms underlying plant tolerance to high temperature. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plants Response to Temperature Extremes)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Comparison of Silicon-Evoked Responses on Arsenic Stress between Different Dular Rice Genotypes
Plants 2021, 10(10), 2210; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10102210 - 18 Oct 2021
Viewed by 650
Abstract
Arsenic is one of the most hazardous metalloids in nature, and due to its high water solubility, it is one of the most important causes of pollution. However, silicon reduces the uptake and transport of arsenic in rice. This study investigates the interaction [...] Read more.
Arsenic is one of the most hazardous metalloids in nature, and due to its high water solubility, it is one of the most important causes of pollution. However, silicon reduces the uptake and transport of arsenic in rice. This study investigates the interaction of different arsenic and silicon levels on dry weight, protein content, and concentrations of arsenic and silicon in two different rice shoots and roots of Dular wild-type (DU-WT) and Dular Lsi1-overexpressed (DU-OE) rice. It should be noted that all seedlings were subjected to four different treatments. For RNA-seq and qPCR, the DU-WT genotype was selected as the control and DU-OE as the treatment. With the addition of silicone treatment, dry weight and protein content in the shoots and roots of both rice lines were increased, while the concentration of arsenic in these two organs was decreased. When seedlings were exposed to arsenic treatments, protein content, silicon concentration, and dry weight were decreased in both roots and shoots, while arsenic concentration was increased in both rice genotypes. The RNA-seq in DU-OE showed 5823 differentially expressed genes (DEGs), of which 2604 were up-regulated and 3219 down-regulated. Treatment of rice by arsenic and silicon has changed the expression of genes encoding cytokinin-responsive GATA transcription factor 1, protein IN2-1 homolog B, calcium-binding EGF domain-containing protein, Os01g0369700 protein, probable glutathione S-transferase GSTU1, glutathione S-transferase protein, Os09g0367700 protein, isocitrate dehydrogenase (NADP), and Os08g0522400 protein in the root of DU-OE. The present study’s findings showed that in the presence of silicon, the transgenic genotype is much more resistant to arsenic than the wild genotype of Dular rice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular and Physiological Basis of Abiotic Stress Tolerance)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Assessment of Anti-Inflammatory and Antioxidant Effects of Citrus unshiu Peel (CUP) Flavonoids on LPS-Stimulated RAW 264.7 Cells
Plants 2021, 10(10), 2209; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10102209 - 18 Oct 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1084
Abstract
Citrus unshiu is a popular medicinal herb in several Asian countries, in particular South Korea. C. unshiu peel (CUP) has several biologically active compounds, including flavonoids. Hence, this research aimed to label the flavonoids from CUP by HPLC-MS/MS analysis and examine their anti-inflammatory [...] Read more.
Citrus unshiu is a popular medicinal herb in several Asian countries, in particular South Korea. C. unshiu peel (CUP) has several biologically active compounds, including flavonoids. Hence, this research aimed to label the flavonoids from CUP by HPLC-MS/MS analysis and examine their anti-inflammatory and antioxidant potential on LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. A total of four flavonoids (Rutin, naringin, hesperidin, and poncirin) were characterized, and their contents were quantified from CUP. It showed that the naringin is rich in CUP. Further, treatment with the flavonoids at concentrations of 2.5 and 5 μg/mL had no effect on the cell viability of RAW 264.7 macrophages. On the other hand, it decreased the production and expression of inflammatory mediators and pro-inflammatory cytokines such as NO, PGE2, TNF-α, IL-1β, iNOS, and COX2 in the LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. In addition, flavonoids treatment inhibited the NF-κB activation by downregulating the p-p65 and p-IκBα proteins expression. Furthermore, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production considerably decreased at the same concentrations while antioxidant enzyme activity increased in the LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. Collectively, our results show that CUP flavonoids have the potential to decrease inflammation and oxidative damage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Compounds in Plants and Their Anti-inflammatory Activity)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Comparative Phytochemical Profile and Biological Activity of Four Major Medicinal Halophytes from Qassim Flora
Plants 2021, 10(10), 2208; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10102208 - 18 Oct 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1157
Abstract
Four halophytic plants, Lycium shawii, Anabasis articulata, Rumex vesicarius, and Zilla spinosa, growing in the central Qassim area, Saudi Arabia, were phytochemically and biologically investigated. Their hydroalcoholic extracts’ UPLC-ESIQ-TOF analyses demonstrated the presence of 44 compounds of phenolic acids, [...] Read more.
