Special Issue "Medicinal Plant Extracts"

A special issue of Plants (ISSN 2223-7747). This special issue belongs to the section "Phytochemistry".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 June 2022 | Viewed by 22419

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Laura Grațiela Vicaș
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Pharmacy, University of Oradea, Oradea, Romania
Interests: pharmaceutical technology; plant extracts; nanotechnology; pharmacology
Prof. Mariana Eugenia Mureșan
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Preclinical Disciplines, Faculty of Medicine and Pharmacy, University of Oradea, University of Oradea, Oradea, Romania
Interests: oxidative stress; antioxidant capacity; biochemistry; inflammatory markers-interleukines

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

In recent decades, pharmaceuticals based on phytocomplexes have become of interest to health professionals as an alternative to conventional drugs. Recent research has focused on the optimization of herbal medicines and nutritional supplements. Current studies employing new methods of analysis are disclosing new information about the composition of phytocomplexes, which is essential to improving their therapeutic effect, reducing their side effects, and increasing their safety. This Special Issue of Plants aims to present the most recent results of research on plant extracts and their biological activity.

Prof. Laura Grațiela Vicaș
Prof. Mariana Eugenia Mureșan
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • medicinal plant extracts
  • phytocomplexes
  • cell cultures

Published Papers (21 papers)

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Editorial

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Editorial
Medicinal Plant Extracts
Plants 2021, 10(5), 838; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10050838 - 22 Apr 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 867
Abstract
The therapeutic benefits of medicinal plants are well known and have been collected as important data on ethnomedicine [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Medicinal Plant Extracts)

