Structural and Functional Analysis of Extracts in Plants II

A special issue of Plants (ISSN 2223-7747). This special issue belongs to the section "Phytochemistry".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 February 2022) | Viewed by 125670

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
Department of Biotechnology, Chemistry and Pharmacy, DoE Department of Excellence 2018-2022, University of Siena, via Aldo Moro 2, 53100 Siena, Italy
Interests: drug discovery; natural products; bioactive molecules; functional foods; nutraceuticals; in vitro biological tests; carriers for bioactive molecules; bioactivity
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The journal Plants will be publishing a second volume of the Special Issue on Structural and Functional Analysis of Extracts in Plants. Plant extracts are extremely complex pools of phytochemicals and, together with their metabolites, are useful for a multitude of applications in different fields. Natural products from plants, either as pure compounds or as standardized extracts, provide unlimited opportunities for new drug leads, in the food market and in the cosmetic industry.

The use of plant extracts in all these areas depends on their bioactivity and, therefore, their composition, which is closely related to the extraction method. Extraction is in fact the most important step in plant extract preparations, and the use of different extraction techniques determines the bioactive compounds present. Since bioactive compounds occurring in plant material consist of multicomponent mixtures, their separation and identification are fundamental processes in the structural analysis of extracts. Finally, the analysis of plant extracts and/or purified bioactive compounds, involving the applications of common phytochemical and in vitro biological screening assays, is essential for the correlation of structure with function of extracts in order to identify their bioactivity for targeted applications.

Thus, considering the great interest in plant extracts, this second volume of Special Issue will continue to cover several aspects of their structural and functional analysis in order to correlate extraction techniques with the chemical composition of extracts and their bioactivity to elucidate the characteristics of plant-derived compounds that might be used as active substances in a wide variety of areas.

Dr. Stefania Lamponi
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • plant extracts
  • phytochemicals
  • natural food additives
  • bioactive compounds
  • in vitro biological screening

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Published Papers (38 papers)

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Research

12 pages, 2206 KiB  
Article
Design of an Herbal Preparation Composed by a Combination of Ruscus aculeatus L. and Vitis vinifera L. Extracts, Magnolol and Diosmetin to Address Chronic Venous Diseases through an Anti-Inflammatory Effect and AP-1 Modulation
by Raffaella Nocera, Daniela Eletto, Valentina Santoro, Valentina Parisi, Maria Laura Bellone, Marcello Izzo, Alessandra Tosco, Fabrizio Dal Piaz, Giuliana Donadio and Nunziatina De Tommasi
Plants 2023, 12(5), 1051; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants12051051 - 26 Feb 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2183
Abstract
Chronic venous disease (CVD) is an often underestimated inflammatory pathological condition that can have a serious impact on quality of life. Many therapies have been proposed to deal with CVD, but unfortunately the symptoms recur with increasing frequency and intensity as soon as [...] Read more.
Chronic venous disease (CVD) is an often underestimated inflammatory pathological condition that can have a serious impact on quality of life. Many therapies have been proposed to deal with CVD, but unfortunately the symptoms recur with increasing frequency and intensity as soon as treatments are stopped. Previous studies have shown that the common inflammatory transcription factor AP-1 (activator protein-1) and nuclear factor kappa-activated B-cell light chain enhancer (NF-kB) play key roles in the initiation and progression of this vascular dysfunction. The aim of this research was to develop a herbal product that acts simultaneously on different aspects of CVD-related inflammation. Based on the evidence that several natural components of plant origin are used to treat venous insufficiency and that magnolol has been suggested as a putative modulator of AP-1, two herbal preparations based on Ruscus aculeatus root extracts, and Vitis vinifera seed extracts, as well as diosmetin and magnolol, were established. A preliminary MTT-based evaluation of the possible cytotoxic effects of these preparations led to the selection of one of them, named DMRV-2, for further investigation. First, the anti-inflammatory efficacy of DMRV-2 was demonstrated by monitoring its ability to reduce cytokine secretion from endothelial cells subjected to LPS-induced inflammation. Furthermore, using a real-time PCR-based protocol, the effect of DMRV-2 on AP-1 expression and activity was also evaluated; the results obtained demonstrated that the incubation of the endothelial cells with this preparation almost completely nullified the effects exerted by the treatment with LPS on AP-1. Similar results were also obtained for NF-kB, whose activation was evaluated by monitoring its distribution between the cytosol and the nucleus of endothelial cells after the different treatments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Structural and Functional Analysis of Extracts in Plants II)
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13 pages, 1339 KiB  
Article
Crataegus oxyacantha Extract as a Biostimulant to Enhance Tolerance to Salinity in Tomato Plants
by Imane Naboulsi, Reda Ben Mrid, Abdelhamid Ennoury, Zakia Zouaoui, Mohamed Nhiri, Widad Ben Bakrim, Abdelaziz Yasri and Aziz Aboulmouhajir
Plants 2022, 11(10), 1283; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11101283 - 11 May 2022
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 2763
Abstract
Salinity is a severe abiotic problem that has harmful impacts on agriculture. Recently, biostimulants were defined as bioprotectant materials that promote plant growth and improve productivity under various stress conditions. In this study, we investigated the effect of Crataegus oxyacantha extract as a [...] Read more.