Four halophytic plants, Lycium shawii, Anabasis articulata, Rumex vesicarius, and Zilla spinosa, growing in the central Qassim area, Saudi Arabia, were phytochemically and biologically investigated. Their hydroalcoholic extracts’ UPLC-ESIQ-TOF analyses demonstrated the presence of 44 compounds of phenolic acids, flavonoids, saponins, carbohydrates, and fatty acids chemical classes. Among all the plants’ extracts, L. shawii showed the highest quantities of total phenolics, and flavonoids contents (52.72 and 13.01 mg/gm of the gallic acid and quercetin equivalents, respectively), along with the antioxidant activity in the TAA (total antioxidant activity), FRAP (ferric reducing antioxidant power), and DPPH-SA (2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl-scavenging activity) assays with 25.6, 56.68, and 19.76 mg/gm, respectively, as Trolox equivalents. The hydroalcoholic extract of the L. shawii also demonstrated the best chelating activity at 21.84 mg/gm EDTA equivalents. Among all the four halophytes, the hydroalcoholic extract of L. shawii exhibited the highest antiproliferative activity against MCF7 and K562 cell lines with IC50 values at 194.5 µg/mL and 464.9 µg/mL, respectively. The hydroalcoholic extract of A. articulata demonstrated better cytotoxic activity amongst all the tested plants’ extracts against the human pancreatic cancer cell lines (PANC1) with an IC50 value of 998.5 µg/mL. The L. shawii induced apoptosis in the MCF7 cell lines, and the percentage of the necrotic cells changed to 28.1% and 36.5% for the IC50 and double-IC50 values at 22.9% compared with the untreated groups. The hydroalcoholic extract of L. shawii showed substantial antibacterial activity against Bacillus cereus ATCC 10876 with a MIC value of 12.5 mg/mL. By contrast, the A. articulata and Z. spinosa exhibited antifungal activities against Aspergillus niger ATCC 6275 with MIC values at 12.5 and 50 mg/mL, respectively. These findings suggested that the L. shawii is a potential halophyte with remarkable biological properties, attributed to its contents of phenolics and flavonoid classes of compounds in its extract. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Therapeutics)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Change in H+ Transport across Thylakoid Membrane as Potential Mechanism of 14.3 Hz Magnetic Field Impact on Photosynthetic Light Reactions in Seedlings of Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)
Plants 2021, 10(10), 2207; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10102207 - 18 Oct 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 706
Abstract
Natural and artificial extremely low-frequency magnetic fields (ELFMFs) are important factors influencing physiological processes in living organisms including terrestrial plants. Earlier, it was experimentally shown that short-term and long-term treatments by ELFMFs with Schumann resonance frequencies (7.8, 14.3, and 20.8 Hz) influenced parameters [...] Read more.
Natural and artificial extremely low-frequency magnetic fields (ELFMFs) are important factors influencing physiological processes in living organisms including terrestrial plants. Earlier, it was experimentally shown that short-term and long-term treatments by ELFMFs with Schumann resonance frequencies (7.8, 14.3, and 20.8 Hz) influenced parameters of photosynthetic light reactions in wheat leaves. The current work is devoted to an analysis of potential ways of this ELFMF influence on the light reactions. Only a short-term wheat treatment by 14.3 Hz ELFMF was used in the analysis. First, it was experimentally shown that ELFMF-induced changes (an increase in the effective quantum yield of photosystem II, a decrease in the non-photochemical quenching of chlorophyll fluorescence, a decrease in time of changes in these parameters, etc.) were observed under the action of ELFMF with widely ranging magnitudes (from 3 to 180 µT). In contrast, the potential quantum yield of photosystem II and time of relaxation of the energy-dependent component of the non-photochemical quenching were not significantly influenced by ELFMF. Second, it was shown that the ELFMF treatment decreased the proton gradient across the thylakoid membrane. In contrast, the H+ conductivity increased under this treatment. Third, an analysis of the simplest mathematical model of an H+ transport across the thylakoid membrane, which was developed in this work, showed that changes in H+ fluxes related to activities of the photosynthetic electron transport chain and the H+-ATP synthase were not likely a mechanism of the ELFMF influence. In contrast, changes induced by an increase in an additional H+ flux (probably, through the proton leakage and/or through the H+/Ca2+ antiporter activity in the thylakoid membrane) were in good accordance with experimental results. Thus, we hypothesized that this increase is the mechanism of the 14.3 Hz ELFMF influence (and, maybe, influences of other low frequencies) on photosynthetic light reactions in wheat. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Application of K and Zn Influences the Mineral Accumulation More in Hybrid Than Inbred Maize Cultivars
Plants 2021, 10(10), 2206; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10102206 - 17 Oct 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 859
Abstract
Maize (Zea mays L.) is an important crop used for feeding humans and cattle globally. Deficiency of potassium (K) and zinc (Zn) adversely impacts the maize crop productivity and quality. However, the application of these nutrients shows variant responses in different maize [...] Read more.