Research

Jump to: Editorial, Review

Article
Antibacterial Activity against Foodborne Pathogens and Inhibitory Effect on Anti-Inflammatory Mediators’ Production of Brazilin-Enriched Extract from Caesalpinia sappan Linn
Plants 2022, 11(13), 1698; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11131698 - 27 Jun 2022
Viewed by 206
Abstract
Caesalpinia sappan L. heartwood was collected from Mae Chaem District, Chiang Mai Province, Thailand. Crude extracts were prepared by Soxhlet’s extraction using 50, 60, and 70% of ethanol (EtOH) at 50, 60, and 70 °C, and the brazilin content was measured using reversed-phase [...] Read more.
Caesalpinia sappan L. heartwood was collected from Mae Chaem District, Chiang Mai Province, Thailand. Crude extracts were prepared by Soxhlet’s extraction using 50, 60, and 70% of ethanol (EtOH) at 50, 60, and 70 °C, and the brazilin content was measured using reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). The antibacterial activity against foodborne pathogens and anti-inflammatory aspects were investigated. C. sappan, prepared from 70% EtOH at 70 °C (E70T70), significantly (p < 0.05) exhibited the highest amount of brazilin (7.90 ± 0.50% w/w). All extracts were investigated for anti-inflammatory activity through an inhibition effect on nitric oxide (NO) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) production in RAW264.7 mouse macrophage cells. The inhibitory effect on cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) production in HT-29 and HCT116 was also studied. All the extracts inhibited NO, iNOS, and COX-2 production induced by combined lipopolysaccharide and interferon-γ, especially E70T70, indicating the highest inhibition effect among other extracts. Additionally, E70T70 was selected to determine the antibacterial activity against foodborne pathogens, including Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Salmonella enteritidis, and Vibrio parahaemolyticus. The result showed that 200 µg/mL extract reduced all test pathogens 100% at 24 h. These results suggested the potential of using C. sappan L. extract as a natural preservative in food and a natural active pharmaceutical ingredient. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Medicinal Plant Extracts)
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Article
Phytochemical Profiling and Antibacterial Activity of Methanol Leaf Extract of Skimmia anquetilia
Plants 2022, 11(13), 1667; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11131667 - 23 Jun 2022
Viewed by 265
Abstract
Skimmia anquetilia is a plant species native to the Western Himalaya region that has tremendous potential for phytochemical activities. This study aimed to identify bioactive compounds and assess the antibacterial activity of S. anquetilia. To determine the major bioactive chemicals in the [...] Read more.
Skimmia anquetilia is a plant species native to the Western Himalaya region that has tremendous potential for phytochemical activities. This study aimed to identify bioactive compounds and assess the antibacterial activity of S. anquetilia. To determine the major bioactive chemicals in the methanol leaf extract of S. anquetilia, we used a gas chromatography–mass spectrometer (GC-MS). The presence of 35 distinct phytoconstituents was discovered using GC-MS, which could contribute to the therapeutic capabilities of this plant species. The most predominant compound was 2R-acetoxymethyl-1,3,3-trimethyl-4t-(3-methyl-2-buten-1-yl)-1t-cyclohexanol (23.9%). Further, the leaf extract was evaluated for antibacterial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Salmonella typhi, and Staphylococcus aureus. The extract showed the highest zone of inhibition against E. coli (19 mm) followed by P. aeruginosa (18 mm) and K. Pneumoniae (17 mm) at 160 mg mL−1. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of methanol extract against the strain of P. aeruginosa (2 mg mL−1) demonstrated significant antibacterial activity. The findings of the present study highlight the potential of S. anquetilia for the development of herbal medicines for the treatment of various pathogenic infections. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Medicinal Plant Extracts)
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Article
Antimicrobial Screening and Fungicidal Properties of Eucalýptus globulus Ultrasonic Extracts
Plants 2022, 11(11), 1441; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11111441 - 28 May 2022
Viewed by 331
Abstract
The prohibition of antibiotics has led to extensive research and use of phytogenic feed additives. James Barrie Kirkpatrick described four subspecies of eucalyptus (family Myrtaceae), including Eucalýptus globulus, in 1974. The maximum concentrations of quercetin-3D-glycoside (1703.30 g/mL), astragalin (1737.82 g/mL), chlorogenic acid [...] Read more.
The prohibition of antibiotics has led to extensive research and use of phytogenic feed additives. James Barrie Kirkpatrick described four subspecies of eucalyptus (family Myrtaceae), including Eucalýptus globulus, in 1974. The maximum concentrations of quercetin-3D-glycoside (1703.30 g/mL), astragalin (1737.82 g/mL), chlorogenic acid (342.14 g/mL), catechin (282.54 g/mL), rosmarinic acid (36.39 g/mL), and 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid (27.55 g/mL) were found in samples of ultrasonic extraction with ethyl alcohol (extraction module 1:5, temperature of 32 °C, an ultrasonic exposure time of 25 min). Antimicrobial activity was observed in all studied samples after 12 h of incubation (against gram-positive (Bacillus subtilis) and gram-negative (Pseudomonas aeruginosa) bacteria, as well as representatives of yeast fungi (Candida albicans)); a more pronounced antimicrobial effect (lysis zone) was observed after ultrasonic processing of extracts for 20 and 25 min. Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Candida albicans had lysis areas of 10.0 mm (20 min extraction with ultrasonic treatment), 13.0 mm (20 min extraction without ultrasonic treatment), and 15.5 mm (25 min extraction with ultrasonic treatment), respectively. E. globulus was demonstrated to be a source of biologically active phenolic compounds with antibacterial and fungicidal activity. More research on the use of E. globulus in feed additives is required. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Medicinal Plant Extracts)
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Communication
Phytochemical Profile, Safety and Efficacy of a Herbal Mixture Used for Contraception by Traditional Health Practitioners in Ngaka Modiri Molema District Municipality, South Africa
Plants 2022, 11(2), 193; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11020193 - 12 Jan 2022
Viewed by 663
Abstract
The use of medicinal plants for contraception remains a common practice among South African ethnic groups. The present study assessed the phytochemical profile, cytotoxicity, acute oral toxicity and efficacy of a herbal mixture used for contraception by the Batswana of South Africa. An [...] Read more.