Salinity is a severe abiotic problem that has harmful impacts on agriculture. Recently, biostimulants were defined as bioprotectant materials that promote plant growth and improve productivity under various stress conditions. In this study, we investigated the effect of Crataegus oxyacantha extract as a biostimulant on tomato plants (Solanum lycopersicum) grown under salt stress. Concentrations of 20 mg/L, 30 mg/L, and 70 mg/L of C. oxyacantha extract were applied to tomato plants that were grown under salt stress. The results indicated that plants that were treated with C. oxyacantha extract had a higher ability to tolerate salt stress, as demonstrated by a significant (p < 0.05) increase in plant growth and photosynthetic pigment contents, in addition to a significant increase in tomato soluble sugars and amino acids compared to the control plants. In the stressed tomato plants, malondialdehyde increased and then decreased significantly with the different concentrations of C. oxyacantha extract. Furthermore, there was a significant improvement in the antioxidant enzyme activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione S-transferase (GST), and glutathione reductase (GR) in the stressed plants, especially after treatment with 70 mg/L of the extract. Overall, our results suggest that C. oxyacantha extract could be a promising biostimulant for treating tomato plants under salinity stress. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Structural and Functional Analysis of Extracts in Plants II)
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23 pages, 3052 KiB  
Article
Wild-Grown and Cultivated Glechoma hederacea L.: Chemical Composition and Potential for Cultivation in Organic Farming Conditions
by Inga Sile, Valerija Krizhanovska, Ilva Nakurte, Ieva Mezaka, Laura Kalane, Jevgenijs Filipovs, Alekss Vecvanags, Osvalds Pugovics, Solveiga Grinberga, Maija Dambrova and Arta Kronberga
Plants 2022, 11(6), 819; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11060819 - 18 Mar 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2667
Abstract
Glechoma hederacea L. is a medicinal plant that is known in traditional medicine for its anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antiviral, and anticancer properties. This study evaluated the potential for commercial production of G. hederacea and compared the chemical composition and activity of 70% ethanol extracts [...] Read more.
Glechoma hederacea L. is a medicinal plant that is known in traditional medicine for its anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antiviral, and anticancer properties. This study evaluated the potential for commercial production of G. hederacea and compared the chemical composition and activity of 70% ethanol extracts and steam-distilled essential oils from wild-grown and cultivated G. hederacea collected in different harvesting periods. The main compounds identified in the 70% ethanol extracts were phenolic acids (chlorogenic and rosmarinic acids) and flavonoid O-glycosides. The essential oil varied in the three accessions in the range of 0.32–2.98 mL/kg−1 of dry weight. The extracts possessed potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties in LPS-treated bone-marrow-derived macrophages. The results of flow cytometry show that extracts from different vegetation periods reduced the conversion of macrophages to the proinflammatory phenotype M1. The chemical composition varied the most with the different harvesting periods, and the most suitable periods were the flowering and vegetative phases for the polyphenolic compounds and essential oils, respectively. G. hederacea can be successfully grown under organic farming conditions, and cultivation does not significantly affect the chemical composition and biological activity compared to wild-grown plants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Structural and Functional Analysis of Extracts in Plants II)
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23 pages, 1908 KiB  
Article
Antioxidant and Antiproliferation Activities of Lemon Verbena (Aloysia citrodora): An In Vitro and In Vivo Study
by Hasan M. Rashid, Asma Ismail Mahmod, Fatma U. Afifi and Wamidh H. Talib
Plants 2022, 11(6), 785; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11060785 - 16 Mar 2022
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 4953
Abstract
Aloysia citrodora (Verbenaceae) is traditionally used to treat various diseases, including bronchitis, insomnia, anxiety, digestive, and heart problems. In this study, this plant’s antioxidant and anti-proliferation effects were evaluated. In addition to volatiles extraction, different solvent extracts were prepared. The GC-MS, LC-MS analysis [...] Read more.