Maize (Zea mays L.) is an important crop used for feeding humans and cattle globally. Deficiency of potassium (K) and zinc (Zn) adversely impacts the maize crop productivity and quality. However, the application of these nutrients shows variant responses in different maize cultivars. To understand this perspective, the current study aimed at investigating K and Zn’s optimal concentration in different hybrid and inbred maize cultivars. The treatments were based on three zinc levels (0, 6, and 12 mg Zn kg−1) and K levels (0, 30, and 60 mg kg−1), and their respective combinations. The experiment results showed that combined fertilization approaches of Zn and K (Zn12K60) improved the plant biometric, and physiological attributes of maize crop. The results revealed a significant increase in plant height (45%), fresh weight (70%), and dry weight (45%). Similarly, physiological attributes significantly improved the relative water content (76.4%), membrane stability index (77.9%), chlorophyll contents (170%), and photosynthetic rate (130%) in both inbred and hybrid genotypes. Furthermore, Zn and K (Zn12K60) increased transpiration rate (E), stomatal conductance (Ci), and internal CO2. In conclusion, maize hybrids (Neelam and DK-6142) were observed best compared with inbred (Afghoi and P-1543) cultivars with the combined application of Zn and K (Zn12K60). Thus, these inbred varieties should be preferred for fodder requirement with optimum fertilizer (Zn12K60) application in Zn deficient soils. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Intelligent Agriculture: Crop Nutrient Management)
Communication
Phytochemical Investigation of Bioactive Compounds from White Kidney Beans (Fruits of Phaseolus multiflorus var. Albus): Identification of Denatonium with Osteogenesis-Inducing Effect
Plants 2021, 10(10), 2205; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10102205 - 17 Oct 2021
Viewed by 781
Abstract
Phaseolus multiflorus var. albus (Leguminosae), commonly known as “white kidney bean”, is a twining perennial vine whose fruit has been used as a popular food worldwide owing to its high nutritional content, in terms of proteins, carbohydrates, fats, and vitamins. As part of [...] Read more.
Phaseolus multiflorus var. albus (Leguminosae), commonly known as “white kidney bean”, is a twining perennial vine whose fruit has been used as a popular food worldwide owing to its high nutritional content, in terms of proteins, carbohydrates, fats, and vitamins. As part of our ongoing study to investigate novel bioactive components from various natural resources, a phytochemical investigation of the extract of P. multiflorus var. albus fruits resulted in the isolation of three phenolic compounds (1–3) and one dipeptide (4). The chemical structures of the compounds (1–4) were determined through 1D and 2D nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and high-resolution-liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry; they were identified as denatonium (1), trans-ferulic acid ethyl ester (2), eugenin (3), and α-L-glutamyl-L-Leucine (4). Intriguingly, denatonium (1) is known to be the most bitter chemical compound. To the best of our knowledge, denatonium (1) was identified from natural sources for the first time, and compounds 2–4 were reported for the first time from P. multiflorus var. albus in this study; however, compound 2 turned out to be an artifact produced by an extraction with ethanol. The isolated compounds 1–4 were tested for their regulatory effects on the differentiation between osteogenesis and adipogenesis of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Compound 4 slightly suppressed the adipogenic differentiation of MSCs, and compounds 1 and 4 stimulated osteogenic differentiation, unlike the negative control. These findings provide experimental evidence that compounds 1 and 4 may induce the osteogenesis of MSCs and activate bone formation. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Review
Phospholipids in Salt Stress Response
Plants 2021, 10(10), 2204; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10102204 - 17 Oct 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1045
Abstract
High salinity threatens crop production by harming plants and interfering with their development. Plant cells respond to salt stress in various ways, all of which involve multiple components such as proteins, peptides, lipids, sugars, and phytohormones. Phospholipids, important components of bio-membranes, are small [...] Read more.