The use of medicinal plants for contraception remains a common practice among South African ethnic groups. The present study assessed the phytochemical profile, cytotoxicity, acute oral toxicity and efficacy of a herbal mixture used for contraception by the Batswana of South Africa. An aqueous extract was prepared from equal quantities (in terms of weight) of Bulbine frutescens (roots), Helichrysum caespititium (leaves) and Teucrium trifidum (leaves) based on a recipe used by traditional health practitioners. The phytochemical profiles of the freeze-dried herbal mixture were analyzed using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS). In addition, cytotoxicity was determined using an MTT assay on Vero cells and in vivo contraceptive efficacy was evaluated using seven Sprague Dawley rats per control and treatment groups. The control group received distilled water while test groups received 5, 50 and 300 mg/kg of the herbal mixture, which was administered orally once a day for three consecutive days. Subsequently, female rats were paired 1:1 with males for 3 days. Their weights were measured weekly and incidence of pregnancy was recorded. The GC-MS chromatogram revealed the presence of 12 identified and 9 unidentified compounds. In terms of safety, the herbal mixture had an IC50 value of 755.2 μg/mL and 2000 mg/kg, which was the highest tested dose that caused no mortality or morbidity in the rats. A contraceptive efficacy of 14.5% was exerted with 50 mg/kg herbal mixture extract while other doses had no effects given that all the rats were pregnant. Based on a chi-square test (p < 0.05), there was no correlation between the tested herbal mixture doses and contraception, nor on the weight of the rats. Overall, the herbal mixture extract was found to be safe but had limited contraceptive efficacy at the tested doses. In future studies, exploring increased dose range, solvent extract types and hormonal analysis will be pertinent. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Medicinal Plant Extracts)
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Article
Evaluation of Antimicrobial and Anticancer Activities of Selected Medicinal Plants of Himalayas, Pakistan
Plants 2022, 11(1), 48; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11010048 - 24 Dec 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1396
Abstract
Medicinal plants are known for their diverse use in the traditional medicine of the Himalayan region of Pakistan. The present study is designed to investigate the anticancer and antimicrobial activities of Prunus cornuta and Quercus semicarpifolia. The anticancer activity was performed using [...] Read more.
Medicinal plants are known for their diverse use in the traditional medicine of the Himalayan region of Pakistan. The present study is designed to investigate the anticancer and antimicrobial activities of Prunus cornuta and Quercus semicarpifolia. The anticancer activity was performed using cancerous human cell lines (HepG2, Caco-2, A549, MDA-MB-231, and NCI-H1437 carcinoma cells), while the antimicrobial activity was conducted with the agar-well diffusion method. Furthermore, toxicity studies were performed on alveolar and renal primary epithelial cells. Initially, different extracts were prepared by maceration techniques using n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, butanol, and methanol. The preliminary phytochemical screening showed the presence of secondary metabolites such as alkaloids, tannins, saponins, flavonoids, glycosides, and quinones. The chloroform extract of P. cornuta (PCC) exhibited significant inhibitory activity against Acinetobacter baumannii (16 mm) and Salmonella enterica (14.5 mm). The A. baumannii and S. enterica strains appeared highly susceptible to n-hexane extract of P. cornuta (PCN) with an antibacterial effect of 15 mm and 15.5 mm, respectively. The results also showed that the methanolic extracts of Quercus semecarpifolia (QSM) exhibited considerable antibacterial inhibitory activity in A. baumannii (18 mm), Escherichia coli (15 mm). The QSN and QSE extracts also showed good inhibition in A. baumannii with a 16 mm zone of inhibition. The Rhizopus oryzae strain has shown remarkable mycelial inhibition by PCM and QSN with 16 mm and 21 mm inhibition, respectively. Furthermore, the extracts of P. cornuta and Q. semicarpifolia exhibited prominent growth inhibition of breast (MDA-MB-231) and lung (A549) carcinoma cells with 19–30% and 22–39% cell viabilities, respectively. The gut cell line survival was also significantly inhibited by Q. semicarpifolia (24–34%). The findings of this study provide valuable information for the future development of new antibacterial and anticancer medicinal agents from P. cornuta and Q. semicarpifolia extracts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Medicinal Plant Extracts)
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Article
Synergism in Antiplasmodial Activities of Artemether and Lumefantrine in Combination with Securidaca longipedunculata Fresen (Polygalaceae)
Plants 2022, 11(1), 47; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11010047 - 24 Dec 2021
Viewed by 903
Abstract
Malaria is the most lethal parasitic disease in the world. The frequent emergence of resistance by malaria parasites to any drug is the hallmark of sustained malaria burden. Since the deployment of artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) it is clear that for a sustained [...] Read more.
Malaria is the most lethal parasitic disease in the world. The frequent emergence of resistance by malaria parasites to any drug is the hallmark of sustained malaria burden. Since the deployment of artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) it is clear that for a sustained fight against malaria, drug combination is one of the strategies toward malaria elimination. In Sub-Saharan Africa where malaria prevalence is the highest, the identification of plants with a novel mechanism of action that is devoid of cross-resistance is a feasible strategy in drug combination therapy. Thus, artemether and lumefantrine were separately combined and tested with extracts of Securidaca longipedunculata, a plant widely used to treat malaria, at fixed extract–drug ratios of 4:1, 3:1, 1:1, 1:2, 1:3, and 1:4. These combinations were tested for antiplasmodial activity against three strains of Plasmodium falciparum (W2, D6, and DD2), and seven field isolates that were characterized for molecular and ex vivo drug resistance profiles. The mean sum of fifty-percent fractional inhibition concentration (FIC50) of each combination and singly was determined. Synergism was observed across all fixed doses when roots extracts were combined with artemether against D6 strain (FIC50 0.403 ± 0.068) and stems extract combined with lumefantrine against DD2 strain (FIC50 0.376 ± 0.096) as well as field isolates (FIC50 0.656 ± 0.067). Similarly, synergism was observed in all ratios when leaves extract were combined with lumefantrine against W2 strain (FIC50 0.456 ± 0.165). Synergism was observed in most combinations indicating the potential use of S. longipedunculata in combination with artemether and lumefantrine in combating resistance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Medicinal Plant Extracts)
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Article
Oxidative Stress and DNA Lesion Reduction of a Polyphenolic Enriched Extract of Thymus marschallianus Willd. in Endothelial Vascular Cells Exposed to Hyperglycemia
Plants 2021, 10(12), 2810; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10122810 - 18 Dec 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 917
Abstract
The present study aimed to compare two polyphenolic-enriched extracts obtained from the Thymus marschallianus Willd. (Lamiaceae) species, harvested from culture (TMCE in doses of 0.66 μg GAE/mL and 0.066 μg GAE/mL) and from spontaneous flora (TMSE in doses of 0.94 μg GAE/mL and [...] Read more.