Aloysia citrodora (Verbenaceae) is traditionally used to treat various diseases, including bronchitis, insomnia, anxiety, digestive, and heart problems. In this study, this plant’s antioxidant and anti-proliferation effects were evaluated. In addition to volatiles extraction, different solvent extracts were prepared. The GC-MS, LC-MS analysis and the Foline-Ciocalteu (F-C) method were used to investigate the phytochemical components of the plant. MTT assay was used to measure the antiproliferative ability for each extract. Antioxidant activity was determined using the 2,2-diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. In in vivo anti-proliferation experiments, Balb/C mice were inoculated with tumor cells and IP-injected with ethyl acetate extract of A. citrodora. After treatment, a significant reduction in tumor size (57.97%) and undetected tumors (44.44%) were obtained in treated mice, demonstrating the antiproliferative efficacy of the ethyl acetate extract. Besides, ethanol extract revealed the most potent radical scavenging effect. The findings of this study displayed that A. citrodora has promising cytotoxic and antioxidant activities. Still, further testing is required to investigate the extract’s chemical composition to understand its mechanisms of action. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Structural and Functional Analysis of Extracts in Plants II)
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24 pages, 6755 KiB  
Article
A Major Diplotaxis harra-Derived Bioflavonoid Glycoside as a Protective Agent against Chemically Induced Neurotoxicity and Parkinson’s Models; In Silico Target Prediction; and Biphasic HPTLC-Based Quantification
by Atallah F. Ahmed, Zhi-Hong Wen, Ahmed H. Bakheit, Omer A. Basudan, Hazem A. Ghabbour, Abdullah Al-Ahmari and Chien-Wei Feng
Plants 2022, 11(5), 648; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11050648 - 27 Feb 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 3409
Abstract
Oxidative stress and chronic inflammation have a role in developing neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson’s disease (PD) and inflammatory movement disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis that affect millions of populations. In searching for antioxidant and anti-inflammatory molecules from natural sources that can counteract [...] Read more.
Oxidative stress and chronic inflammation have a role in developing neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson’s disease (PD) and inflammatory movement disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis that affect millions of populations. In searching for antioxidant and anti-inflammatory molecules from natural sources that can counteract neurodegenerative diseases and arthritis, the flavonoid-rich extract of Diplotaxis harra (DHE) was selected based on its in vitro antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. DHE could inhibit the inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expressions in the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages from 100% to the level of 28.51 ± 18.67 and 30.19 ± 5.00% at 20 μg/mL, respectively. A TLC bioautography of DHE fractions using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl radical (DPPH) led to the isolation of a major antioxidant compound which was identified by X-ray diffraction analysis as isorhamnetin-3-O-β-D-glucoside (IR3G). IR3G also exhibited a potent anti-inflammatory activity, particularly by suppressing the upregulation of iNOS expression, similar to that of dexamethasone (DEX) at 10 μM to the level of 35.96 ± 7.80 and 29.34 ± 6.34%, respectively. Moreover, IR3G displayed a strong neuroprotectivity (>60% at 1.0−4–1.0−3 μM) against 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-challenged SHSY5Y neuroblastoma, an in vitro model of dopaminergic neurons for Parkinson’s disease (PD) research. Accordingly, the in vivo anti-Parkinson potentiality was evaluated, where it was found that IR3G successfully reversed the 6-OHDA-induced locomotor deficit in a zebrafish model. A study of molecular docking and molecular dynamic (MD) simulation of IR3G and its aglycone isorhamnetin (IR) against human acetylcholine esterase (AChE), monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B), and Polo-like kinase-2 (PLK2) was performed and further outlined a putative mechanism in modulating neurodegenerative diseases such as PD. The free radical scavenging, anti-inflammatory through anti-iNOS and anti-COX-2 expression, and neuroprotective activities assessed in this study would present partial evidence for the potentiality of D. harra-derived IR3G as a promising natural therapeutic agent against neurodegenerative diseases and inflammatory arthritis. Finally, a biphasic HPTLC method was developed to estimate the biomarker IR3G in D. harra quantitatively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Structural and Functional Analysis of Extracts in Plants II)
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21 pages, 3198 KiB  
Article
Optimization of Deep Eutectic Solvent Extraction of Phenolic Acids and Tannins from Alchemilla vulgaris L.
