Special Issue "Plant Oxidative Stress: Biology, Physiology and Mitigation"

A special issue of Plants (ISSN 2223-7747). This special issue belongs to the section "Plant Response to Abiotic Stress and Climate Change".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 November 2021.

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Masayuki Fujita
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Laboratory of Plant Stress Responses, Department of Plant Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Kagawa University, Miki-cho, Kita-gun, Kagawa 761-0795, Japan
Interests: plant stress physiology; plant biochemistry; abiotic stress
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Special Issue Information

Dear colleagues,

Due to climate change, plants are frequently exposed to abiotic and biotic stresses, and these stresses pose serious threats to plants. A key sign of such stresses at the molecular level is the accelerated production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which cause oxidative stress. These ROS can induce cellular injuries by protein oxidation, lipid peroxidation, and DNA damage, which finally may result in plant cellular death. Recently, ROS have emerged as major regulatory molecules in plants, and their role in early signaling events initiated by normal cellular metabolic function and environmental stress are now well established. Under normal circumstances, there is a balance between the generation and the elimination of ROS. However, this balance can be hampered by different biotic and abiotic stresses, resulting in the generation of a large number of ROS that should be counteracted by the antioxidant machinery in cells. Finding ways to enhance the antioxidant defense system in plants is a very important task for plant biologists. Recent progress in plant molecular biology and biotechnology has been targeting the development of approaches to enhancing the antioxidant defense system in plants. New knowledge acquired through research on oxidative stress and abiotic and biotic stress tolerance in plants will help us to apply stress-responsive determinants and engineer plants with enhanced tolerance to stress.

This Special Issue welcomes original research articles, reviews, and mini-reviews on topics related to the following broad themes:

  • chemistry and biology of ROS;
  • generation and compartmentation of ROS;
  • oxidative stress due to various abiotic stresses (salt, drought, extreme temperatures, toxic metals/metalloids, flooding, etc.);
  • oxidative stress to due various biotic stress (pathogens, insects, weeds, etc.);
  • ROS signaling;
  • the dual role of ROS;
  • ROS as protective agents;
  • oxidative stress markers;
  • use of molecular biology to understand oxidative stress; and
  • antioxidant defense system in plants.

Prof. Dr. Mirza Hasanuzzaman
Prof. Dr. Masayuki Fujita
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Plants is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • abiotic stress
  • reactive oxygen species
  • stress signaling
  • lipid peroxidation
  • antioxidant defense
  • hydrogen peroxide
  • ascorbate–glutathione pathway