The present study aimed to compare two polyphenolic-enriched extracts obtained from the Thymus marschallianus Willd. (Lamiaceae) species, harvested from culture (TMCE in doses of 0.66 μg GAE/mL and 0.066 μg GAE/mL) and from spontaneous flora (TMSE in doses of 0.94 μg GAE/mL and 0.094 μg GAE/mL) by assessing their biological effects on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) exposed to normoglycemic (137 mmol/L glucose) and hyperglycemic conditions (200 mmol/L glucose). Extracts were obtained by solid phase extraction (SPE) and analyzed by chromatographical (HPLC-DAD) and spectrophotometrical methods. Their effects on hyperglycemia were evaluated by the quantification of oxidative stress and NF-ĸB, pNF-ĸB, HIF-1α, and γ-H2AX expressions. The HPLC-DAD analysis highlighted significant amounts of rosmarinic acid (ranging between 0.18 and 1.81 mg/g dry extract), luteolin (ranging between 2.04 and 17.71 mg/g dry extract), kaempferol (ranging between 1.85 and 7.39 mg/g dry extract), and apigenin (ranging between 4.97 and 65.67 mg/g dry extract). Exposure to hyperglycemia induced oxidative stress and the activation of NF-ĸ increased the expression of HIF-1α and produced DNA lesions. The polyphenolic-enriched extracts proved a significant reduction of oxidative stress and γ-H2AX formation and improved the expression of HIF-1α, suggesting their protective role on endothelial cells in hyperglycemia. The tested extracts reduced the total NF-ĸB expression and diminished its activation in hyperglycemic conditions. The obtained results bring evidence for the use of the polyphenolic-enriched extracts of T. marschallianus as adjuvants in hyperglycemia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Medicinal Plant Extracts)
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Article
Chemical Composition and Content of Biologically Active Substances Found in Cotinus coggygria, Dactylorhiza maculata, Platanthera chlorantha Growing in Various Territories
Plants 2021, 10(12), 2806; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10122806 - 18 Dec 2021
Viewed by 793
Abstract
Medicinal plants (Cotinus coggygria, Dactylorhiza maculata, Platanthera chlorantha) growing in various territories (Kaliningrad, Moscow, and Minsk regions) were the objects of research. This paper presents a study of the chemical composition of these plants. To analyze the qualitative and [...] Read more.
Medicinal plants (Cotinus coggygria, Dactylorhiza maculata, Platanthera chlorantha) growing in various territories (Kaliningrad, Moscow, and Minsk regions) were the objects of research. This paper presents a study of the chemical composition of these plants. To analyze the qualitative and quantitative composition of biologically active substances, the method of high-performance liquid chromatography was used. Atomic absorption spectrometry was used to study the content of trace elements. The content of organic acids and vitamins was determined by capillary electrophoresis using the Kapel-105/105M capillary electrophoresis system with high negative polarity. Extracts of medicinal plants were obtained on a Soxhlet apparatus using 70% ethanol as an extractant. It was found that among the biologically active substances in the plants under discussion, hyperoside, rutin (C. coggygria), Ferulic acid and Gallic acid (D. maculata), triene hydrocarbon (3,7-Dimethyl-1,3,6-octatriene), unsaturated alcohol (3,7-Dimethyl-2,6-octadien-1-ol), and benzyl acetate (P. chlorantha) prevailed. Samples of these medicinal plants contained trace elements (phosphorus, potassium, calcium, sodium, magnesium, and sulfur) and many aliphatic organic acids (succinic acid, benzoic acid, fumaric acid, citric acid, oxalic acid, and tartaric acid). The largest amount of biologically active substances and secondary metabolites of the studied plants from the Eastern Baltic is associated with climatic and ecological differences from other regions. The composition of these plants determines the potential of their use in feed additives for livestock and poultry as part of measures to improve the quality of livestock products. The use of medicinal plants for the production of feed additives is relevant in terms of improving regional economies, as well as improving the quality of life and nation’s health by providing ecologically clean livestock products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Medicinal Plant Extracts)
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Article
Preliminary Phytochemical Screening, In Vitro Antidiabetic, Antioxidant Activities, and Toxicity of Leaf Extracts of Psychotria malayana Jack
Plants 2021, 10(12), 2688; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10122688 - 07 Dec 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1171
Abstract
Psychotria malayana Jack belongs to the Rubiacea and is widespread in Southeast Asian countries. It is traditionally used to treat diabetes. Despite its potential medicinal use, scientific proof of this pharmacological action and the toxic effect of this plant are still lacking. Hence, [...] Read more.
Psychotria malayana Jack belongs to the Rubiacea and is widespread in Southeast Asian countries. It is traditionally used to treat diabetes. Despite its potential medicinal use, scientific proof of this pharmacological action and the toxic effect of this plant are still lacking. Hence, this study aimed to investigate the in vitro antidiabetic and antioxidant activities, toxicity, and preliminary phytochemical screening of P. malayana leaf extracts by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) after derivatization. The antidiabetic activities of different extracts of this plant were investigated through alpha-glucosidase inhibitory (AGI) and 2-NBDG glucose uptake using 3T3-L1 cell line assays, while the antioxidant activity was evaluated using DPPH and FRAP assays. Its toxicological effect was investigated using the zebrafish embryo/larvae (Danio rerio) model. The mortality, hatchability, tail-detachment, yolk size, eye size, beat per minute (BPM), and body length were taken into account to observe the teratogenicity in all zebrafish embryos exposed to methanol extract. The LC50 was determined using probit analysis. The methanol extract showed the AGI activity (IC50 = 2.71 ± 0.11 μg/mL), insulin-sensitizing activity (at a concentration of 5 µg/mL), and potent antioxidant activities (IC50 = 10.85 μg/mL and 72.53 mg AAE/g for DPPH and FRAP activity, respectively). Similarly, the water extract exhibited AGI activity (IC50 = 6.75 μg/mL), insulin-sensitizing activity at the concentration of 10 μg/mL, and antioxidant activities (IC50 = 27.12 and 33.71 μg/mL for DPPH and FRAP activity, respectively). The methanol and water extracts exhibited the LC50 value higher than their therapeutic concentration, i.e., 37.50 and 252.45 µg/mL, respectively. These results indicate that both water and methanol extracts are safe and potentially an antidiabetic agent, but the former is preferable since its therapeutic index (LC50/therapeutic concentration) is much higher than for methanol extracts. Analysis using GC-MS on derivatized methanol and water extracts of P. malayana leaves detected partial information on some constituents including palmitic acid, 1,3,5-benzenetriol, 1-monopalmitin, beta-tocopherol, 24-epicampesterol, alpha-tocopherol, and stigmast-5-ene, that could be a potential target to further investigate the antidiabetic properties of the plant. Nevertheless, isolation and identification of the bioactive compounds are required to confirm their antidiabetic activity and toxicity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Medicinal Plant Extracts)
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Article
Determination of ROS Scavenging, Antibacterial and Antifungal Potential of Methanolic Extract of Otostegia limbata (Benth.) Boiss.