by Martina Jakovljević Kovač, Stela Jokić, Igor Jerković and Maja Molnar
Plants 2022, 11(4), 474; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11040474 - 9 Feb 2022
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 2931
Abstract
Alchemilla vulgaris L. is a good source of antioxidant components with an emphasis on phenolic acids and tannins. In this study, gallic acid, ellagic acid, and hydrolyzable tannins (HT) were extracted from this plant with different deep eutectic solvents (DESs), varying the amount [...] Read more.
Alchemilla vulgaris L. is a good source of antioxidant components with an emphasis on phenolic acids and tannins. In this study, gallic acid, ellagic acid, and hydrolyzable tannins (HT) were extracted from this plant with different deep eutectic solvents (DESs), varying the amount of added H2O, temperature and extraction time. Seventeen DESs (n = 3) were used for the extraction, of which choline chloride:urea (1:2) proved to be the most suitable. The selection of the best solvent was followed by the examination of the influence of the extraction type and parameters using response surface methodology (RSM). Gallic acid content was in the range of 0.00–1.89 µg mg−1, ellagic acid content was 0.00–12.76 µg mg−1 and hydrolyzable tannin (HT) content was 3.06–181.26 µgTAE mg−1, depending on the used technique and the extraction conditions. According to the results, extraction by stirring and heating was the most suitable since the highest amounts of gallic acid, ellagic acid, and HT were extracted, and the obtained optimal values using response surface methodology (RSM) are confirmed by experimentally obtained values. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Structural and Functional Analysis of Extracts in Plants II)
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17 pages, 2422 KiB  
Article
Inhibition of α-Glucosidase, Acetylcholinesterase, and Nitric Oxide Production by Phytochemicals Isolated from Millettia speciosa—In Vitro and Molecular Docking Studies
by Nguyen Ngoc Tuan, Huong Nguyen Thi, Chau Le Thi My, Tang Xuan Hai, Hieu Tran Trung, Anh Nguyen Thi Kim, Thanh Nguyen Tan, Tan Le Van, Cuong Quoc Nguyen, Quang De Tran, Ping-Chung Kuo, Quang Le Dang and Tran Dinh Thang
Plants 2022, 11(3), 388; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11030388 - 30 Jan 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 3639
Abstract
The phytochemical constituents from the roots of Millettia speciosa were investigated by chromatographic isolation, and their chemical structures were characterized using the MS and NMR spectroscopic methods. A total of 10 compounds, including six triterpenoids, two flavonoids, and two phenolic compounds, were identified [...] Read more.