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

Article
Peptone-Induced Physio-Biochemical Modulations Reduce Cadmium Toxicity and Accumulation in Spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.)
Plants 2020, 9(12), 1806; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants9121806 - 19 Dec 2020
Viewed by 673
Abstract
The accumulation of cadmium (Cd) in edible plant parts and fertile lands is a worldwide problem. It negatively influences the growth and productivity of leafy vegetables (e.g., spinach, Spinacia oleracea L.), which have a high tendency to radially accumulate Cd. The present study [...] Read more.
The accumulation of cadmium (Cd) in edible plant parts and fertile lands is a worldwide problem. It negatively influences the growth and productivity of leafy vegetables (e.g., spinach, Spinacia oleracea L.), which have a high tendency to radially accumulate Cd. The present study investigated the influences of peptone application on the growth, biomass, chlorophyll content, gas exchange parameters, antioxidant enzymes activity, and Cd content of spinach plants grown under Cd stress. Cd toxicity negatively affected spinach growth, biomass, chlorophyll content, and gas exchange attributes. However, it increased malondialdehyde (MDA), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), electrolyte leakage (EL), proline accumulation, ascorbic acid content, Cd content, and activity of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), and catalase (CAT) in spinach plants. The exogenous foliar application of peptone increased the growth, biomass, chlorophyll content, proline accumulation, and gas exchange attributes of spinach plants. Furthermore, the application of peptone decreased Cd uptake and levels of MDA, H2O2, and EL in spinach by increasing the activity of antioxidant enzymes. This enhancement in plant growth and photosynthesis might be due to the lower level of Cd accumulation, which in turn decreased the negative impacts of oxidative stress in plant tissues. Taken together, the findings of the study revealed that peptone is a promising plant growth regulator that represents an efficient approach for the phytoremediation of Cd-polluted soils and enhancement of spinach growth, yield, and tolerance under a Cd-dominant environment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Oxidative Stress: Biology, Physiology and Mitigation)
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Article
Sequential Application of Antioxidants Rectifies Ion Imbalance and Strengthens Antioxidant Systems in Salt-Stressed Cucumber
Plants 2020, 9(12), 1783; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants9121783 - 16 Dec 2020
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 576
Abstract
Exogenous antioxidant applications enable salt-stressed plants to successfully cope with different environmental stresses. The objectives of this investigation were to study the effects of sequential treatments of proline (Pro), ascorbic acid (AsA), and/or glutathione (GSH) on 100 mM NaCl-stressed cucumber transplant’s physio-biochemical and [...] Read more.
Exogenous antioxidant applications enable salt-stressed plants to successfully cope with different environmental stresses. The objectives of this investigation were to study the effects of sequential treatments of proline (Pro), ascorbic acid (AsA), and/or glutathione (GSH) on 100 mM NaCl-stressed cucumber transplant’s physio-biochemical and growth traits as well as systems of antioxidant defense. Under salinity stress, different treatment of AsA, Pro, or/and GSH improved growth characteristics, stomatal conductance (gs), enhanced the activities of glutathione reductase (GR), superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), and catalase (CAT) as well as increased contents of AsA, Pro, and GSH. However, sequential application of antioxidants (GSH-Pro- AsA) significantly exceeded all individual applications, reducing leaf and root Cd2+ and Na+ contents in comparison to the control. In plants grown under NaCl-salt stress, growth characteristics, photosynthetic efficiency, membrane stability index (MSI), relative water content (RWC), contents of root and leaf K+ and Ca2+, and ratios of K+/Na+ and Ca2+/Na+ were notably reduced, while leaf contents of non-enzymatic and enzymatic antioxidants, as well as root and leaf Cd2+ and Na+ concentrations were remarkably increased. However, AsA, Pro, or/and GSH treatments significantly improved all investigated growth characteristics, photosynthetic efficiency, RWC and MSI, as well as AsA, Pro, and GSH, and enzymatic activity, leaf and root K+ and Ca2+ contents and their ratios to Na+, while significantly reduced leaf and root Cd2+ and Na+ contents. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Oxidative Stress: Biology, Physiology and Mitigation)
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Article
Oxidative Stress Responses of Some Endemic Plants to High Altitudes by Intensifying Antioxidants and Secondary Metabolites Content
Plants 2020, 9(7), 869; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants9070869 - 09 Jul 2020
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 1169
Abstract
Most endemic plant species have limited altitudinal ranges. At higher altitudes, they are subjected to various environmental stresses. However, these plants use unique defense mechanisms at high altitudes as a convenient survival strategy. The changes in antioxidant defense system and accumulation of different [...] Read more.
Most endemic plant species have limited altitudinal ranges. At higher altitudes, they are subjected to various environmental stresses. However, these plants use unique defense mechanisms at high altitudes as a convenient survival strategy. The changes in antioxidant defense system and accumulation of different secondary metabolites (SMs) were investigated as depending on altitude in five endemic endangered species (Nepeta septemcrenata, Origanum syriacum subsp. Sinaicum, Phlomis aurea, Rosa arabica, and Silene schimperiana) naturally growing in Saint Katherine protectorate (SKP). Leaves were collected from different sites between 1600 and 2200 m above sea level to assess the biochemical and physiological variations in response to high altitudes. At higher altitudes, the soil pH and micronutrient soil content decreased, which can be attributed to lower mineralization processes at lower pH. Total phenols, ascorbic acid, proline, flavonoids, and tannins increased in response to different altitudes. SMs progressively increased in the studied species, associated with a significant decrease in the levels of antioxidant enzyme activity. R. arabica, as the most threatened plant, showed the maximum response compared with other species. There was an increase in photosynthetic pigments, which was attained via the increase in chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, and carotenoid contents. There was a significant increase in total soluble sugars and total soluble protein content in response to different altitudes. SDS-PAGE of leaf proteins showed alteration in the protein profile between different species and the same species grown at a different altitude. These five species can adapt to high-altitude habitats by various physiological mechanisms, which can provide a theoretical basis for the future conservation of these endangered endemic species in SKP. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Oxidative Stress: Biology, Physiology and Mitigation)
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Article
Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles Application Alleviates Arsenic (As) Toxicity in Soybean Plants by Restricting the Uptake of as and Modulating Key Biochemical Attributes, Antioxidant Enzymes, Ascorbate-Glutathione Cycle and Glyoxalase System
Plants 2020, 9(7), 825; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants9070825 - 30 Jun 2020
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 931
Abstract
Accumulation of arsenic (As) in soils is increasing consistently day-by-day, which has resulted in increased toxicity of this element in various crop plants. Arsenic interferes with several plant metabolic processes at molecular, biochemical and physiological levels, which result in reduced plant productivity. Hence, [...] Read more.
Accumulation of arsenic (As) in soils is increasing consistently day-by-day, which has resulted in increased toxicity of this element in various crop plants. Arsenic interferes with several plant metabolic processes at molecular, biochemical and physiological levels, which result in reduced plant productivity. Hence, the introduction of novel ameliorating agents to combat this situation is the need of the hour. The present study was designed to examine the effect of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO–NPs) in As-stressed soybean plants. Various plant growth factors and enzymes were studied at varying concentrations of As and ZnO–NPs. Our results showed that with the application of ZnO–NPs, As concentration declined in both root and shoot of soybean plants. The lengths of shoot and root, net photosynthetic rate, transpiration, stomatal conductance, photochemical yield and other factors declined with an increase in external As level. However, the application of ZnO–NPs to the As-stressed soybean plants resulted in a considerable increase in these factors. Moreover, the enzymes involved in the ascorbate–glutathione cycle including superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and glutathione reductase (GR) showed a significant increase in their activity with the application of ZnO–NPs to the As-stressed plants. Hence, our study confirms the significance of ZnO–NPs in alleviating the toxicity of As in soybean plants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Oxidative Stress: Biology, Physiology and Mitigation)
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Article
Salicylic Acid Stimulates Antioxidant Defense and Osmolyte Metabolism to Alleviate Oxidative Stress in Watermelons under Excess Boron
Plants 2020, 9(6), 724; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants9060724 - 08 Jun 2020
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1194
Abstract
Boron (B) is a microelement required in vascular plants at a high concentration that produces excess boron and toxicity in many crops. B stress occurs widely and limits plant growth and crop productivity worldwide. Salicylic acid (SA) is an essential hormone in plants [...] Read more.
Boron (B) is a microelement required in vascular plants at a high concentration that produces excess boron and toxicity in many crops. B stress occurs widely and limits plant growth and crop productivity worldwide. Salicylic acid (SA) is an essential hormone in plants and is a phenolic compound. The goal of this work is to explore the role of SA in the alleviation of excess B (10 mg L−1) in watermelon plants at a morphological and biochemical level. Excess boron altered the nutrient concentrations and caused a significant reduction in morphological criteria; chlorophyll a, b, and carotenoids; net photosynthetic rate; and the stomatal conductance and transpiration rate of watermelon seedlings, while intercellular carbon dioxide (CO2) was significantly increased compared to the control plants (0.5 mg L−1 B). Furthermore, excess boron accelerated the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), such as hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and induced cellular oxidative injury. The application of exogenous SA significantly increased chlorophyll and carotenoid contents in plants exposed to excess B (10 mg L−1), in line with the role of SA in alleviating chlorosis caused by B stress. Exogenously applied SA promoted photosynthesis and, consequently, biomass production in watermelon seedlings treated with a high level of B (10 mg L−1) by reducing B accumulation, lipid peroxidation, and the generation of H2O2, while significantly increasing levels of the most reactive ROS, OH. SA also activated antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and protected the seedlings from an ROS induced cellular burst. In conclusion, SA can be used to alleviate the adverse effects of excess boron. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Oxidative Stress: Biology, Physiology and Mitigation)
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Article
Bitter Melon (Momordica charantia L.) Rootstock Improves the Heat Tolerance of Cucumber by Regulating Photosynthetic and Antioxidant Defense Pathways
Plants 2020, 9(6), 692; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants9060692 - 29 May 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 956
Abstract
High temperature is considered a critical abiotic stressor that is increasing continuously, which is severely affecting plant growth and development. The use of heat-resistant rootstock grafting is a viable technique that is practiced globally to improve plant resistance towards abiotic stresses. In this [...] Read more.
High temperature is considered a critical abiotic stressor that is increasing continuously, which is severely affecting plant growth and development. The use of heat-resistant rootstock grafting is a viable technique that is practiced globally to improve plant resistance towards abiotic stresses. In this experiment, we explored the efficacy of bitter melon rootstock and how it regulates photosynthesis and the antioxidant defense system to alleviate heat stress (42 °C/32 °C) in cucumber. Our results revealed that bitter-melon-grafted seedlings significantly relieved heat-induced growth inhibition and photoinhibition, maintained better photosynthesis activity, and accumulated a greater biomass than self-grafted seedlings. We measured the endogenous polyamine and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) contents to determine the inherent mechanism responsible for these effects, and the results showed that heat stress induced a transient increase in polyamines and H2O2 in the inner courtyard of grafted seedlings. This increment was greater and more robust in bitter-melon-grafted seedlings. In addition, the use of polyamine synthesis inhibitors MGBG (methylglyoxal bis-guanylhydrazone) and D-Arg (D-arginine), further confirmed that the production of H2O2 under heat stress is mediated by the accumulation of endogenous polyamines. Moreover, compared with other treatments, the bitter-melon-grafted seedlings maintained high levels of antioxidant enzyme activity under high temperature conditions. However, these activities were significantly inhibited by polyamine synthesis inhibitors and H2O2 scavengers (dimethylthiourea, DMTU), indicating that bitter melon rootstock not only maintained better photosynthetic activity under conditions of high temperature stress but also mediated the production of H2O2 through the regulation of the high level of endogenous polyamines, thereby boosting the antioxidant defense system and comprehensively improving the heat tolerance of cucumber seedlings. Taken together, these results indicate that grafting with a resistant cultivar is a promising alternative tool for reducing stress-induced damage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Oxidative Stress: Biology, Physiology and Mitigation)
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