Plants 2021, 10(11), 2360; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10112360 - 02 Nov 2021
Viewed by 624
Abstract
Wide spectrum medicinal significance augments plant utilization as the primary source of significant pharmaceutical agents. In vitro investigation of antioxidant and antimicrobial activity highlights the therapeutic potential of Otostegia limbata. Methanol extract of the plant (MEP) shows considerable dose dependent antioxidant ability [...] Read more.
Wide spectrum medicinal significance augments plant utilization as the primary source of significant pharmaceutical agents. In vitro investigation of antioxidant and antimicrobial activity highlights the therapeutic potential of Otostegia limbata. Methanol extract of the plant (MEP) shows considerable dose dependent antioxidant ability at six concentrations (7.81 µg/mL to 250 µg/mL) in 2.2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay, phosphomolybdate assay (PMA) and reducing power assay (RPA). The plant capability to scavenge free radicals in the mixture ranged from 37.89% to 63.50% in a concentration-dependent manner. MEP was active against five tested bacterial strains in the agar-well diffusion method. Staphylococcus aureus, gram-positive bacteria was found to be most susceptible followed by S. epidermidis with 18.80 mm and 17.47 mm mean zone of inhibition. The mean inhibition zone against gram-negative strains Klebsiella pneumonia, Pseudomonas spp. and Escherichia coli were 15.07 mm, 14.73 mm, and 12.17 mm. MEP revealed potential against Alternaria spp. and Aspergillus terreus fungal strains evaluated through agar-tube dilution assay. Aspergillus terreus was more sensitive than Alternaria spp. with an average 78.45% and 68.0% inhibition. These findings can serve as a benchmark for forthcoming scrutiny such as bioactive components discovery and drug development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Medicinal Plant Extracts)
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Article
Anti-Hyperglycaemic Evaluation of Buddleia indica Leaves Using In Vitro, In Vivo and In Silico Studies and Its Correlation with the Major Phytoconstituents
Plants 2021, 10(11), 2351; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10112351 - 30 Oct 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 650
Abstract
Buddleia indica Lam. is an ornamental evergreen shrub with few reports concerning its phytoconstituents and biological activities. Herein, the antihyperglycaemic activity of B. indica leaves methanol extract (BIT) was evaluated for the first time using in vitro and in vivo studies. Molecular modelling [...] Read more.
Buddleia indica Lam. is an ornamental evergreen shrub with few reports concerning its phytoconstituents and biological activities. Herein, the antihyperglycaemic activity of B. indica leaves methanol extract (BIT) was evaluated for the first time using in vitro and in vivo studies. Molecular modelling was performed for its major phytoconstituents that were further subjected to ADME/TOPAKT (absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion and toxicity) prediction. BIT revealed considerable reduction in glucose concentration by 9.93% at 50 μg/mL using 3T3-L1 adipocyte culture. It displayed substantial inhibition versus α-glucosidase and α-amylase with IC50 205.2 and 385.06 μg/mL, respectively. In vivo antihyperglycaemic activity of BIT and the ethyl acetate fraction (BIE) was performed using streptozotocin-induced diabetes in rat model. BIT and BIE effectively ameliorate oxidative stress markers in addition to reducing serum blood glucose by 56.08 and 54.00%, respectively, and are associated with a substantial increase in serum insulin by 4.1 and 12.7%, respectively. This can be attributed to its richness with polyphenolic compounds comprising flavonoids, phenolic acids, phenyl propanoids and iridoids. Molecular docking showed that verbascoside and kaempferol displayed the highest fitting within human α-amylase (HA) and human α-glucosidase (HG) active sites, respectively. They showed reasonable pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic and toxicity properties, as revealed by ADME/TOPKAT study. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Medicinal Plant Extracts)
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Article
Phytochemical Screening of Himatanthus sucuuba (Spruce) Woodson (Apocynaceae) Latex, In Vitro Cytotoxicity and Incision Wound Repair in Mice
Plants 2021, 10(10), 2197; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10102197 - 16 Oct 2021
Viewed by 1133
Abstract
Himatanthus sucuuba, also known as “Bellaco caspi”, is a medicinal plant whose latex, stem bark, and leaves possess phenolic acids, lupeol, β-dihydro-plumbericinic acid, plumericin, and plumeride, among other components. Some of these have been linked to such biological activities as antiulcer, anti-inflammatory, [...] Read more.
Himatanthus sucuuba, also known as “Bellaco caspi”, is a medicinal plant whose latex, stem bark, and leaves possess phenolic acids, lupeol, β-dihydro-plumbericinic acid, plumericin, and plumeride, among other components. Some of these have been linked to such biological activities as antiulcer, anti-inflammatory, and wound healing. The aim of this study was to determine the phytochemical compounds of H. sucuuba latex, as well as its in vitro cytotoxicity and wound healing effect in mice. Latex was collected in the province of Iquitos, Peru. Phytochemical analysis was carried out with UPLC-ESI-MS/MS. The cytotoxicity was evaluated on two colon tumor cell lines (SW480 and SW620) and non-malignant cells (human keratinocytes, HaCaT, and Chinese hamster ovary, CHO-K1). The mice were distributed into two groups, as follows: Group I—control (n = 10; without treatment); II—(n = 10) H. sucuuba latex; wounds were induced with a scalpel in the dorsal–cervical area and treatments were applied topically twice a day on the incision for 10 days. Molecular docking was carried out on the glycogen synthase kinase 3β protein. Twenty-four chemical compounds were determined, mainly flavonoid-type compounds. Latex did not have a cytotoxic effect on tumor cells with IC50 values of more than 500 µg/mL. The latex had a regenerative effect on wounds in mice. Acacetin-7-O-neohesperidoside had the best docking score of −9.9 kcal/mol. In conclusion, H. sucuuba latex had a wound healing effect in mice, as confirmed by histological study. However, a non-cytotoxic effect was observed on colon tumor cells SW480 and SW620. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Medicinal Plant Extracts)
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Communication
Anti-Inflammatory Activity of a Medicinal Herb Extract Mixture, HM-V, on an Animal Model of DNCB-Induced Chronic Skin Inflammation
Plants 2021, 10(8), 1546; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10081546 - 28 Jul 2021
Viewed by 790
Abstract
Chronic inflammatory skin diseases, such as atopic dermatitis, are caused by the accumulation of immune cells and the overproduction of chemokines, including CCL17 and CCL22, due to the activation of pro-inflammatory cytokines secreted from keratinocytes. In the present study, the inhibitory activity of [...] Read more.