The phytochemical constituents from the roots of Millettia speciosa were investigated by chromatographic isolation, and their chemical structures were characterized using the MS and NMR spectroscopic methods. A total of 10 compounds, including six triterpenoids, two flavonoids, and two phenolic compounds, were identified from the roots of M. speciosa. Out of the isolated compounds, eight showed inhibitory effects on NO production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells, with IC50 values ranging from 43.9 to 449.5 µg/mL. Ursane-type triterpenes significantly suppressed NO production compared to the remaining compounds. In addition, these compounds also exhibited remarkable inhibitory effects on α-glucosidase. Among the tested compounds, 4, 5, and 10 exhibited excellent α-glucosidase inhibition, with IC50 values ranging from 1.1 to 2.2 µg/mL. Almost all of the test compounds showed little or no acetylcholinesterase inhibition, except for 5, which showed moderate anti-acetylcholinesterase activity in vitro. The molecular docking study of α-glucosidase inhibition by 35 and 10 was conducted to observe the interactions of these molecules with the enzyme. Compounds 4, 5, and 10 exhibited a better binding affinity toward the targeted receptor and the H-bond interactions located at the entrance of the enzyme active site pocket in comparison to those of 3 and the positive control acarbose. Our findings evidence the pharmacological potential of this species and suggest that the phytochemicals derived from the roots of M. speciosa may be promising lead molecules for further studies on the development of anti-inflammatory and anti-diabetes drugs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Structural and Functional Analysis of Extracts in Plants II)
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13 pages, 2342 KiB  
Article
Tetracera loureiri Extract Regulates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammatory Response Via Nuclear Factor-κB and Mitogen Activated Protein Kinase Signaling Pathways
by Jung A Lee, Ju Young Shin, Seong Su Hong, Young-Rak Cho, Ju-Hyoung Park, Dong-Wan Seo, Joa Sub Oh, Jae-Shin Kang, Jae Ho Lee and Eun-Kyung Ahn
Plants 2022, 11(3), 284; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11030284 - 21 Jan 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2570
Abstract
Tetracera loureiri (T. loureiri) is a woody climber inhabiting open deciduous or evergreen forests in Southeast Asia. A decoction comprising its stem and other herbs is a traditional Thai remedy for fatigue and jaundice, as well as to promote overall health. [...] Read more.
Tetracera loureiri (T. loureiri) is a woody climber inhabiting open deciduous or evergreen forests in Southeast Asia. A decoction comprising its stem and other herbs is a traditional Thai remedy for fatigue and jaundice, as well as to promote overall health. Anti-inflammatory effects induced by T. loureiri extract have not been reported. In this study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effect of an ethanol extract of T. loureiri (ETL) on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory response in RAW264.7 macrophages. We found that ETL treatment inhibited the production of nitric oxide (NO) in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells, without affecting cell viability. The effect of ETL on the expression of various pro-inflammatory mediators was analyzed using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), Western blotting, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). We observed that ETL inhibited the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) at the mRNA and protein levels and decreased the production of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) by COX-2 in RAW264.7 macrophages. ETL dose-dependently reduced the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines including tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in LPS-induced RAW264.7 cells, in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, ETL suppressed the LPS-induced nuclear translocation of the nuclear factor, NF-κB. Additionally, ETL was found to inhibit the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK), such as extracellular signal-regulated kinase, c-Jun-N-terminal kinase, and p38 MAPK. In conclusion, our findings demonstrate that ETL inhibits the expression of pro-inflammatory mediators and cytokines, thereby downregulating NF-κB and MAPK signaling pathways in LPS-stimulated macrophages, Consequently, ETL is a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment of inflammatory diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Structural and Functional Analysis of Extracts in Plants II)
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17 pages, 892 KiB  
Article
Application of Moringa Leaf Extract as a Seed Priming Agent Enhances Growth and Physiological Attributes of Rice Seedlings Cultivated under Water Deficit Regime
by Shahbaz Khan, Danish Ibrar, Saqib Bashir, Nabila Rashid, Zuhair Hasnain, Muhammad Nawaz, Abdullah Ahmed Al-Ghamdi, Mohamed S. Elshikh, Helena Dvořáčková and Jan Dvořáček
Plants 2022, 11(3), 261; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11030261 - 19 Jan 2022
Cited by 25 | Viewed by 4151
Abstract
Population growth, food shortages, climate change and water scarcity are some of the frightening challenges being confronted in today’s world. Water deficit or drought stress has been considered a severe limitation for the productivity of rice, a widely popular nutritive cereal crop and [...] Read more.