High salinity threatens crop production by harming plants and interfering with their development. Plant cells respond to salt stress in various ways, all of which involve multiple components such as proteins, peptides, lipids, sugars, and phytohormones. Phospholipids, important components of bio-membranes, are small amphoteric molecular compounds. These have attracted significant attention in recent years due to the regulatory effect they have on cellular activity. Over the past few decades, genetic and biochemical analyses have partly revealed that phospholipids regulate salt stress response by participating in salt stress signal transduction. In this review, we summarize the generation and metabolism of phospholipid phosphatidic acid (PA), phosphoinositides (PIs), phosphatidylserine (PS), phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) and phosphatidylglycerol (PG), as well as the regulatory role each phospholipid plays in the salt stress response. We also discuss the possible regulatory role based on how they act during other cellular activities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Role of Lipid-Hydrolyzing Proteins in Plant Growth)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Effects of Shade and Planting Methods on the Growth of Heracleum moellendorffii and Adenophora divaricata in Different Soil Moisture and Nutrient Conditions
Plants 2021, 10(10), 2203; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10102203 - 17 Oct 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 604
Abstract
In this study, the interacting effects of shade and planting methods on the growth and competitive ability of two understory plants Heracleum moellendorffii Hance and Adenophora divaricata Franch. & Sav. were investigated under different soil moisture and nutrient conditions. One-year-old seedlings were subjected [...] Read more.
In this study, the interacting effects of shade and planting methods on the growth and competitive ability of two understory plants Heracleum moellendorffii Hance and Adenophora divaricata Franch. & Sav. were investigated under different soil moisture and nutrient conditions. One-year-old seedlings were subjected to different light levels (0%, 35%, and 55% shade) and planting methods (monoculture and mixed) under contrasting soil moisture (1.2 L/m2 and 2.3 L/m2 of water) and soil nutrient conditions (unfertilized and fertilized). Here, shading significantly improved the height growth of H. moellendorffii (10–20 cm increase) in unfertilized and fertilized plots and at high soil moisture conditions. Contrarily, A. divaricata seedlings planted singly at full sunlight yielded a higher aboveground biomass growth (8–17 g plant−1), compared with those shaded and intercropped seedlings (0.9–3.9 g plant−1). The increased competitiveness of H. moellendorffii suppressed the growth of A. divaricata across different light conditions when planted together. The amount of light, soil moisture, and nutrients and their interactions significantly affected the growth of the seedlings, resulting in asymmetric interspecific competition between the two species. Results provide us with a better understanding of the environmental factors affecting plant growth for forest farming in the understory. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Forest Environment and Ecology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Boosting of Antioxidants and Alkaloids in Catharanthus roseus Suspension Cultures Using Silver Nanoparticles with Expression of CrMPK3 and STR Genes
Plants 2021, 10(10), 2202; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10102202 - 17 Oct 2021
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 1306
Abstract
Global agricultural systems are under unprecedented pressures due to climate change. Advanced nano-engineering can help increase crop yields while ensuring sustainability. Nanotechnology improves agricultural productivity by boosting input efficiency and reducing waste. Alkaloids as one of the numerous secondary metabolites that serve variety [...] Read more.
Global agricultural systems are under unprecedented pressures due to climate change. Advanced nano-engineering can help increase crop yields while ensuring sustainability. Nanotechnology improves agricultural productivity by boosting input efficiency and reducing waste. Alkaloids as one of the numerous secondary metabolites that serve variety of cellular functions essential for physiological processes. This study tests the competence of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in boosting alkaloids accumulation in Catharanthus roseus suspension cultures in relation to the expression of C. roseus Mitogen Activated Protein Kinase 3 (CrMPK3) and Strictosidine Synthase (STR) genes. Five concentrations (5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 mg·L−1) of AgNPs were utilized in addition to deionized water as control. Results reflected binary positive correlations among AgNPs concentration, oxidative stress indicated with increase in hydrogen peroxide and malondialdehyde contents, activities of ascorbate peroxidase and superoxide dismutase, expression of the regulatory gene CrMPK3 and the alkaloid biosynthetic gene STR as well as alkaloids accumulation. These correlations add to the growing evidence that AgNPs can trigger the accumulation of alkaloids in plant cells through a signaling pathway that involves hydrogen peroxide and MAPKs, leading to up-regulation of the biosynthetic genes, including STR gene. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Seed Priming Boost Adaptation in Pea Plants under Drought Stress
Plants 2021, 10(10), 2201; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10102201 - 17 Oct 2021
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 1018
Abstract
In the present investigation, we study the effect of Bacillus thuringiensis MH161336 (106–8 CFU/cm3), silicon (25 mL L−1), and carrot extract (75 mL L−1) as seed primers, individually or in combination, on morphological, physio-biochemical and yield [...] Read more.