Chronic inflammatory skin diseases, such as atopic dermatitis, are caused by the accumulation of immune cells and the overproduction of chemokines, including CCL17 and CCL22, due to the activation of pro-inflammatory cytokines secreted from keratinocytes. In the present study, the inhibitory activity of HM-V on tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α)/interferon gamma (IFN-γ)-induced pro-inflammatory cytokines was examined in human keratinocytes (HaCaTs) and 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene (DNCB)-induced chronic skin contact dermatitis animal models. Traditional Asian medicinal herb extracts mixture (HM-V), which have been extensively used in Asian medicine, were utilized. In TNF-α/IFN-γ-induced HaCaTs, HM-V strongly inhibited mRNA and protein expression of CCL17 and CCL22 in a concentration-dependent manner. The expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 was also inhibited. Therefore, localized administration of HM-V in the DNCB-induced animal model alleviated immune cell deposition and skin inflammation. The results indicate that HM-V exerts inhibitory effects on keratinocyte production of CCL17 and CCL22. Furthermore, HM-V may be a useful anti-inflammatory agent for the prevention and treatment of inflammatory skin diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Medicinal Plant Extracts)
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Article
Study of the Properties of In Vitro Dactylorhiza maculata (L.) Soó (Family Orchidaceae) Extracts
Plants 2021, 10(7), 1330; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10071330 - 29 Jun 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1168
Abstract
The medicinal plant Dactylorhiza maculata (L.) Soó (family Orchidaceae) is used to treat gastritis, colic, gastrointestinal tract, and bladder diseases. This study aimed to investigate the properties and characteristics of the in vitro Dactylorhiza maculata extract. The recommended parameters for producing Dactylorhiza [...] Read more.
The medicinal plant Dactylorhiza maculata (L.) Soó (family Orchidaceae) is used to treat gastritis, colic, gastrointestinal tract, and bladder diseases. This study aimed to investigate the properties and characteristics of the in vitro Dactylorhiza maculata extract. The recommended parameters for producing Dactylorhiza maculata extract were determined: temperature 60 °C, process duration 60 min, hydro module 1:10. It is recommended to carry out the extraction using an aqueous ethyl alcohol solution with a mass fraction of the parent substance of 70%. It was found that such biologically active substances as rutin, quercetin, 3,3′,4′,5,5′,7-hexahydroxyflavonone, 3,3′,4′,5,5′,7-hexahydroxyflavonone-3-O-glycoside, gallic acid, and ferulic acid were dominant in Dactylorhiza maculata. A high phosphorus content was noted (2410.8 mg/kg dry matter). The studied Dactylorhizamaculata samples contained a large number of organic acids and water-soluble vitamins. The tested extracts were safe in terms of the content of heavy metals, pesticides, aflatoxin B1, and radionuclides, as well as pathogenic and opportunistic microorganisms; the content was significantly lower than the threshold limit values. The studied complex of biologically active substances from Dactylorhiza maculata extract samples had antimicrobial properties. It was found that the antioxidant activity of the samples was 217.89 ± 10.89 mg AA/g (AA—ascorbic acid). The high content of bioactive substances and the antimicrobial and antioxidant properties of Dactylorhizamaculata extract samples determine the application potential of this plant as a substitute for growth stimulants and feed antibiotics in the production of feed additives, aiming to increase the physiological and immune status of livestock and poultry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Medicinal Plant Extracts)
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Article
Insight into the Secondary Metabolites of Geum urbanum L. and Geum rivale L. Seeds (Rosaceae)
Plants 2021, 10(6), 1219; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10061219 - 15 Jun 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 955
Abstract
The present study aimed at the identification and quantitation of phenolic compounds, fatty acids, and further characteristic substances in the seeds of Geum urbanum L. and Geum rivale L. For this purpose, individual components of extracts recovered with MeOH, CH2Cl2 [...] Read more.
The present study aimed at the identification and quantitation of phenolic compounds, fatty acids, and further characteristic substances in the seeds of Geum urbanum L. and Geum rivale L. For this purpose, individual components of extracts recovered with MeOH, CH2Cl2, and by cold-pressing, respectively, were characterized by HPLC-DAD/ESI-MSn and GC/MS and compared with reference compounds. For both Geum species, phenolic compounds, such as flavonoids and gallic acid derivatives, and triterpenes, such as saponins and their aglycones, were detected. Surprisingly, both Geum species revealed the presence of derivatives of the triterpenoid aglycons asiatic acid and madecassic acid, which were characterized for the first time in the genus Geum. Furthermore, the fatty acids of both species were characterized by GC–MS after derivatization. Both species showed a promising fatty-acid profile in terms of nutritional properties because of high proportions of unsaturated fatty acids. Linoleic acid and linolenic acid were most abundant, among other compounds such as palmitic acid and stearic acid. In summary, the present study demonstrates the seeds of G. urbanum and G. rivale to be a valuable source of unsaturated fatty acids and bioactive phenolics, which might be exploited for nutritional and cosmetic products and for phytotherapeutic purposes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Medicinal Plant Extracts)
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Article
In Vitro Antifungal Activity of Plant Extracts on Pathogenic Fungi of Blueberry (Vaccinium sp.)
Plants 2021, 10(5), 852; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10050852 - 23 Apr 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1673
Abstract
Three pathogenic fungi of blueberry (Vaccinium spp.) responsible for dieback disease, identified as Pestalotiopsis clavispora, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and Lasiodiplodia pseudotheobromae, were isolated in the northwestern region of the state of Michoacán, Mexico. The mycelial growth in vitro of these fungi [...] Read more.
Three pathogenic fungi of blueberry (Vaccinium spp.) responsible for dieback disease, identified as Pestalotiopsis clavispora, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and Lasiodiplodia pseudotheobromae, were isolated in the northwestern region of the state of Michoacán, Mexico. The mycelial growth in vitro of these fungi was inhibited by extracts from Lantana hirta, Argemone ochroleuca and Adenophyllum porophyllum, medicinal plants collected in Sahuayo, Michoacán, Mexico. The extracts showed different degrees of inhibition; the most effective were: M5L extract from L. hirta and M6LFr extract from A. ochroleuca, both of which inhibited 100% of the mycelial growth of P. clavispora and C. gloeosporioides; and M4LS extract from A. porophyllum, which inhibited 100% of the mycelial growth of the three pathogens. The extracts were fractionated by thin layer and column chromatography, and the most active fractions were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The major compounds identified in L. hirta extract were Phytol and α-Sitosterol. The compounds identified in A. ochroleuca were Toluene and Benzene, 1,3-bis(3-phenoxyphenoxy)-. In A. porophyllum, the compound identified was Hexanedioic acid, bis(2-ethylhexyl) ester. These results show the potential of L. hirta, A. ochroleuca and A. porophyllum as a source of antifungal compounds. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Medicinal Plant Extracts)
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Review