Population growth, food shortages, climate change and water scarcity are some of the frightening challenges being confronted in today’s world. Water deficit or drought stress has been considered a severe limitation for the productivity of rice, a widely popular nutritive cereal crop and the staple food of a large portion of the population. A key stage in crop growth is seed emergence, which is mostly constrained by abiotic elements such as high temperatures, soil crusting and low water potential, which are responsible for poor stand establishment. Seed priming is a pre-sowing treatment of seeds that primes them to a physiological state that allows them to emerge more proficiently. The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential of leaf extracts from local and exotic moringa landraces as seed priming agents in rice cultivated under water deficit (75% field capacity) and control conditions (100% field capacity). Rice seeds were placed in an aerated solution of moringa leaf extract (MLE) at 3% from three obtained landraces (Faisalabad, Multan and an exotic landrace of India). The results obtained from the experimentation show that the water deficit regime adversely affected the studied indicators including emergence and growth attributes as well as physiological parameters. Among the priming agents, MLE from the Faisalabad landrace significantly improved the speed and spread of emergence of rice seedlings (time to start emergence at 23%, emergence index at 75%, mean emergence time at 3.58% and final emergence percentage at 46%). All the priming agents enhanced the growth, photosynthetic pigments, gas exchange parameters and antioxidant activities, particularly under the water deficit regime, but the maximum improvement was recorded by the MLE from the Faisalabad landrace. Therefore, the MLE of the Faisalabad landrace can be productively used to boost the seedling establishment and growth of rice grown under normal and water deficit conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Structural and Functional Analysis of Extracts in Plants II)
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15 pages, 4285 KiB  
Article
A Descriptive Chemical Composition of Concentrated Bud Macerates through an Optimized SPE-HPLC-UV-MS2 Method—Application to Alnus glutinosa, Ribes nigrum, Rosa canina, Rosmarinus officinalis and Tilia tomentosa
by Thomas Charpentier, Séverine Boisard, Anne-Marie Le Ray, Dimitri Bréard, Amélie Chabrier, Hélène Esselin, David Guilet, Christophe Ripoll and Pascal Richomme
Plants 2022, 11(2), 144; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11020144 - 6 Jan 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2455
Abstract
Concentrated bud macerates (CBMs) are obtained from meristematic tissues such as buds and young shoots by maceration in a solvent composed of glycerin, water and ethanol (1/1/1/, v/v). Their traditional utilization in gemmotherapy has gained interest in the past years, [...] Read more.
Concentrated bud macerates (CBMs) are obtained from meristematic tissues such as buds and young shoots by maceration in a solvent composed of glycerin, water and ethanol (1/1/1/, v/v). Their traditional utilization in gemmotherapy has gained interest in the past years, and the knowledge of their chemical characterization can provide commercial arguments, particularly to secure their quality control. Therefore, an optimized method for phytochemical analysis including glycerol removal by a preliminary solid phase extraction (SPE) followed by compound identification using high performance liquid chromatography coupled with ultra-violet and tandem mass detectors (HPLC-UV-MS2) was developed. This method was applied on 5 CBMs obtained from Alnus glutinosa, Ribesnigrum, Rosmarinus officinalis, Rosa canina and Tilia tomentosa in order to determinate their chemical composition. Their antioxidant effects were also investigated by radical scavenging activity assays (DPPH and ORAC). Glycerol removal improved the resolution of HPLC chemical profiles and allowed us to perform TLC antioxidant screening. Our approach permitted the identification of 57 compounds distributed in eight major classes, three of them being common to all macerates including nucleosides, phenolic acids and glycosylated flavonoids. Quantification of the later class as a rutin equivalent (RE) showed a great disparity between Rosa canina macerate (809 mg RE/L), and the other ones (from 175 to 470 mg RE/L). DPPH and ORAC assays confirmed the great activity of Rosa canina (4857 and 6479 μmol TE/g of dry matter, respectively). Finally, phytochemical and antioxidant analysis of CBMs strengthened their phytomedicinal interest in the gemmotherapy field. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Structural and Functional Analysis of Extracts in Plants II)
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12 pages, 1580 KiB  
Article
Pipes and Potions: Testing the Efficacy of European Folk Preparation Methods for Anticholinergic Solanaceae Plants
by Karsten Fatur, Matjaž Ravnikar, Vitjan Fras and Samo Kreft
Plants 2022, 11(1), 126; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11010126 - 4 Jan 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2252
Abstract
The present article sought to evaluate the efficiency of various folk preparation methods commonly used in Europe for employing anticholinergic Solanaceae plants. The study aimed to uncover which folk methods were effective for the extraction of the anticholinergic tropane alkaloids of these plants, [...] Read more.