In the present investigation, we study the effect of Bacillus thuringiensis MH161336 (106–8 CFU/cm3), silicon (25 mL L−1), and carrot extract (75 mL L−1) as seed primers, individually or in combination, on morphological, physio-biochemical and yield components of drought-stressed pea plants (Master B) during 2019/2020 and 2020/2021 seasons. Our results indicated that drought causes a remarkable reduction in plant height, leaf area, number of leaves per plant, and number of flowers per plant in stressed pea plants during two seasons. Likewise, number of pods, pod length, seeds weight of 10 dried plants, and dry weight of 100 seeds were decreased significantly in drought-stressed pea plants. Nevertheless, seed priming with the individual treatments or in combination boosted the morphological, physio-biochemical, and yield characters of pea plants. The best results were obtained with the Bacillus thuringiensis + carrot extract treatment, which led to a remarkable increase in the number of leaves per plant, leaf area, plant height, and number of flowers per plant in stressed pea plants in both seasons. Moreover, pod length, number of seeds per pod, seeds weight of 10 dried plants, and dry weight of 100 seeds were significantly increased as well. Bacillus thuringiensis + carrot extract treatment led to improved biochemical and physiological characters, such as relative water content, chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, regulated the up-regulation of antioxidant enzymes, increased seed yield, and decreased lipid peroxidation and reactive oxygen species, mainly superoxide and hydrogen peroxide, in drought-stressed pea plants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Biostimulants)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Comprehensive Analyses of NAC Transcription Factor Family in Almond (Prunus dulcis) and Their Differential Gene Expression during Fruit Development
Plants 2021, 10(10), 2200; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10102200 - 16 Oct 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1213
Abstract
As plant specific transcription factors, NAC (NAM, ATAF1/2, CUC2) domain is involved in the plant development and stress responses. Due to the vitality of NAC gene family, BLASTp was performed to identify NAC genes in almond (Prunus dulcis). Further, phylogenetic and [...] Read more.
As plant specific transcription factors, NAC (NAM, ATAF1/2, CUC2) domain is involved in the plant development and stress responses. Due to the vitality of NAC gene family, BLASTp was performed to identify NAC genes in almond (Prunus dulcis). Further, phylogenetic and syntenic analyses were performed to determine the homology and evolutionary relationship. Gene duplication, gene structure, motif, subcellular localization, and cis-regulatory analyses were performed to assess the function of PdNAC. Whereas RNA-seq analysis was performed to determine the differential expression of PdNAC in fruits at various developmental stages. We identified 106 NAC genes in P. dulcis genome and were renamed according to their chromosomal distribution. Phylogenetic analysis in both P. dulcis and Arabidopsis thaliana revealed the presence of 14 subfamilies. Motif and gene structure followed a pattern according to the PdNAC position in phylogenetic subfamilies. Majority of NAC are localized in the nucleus and have ABA-responsive elements in the upstream region of PdNAC. Differential gene expression analyses revealed one and six PdNAC that were up and down-regulated, respectively, at all development stages. This study provides insights into the structure and function of PdNAC along with their role in the fruit development to enhance an understanding of NAC in P. dulcis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fruit Quality and Ripening in Prunus)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
DNA Barcoding of Two Thymelaeaceae Species: Daphne mucronata Royle and Thymelaea hirsuta (L.) Endl
Plants 2021, 10(10), 2199; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10102199 - 16 Oct 2021
Viewed by 767
Abstract
Daphne mucronata Royle and Thymelaea hirsuta (L.) Endl both belong to the Thymelaeaceae family. Both species are used traditionally to treat several diseases along with various daily applications by Jordanian Bedouins. Traditionally, those species are identified through personal proficiency, which could be misleading [...] Read more.
Daphne mucronata Royle and Thymelaea hirsuta (L.) Endl both belong to the Thymelaeaceae family. Both species are used traditionally to treat several diseases along with various daily applications by Jordanian Bedouins. Traditionally, those species are identified through personal proficiency, which could be misleading due to human errors or lack of expertise. This study aims to investigate an effective DNA barcoding method to identify and characterize Daphne mucronata Royle and Thymelaea hirsuta plant species at the molecular level. Daphne mucronata Royle and Thymelaea hirsuta were collected from the ancient city of Petra in the Southern part of Jordan. Sequences of candidate DNA barcodes were amplified (rbcL, matK, and rpoC1), sequenced, and aligned to the blastn database. Moreover, the obtained sequences were compared with available sequences of related species at the GenBank database. Our results showed that DNA barcoding successfully identifies the two plant species using any of chloroplast genes (rbcL, matK, or rpoC1). The results emphasize the ability of DNA barcoding for identifying and characterizing different plant species through the recruitment of different barcode loci in molecular identification. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue DNA Barcoding for Herbal Medicines)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Previous Issue
Next Issue
Back to TopTop