Jump to: Editorial, Research

Review
Phytochemical Composition of Different Botanical Parts of Morus Species, Health Benefits and Application in Food Industry
Plants 2022, 11(2), 152; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11020152 - 06 Jan 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 833
Abstract
In recent years, mulberry has acquired a special importance due to its phytochemical composition and its beneficial effects on human health, including antioxidant, anticancer, antidiabetic and immunomodulatory effects. Botanical parts of Morus sp. (fruits, leaves, twigs, roots) are considered a rich source of [...] Read more.
In recent years, mulberry has acquired a special importance due to its phytochemical composition and its beneficial effects on human health, including antioxidant, anticancer, antidiabetic and immunomodulatory effects. Botanical parts of Morus sp. (fruits, leaves, twigs, roots) are considered a rich source of secondary metabolites. The aim of our study was to highlight the phytochemical profile of each of the botanical parts of Morus tree, their health benefits and applications in food industry with an updated review of literature. Black and white mulberries are characterized in terms of predominant phenolic compounds in correlation with their medical applications. In addition to anthocyanins (mainly cyanidin-3-O-glucoside), black mulberry fruits also contain flavonols and phenolic acids. The leaves are a rich source of flavonols, including quercetin and kaempferol in the glycosylated forms and chlorogenic acid as predominant phenolic acids. Mulberry bark roots and twigs are a source of prenylated flavonoids, predominantly morusin. In this context, the exploitation of mulberry in food industry is reviewed in this paper, in terms of developing novel, functional food with multiple health-promoting effects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Medicinal Plant Extracts)
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Review
Phytochemical, Pharmacological, and Biotechnological Study of Ageratina pichinchensis: A Native Species of Mexico
Plants 2021, 10(10), 2225; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10102225 - 19 Oct 2021
Viewed by 893
Abstract
Ageratina pichinchensis (Asteraceae) has been used for a long time in traditional Mexican medicine for treating different skin conditions and injuries. This review aimed to provide an up-to-date view regarding the traditional uses, chemical composition, and pharmacological properties (in vitro, in vivo, and [...] Read more.
Ageratina pichinchensis (Asteraceae) has been used for a long time in traditional Mexican medicine for treating different skin conditions and injuries. This review aimed to provide an up-to-date view regarding the traditional uses, chemical composition, and pharmacological properties (in vitro, in vivo, and clinical trials) that have been achieved using crude extracts, fractions, or pure compounds. Moreover, for a critical evaluation of the published literature, key databases (Pubmed, Science Direct, and SciFinder, among others) were systematically searched using keywords to retrieve relevant publications on this plant. Studies that reported on crude extracts, fractions, or isolated pure compounds of A. pichinchensis have found a varied range of biological effects, including antibacterial, curative, antiulcer, antifungal, and anti-inflammatory activities. Phytochemical analyses of different parts of A. pichinchensis revealed 47 compounds belonging to chromenes, furans, glycosylated flavonoids, terpenoids, and essential oils. Furthermore, biotechnological studies of A. pichinchensis such as callus and cell suspension cultures have provided information for future research perspectives to improve the production of valuable bioactive compounds. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Medicinal Plant Extracts)
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Review
Perspectives on the Combined Effects of Ocimum basilicum and Trifolium pratense Extracts in Terms of Phytochemical Profile and Pharmacological Effects
Plants 2021, 10(7), 1390; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10071390 - 07 Jul 2021
Cited by 21 | Viewed by 1813
Abstract
Nowadays, the tendency in pharmaceutical and food industries is to replace synthetic antioxidants with the natural ones. For this reason, there is a growing interest in analyzing natural, healthy and non-toxic additives as potential antioxidants. Some plants, which contain high levels of phenolic [...] Read more.
Nowadays, the tendency in pharmaceutical and food industries is to replace synthetic antioxidants with the natural ones. For this reason, there is a growing interest in analyzing natural, healthy and non-toxic additives as potential antioxidants. Some plants, which contain high levels of phenolic compounds, present an increasing interest for medicine due to their ability to scavenge free radicals, along with other pharmacological activities, such as antibacterial activity, wound healing and anti-inflammatory effect, to mention only a few. The aim of this review is to explore the therapeutic potential of Ocimum basilicum and Trifolium pratense in relation with their phytochemical profile and to highlight the pharmacological activity of aqueous or ethanol extracts. Special attention was devoted to the dermal pathology and wound healing effects, in the context of multiple skin conditions such as acne, eczema boils, psoriasis and rashes. Additionally, both extracts (Trifolium sp. and Ocimum sp.) are characterized by high content of antioxidant compounds, which are responsible for the radiance and resistance of the skin and slowing down of the aging process by maintaining estrogen levels. Moreover, the potential combined effect of the mixed extract is pointed out in terms of future applications for wound healing, based on some preliminary results obtained from a “scratch tests” assay performed with respect to human dermal fibroblasts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Medicinal Plant Extracts)
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Review
Mexican Plants and Derivates Compounds as Alternative for Inflammatory and Neuropathic Pain Treatment—A Review
Plants 2021, 10(5), 865; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10050865 - 25 Apr 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1231
Abstract
Despite the availability of many anti-pain drugs, in the form of NSAIDs, steroids, gabapentinoids, opioids, and antidepressants, in this study we address the natural compounds belonging to the group of Mexican medicinal plants or “Mexican folk medicine”, used for pain management in Mexico. [...] Read more.
Despite the availability of many anti-pain drugs, in the form of NSAIDs, steroids, gabapentinoids, opioids, and antidepressants, in this study we address the natural compounds belonging to the group of Mexican medicinal plants or “Mexican folk medicine”, used for pain management in Mexico. Our interest in this subject is due to the growing idea that “natural is harmless” and to the large number of side effects exhibited in pharmacotherapy. The objective of this review was to document the scientific evidence about Mexican medicinal plants and their derivatives used for inflammatory and neuropathic pain treatment, as well as the mechanisms of action implicated in their antinociceptive effects, their possible adverse effects, and the main pharmacological aspects of each plant or compound. Our data review suggested that most studies on Mexican medicinal plants have used inflammatory experimental models for testing. The anti-pain properties exerted by medicinal plants lack adverse effects, and their toxicological assays report that they are safe to consume; therefore, more studies should be performed on preclinical neuropathic pain models. Moreover, there is no convincing evidence about the possible mechanisms of action involved in the anti-pain properties exerted by Mexican plants. Therefore, the isolation and pharmacological characterization of these plant derivatives’ compounds will be important in the design of future preclinical studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Medicinal Plant Extracts)
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Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

Title: Study of the properties of the medicinal plant Dactylorhiza inaculata extracts
Authors: Svetlana Ivanova
Affiliation: Kemerovo State University: Kemerovo, RU
Abstract: Medicinal plant Dactylorhiza inaculata is used to treat gastritis, colic, diseases of the gastrointestinal tract and bladder. The recommended parameters for producing Dactylorhiza inaculata extract were determined: temperature 60 °C, process duration 60 min, hydromodule 1:100. It is recommended to carry out the extraction with an aqueous ethyl alcohol solution with a mass fraction of the parent substance of 70%. It was found that such biologically active substances as rutin, quercetin, 3,3',4',5,5',7-hexahydroxyflavonone, 3,3',4',5,5',7-hexahydroxyflavonone-3-O-glycoside, gallic acid, ferulic acid were dominant in Dactylorhiza inaculata. High phosphorus content was noted (2410.8 mg/kg dry matter). The studied Dactylorhiza inaculata samples contained a large number of organic acids and water-soluble vitamins. The tested extracts were safe in terms of the content of heavy metals, pesticides, aflatoxin B1, radionuclides, as well as pathogenic and opportunistic microorganisms. All studied Dactylorhiza inaculata BAS complex extracts had antimicrobial properties. It was found that the antioxidant activity of the samples was 217.89±10.89 mg AA/g. The high BAS content and antimicrobial and antioxidant properties of Dactylorhiza inaculata extracts determine the potential for their use as components of feed additives for livestock.

Title: An overview of the extraction methods and bioactive compounds in Etlingera coccinea (Tuhau) as an indigenous plant species in Sabah, Malaysia
Authors: MD. SHAFIQUZZAMAN SIDDIQUEE
Affiliation: Biotechnology Research Institute, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Jalan UMS, Kota Kinabalu 88400, Sabah, Malaysia
Abstract: Etlingera coccinea (E. coccinea) or locally known to Dusun as “Tuhau” in Sabah, Malaysia. Tuhau is traditional cuisine for ethnics Kadazan-Dusun in Sabah. Secondary metabolites in E. coccinea's leaves, roots, and rhizomes are available. However, no alkaloids bioactive compounds are reported, cardiac glycosides and steroids are found in all plant sections. Leaves and stems have saponins, anthraquinones and a group of polyphenols found, but rhizomes were not found. E. coccinea showed good antimicrobial, antioxidant and antifungal activities. The antioxidant properties of the leaves suggest that it could be used as an alternative to synthetic compounds as a food and medicinal additive. There are four types of extraction which are liquid-liquid extraction (LLE), solid phase extraction (SPE), leaching or solid liquid and supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) to increase the extraction of bioactive compounds from plant sources on a large scale. This review article described a group of bioactive compounds that are rich in E. coccinea and the various extraction procedures for extracting bioactive compounds from plants with their basic mechanisms, benefits, and drawbacks.

Title: Morus species as medicinal plant with valuable effects on human health
Authors: Vicas Simona-Ioana
Affiliation: Department of Food Engineering Faculty of Environmental Protection,Oradea, Bihor, University of Oradea
Abstract: Botanical parts of Morus sp.(fruits, leaves, branch, roots) provide important levels of secondary metabolites with health benefits. Many studies are focused on the phytochemical composition and health benefits of mulberry fruits. The novelty of this review is the presentation of the chemical composition of the individual botanical parts of Morus sp. and highlight its health benefits, which include antioxidant, anticancer, antidiabetic, immunomodulators effects. We have selected scientific articles from the last ten years and also suggested some future perspectives on Morus-based products as functional foods for health-promoting effects.

Title: Study of the antioxidant properties of Filipendula ulmaria and Alhus glutinosa
Authors: Svetlana Ivanova
Affiliation: Universidad de Sevilla
Abstract: Aging is caused by a combination of genetics and external conditions, with genetic factors accounting for around 25% of human aging and environmental influences, including lifestyle, accounting for the remaining 75%. This research aimed to study the antioxidant properties of Filipendulaulmaria and Alhus glutinosa. Samples of both Alhus glutinosa and Filipendulaulmaria extracts demonstrated high antioxidant activity, however the activity of Alhus glutinosasamples was higher. For Alhus glutinosa, the highest antioxidant activity of ABTS reached 1094.02±14.53 µmol TE/g (methanol extract samples), ABTS radical scavenging activity – 579.07±41.87 µmol TE/g (water extract samples), DPPH radical scavenging activity – 584.45±35.31 µmol TE/g and reducing power of FRAP - 471.63±7.06 µmol TE/g (methanol extract samples), which is consistent with the total yields of extracts and the content of ellagic acid in them. Significant activities were also found in samples of the aqueous extract. Samples of ethyl acetate extract showed little antioxidant activity. Synthetic antioxidants (dibunol, probucol, cystalitis, mexamine, etc.) have not found application in clinical practice. Plant-derived antioxidants have great potential because they are less toxic to humans. This creates good prospects for the further use of herbal extracts of Filipendulaulmaria and Alhus glutinosa as a source of natural antioxidants.

Title: Medicinal Plant Extracts
Authors: kerstin andrae
Affiliation: Department of Biological Science; Block 235/Office 251; University of Botswana; Gaborone; Botswana
Abstract: Schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminths are some of the priority NTDs targeted for elimination by the World Health Organisation (WHO). They are prevalent in Botswana and although Botswana has begun mass drug administration with the hope of eliminating soil transmitted helminths, the prevalence of schistosomiasis does not meet the threshold required to warrant large scale interventions. Although Botswana has a modern healthcare system, many people in Botswana still rely on traditional medicine to treat worm infections and schistosomiasis. In this study, ten plant species used by traditional medicinal practitioners against worm infections were collected and tested against Ancylostoma duodenale (Old World hookworm), Heligmosomoides polygyrus (roundworm of rodents), Necator americanus (New World hookworm), Schistosoma mansoni (blood fluke) [adult and newly transformed schistosomules (NTS)], Strongyloides ratti (threadworm), and Trichuris muris (nematode parasite of mice). Two plants, Laphangium luteoalbum and Commiphora pyaracanthoides displayed promising anthelmintic activity against NTS and adult S. mansoni respectively.

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