The present article sought to evaluate the efficiency of various folk preparation methods commonly used in Europe for employing anticholinergic Solanaceae plants. The study aimed to uncover which folk methods were effective for the extraction of the anticholinergic tropane alkaloids of these plants, atropine and scopolamine. The folk extractions that were tested sought to simulate the preparation of teas, cold-water infusions, unguents, tinctures, fortified wines, and smoking. All preparation types and a control were then put through an extraction process to see what amount of the alkaloids had been maintained. These extractions were then analysed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Cold- and hot-water preparations, tinctures, and fortified wines all proved to be effective means of extracting atropine and scopolamine from plant material under conditions seen in folk usage. Smoking and the oil-based unguent, however, yielded no alkaloids, suggesting a lack of efficiency for these preparations, a problem with our methodology, or possible chemical changes and losses associated with the preparation procedure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Structural and Functional Analysis of Extracts in Plants II)
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15 pages, 1243 KiB  
Article
Enzymatic and Microwave Pretreatments and Supercritical CO2 Extraction for Improving Extraction Efficiency and Quality of Origanum vulgare L. spp. hirtum Extracts
by Jelena Vladić, Ana Rita C. Duarte, Sanja Radman, Siniša Simić and Igor Jerković
Plants 2022, 11(1), 54; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11010054 - 25 Dec 2021
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2889
Abstract
The goal of the study was to establish a procedure for improving the efficiency of supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) extraction of Origanum vulgare L. spp. hirtum (Greek oregano) and enhancing the quality of obtained extracts. Microwave and enzymatic pretreatments of the [...] Read more.
The goal of the study was to establish a procedure for improving the efficiency of supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) extraction of Origanum vulgare L. spp. hirtum (Greek oregano) and enhancing the quality of obtained extracts. Microwave and enzymatic pretreatments of the plant material were applied prior to the scCO2 extraction. It was determined that the microwave pretreatment with irradiation power 360 W during 2 min accelerated the extraction of lipophilic compounds and provided a twofold higher extraction yield compared to the control. Moreover, this pretreatment also led to an increase in oxygenated monoterpenes content and the most dominant component carvacrol, as well as the extracts’ antioxidant activity. The enzymatic pretreatment caused a significant increase in the extraction yield and the attainment of the extract with the most potent antioxidant properties. Coupling the pretreatments with scCO2 extraction improves the process of obtaining high value lipophilic products of oregano in terms of utilization of the plant material, acceleration of the extraction with the possibility to adjust its selectivity and quality of extracts, and enhancement of biological activity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Structural and Functional Analysis of Extracts in Plants II)
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18 pages, 2448 KiB  
Article
In Vitro Evaluation of Biological Activities and Phytochemical Analysis of Different Solvent Extracts of Punica granatum L. (Pomegranate) Peels
by Mohamed Taha Yassin, Ashraf Abdel-Fattah Mostafa and Abdulaziz Abdulrahman Al Askar
Plants 2021, 10(12), 2742; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10122742 - 13 Dec 2021
Cited by 33 | Viewed by 4492
Abstract
Antimicrobial resistance is a public health concern resulting in high rates of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Furthermore, a high incidence of food poisoning diseases besides harmful implications of applying synthetic food additives in food preservation necessitates fabrication of safe food preservatives. Additionally, damaging [...] Read more.
Antimicrobial resistance is a public health concern resulting in high rates of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Furthermore, a high incidence of food poisoning diseases besides harmful implications of applying synthetic food additives in food preservation necessitates fabrication of safe food preservatives. Additionally, damaging effects of free radicals on human health has been reported to be involved in the incidence of serious diseases, including cancer, diabetes and cardiovascular diseases; hence, finding safe sources of antioxidants is vital. Therefore, the present study was carried out to assess the antibacterial, antiradical and carcinopreventive efficacy of different solvent extracts of pomegranate peels. Agar disk diffusion assay revealed that Staphylococcus aureus, MRSA, E. coli and S. typhimurium were highly susceptible to methanolic fraction of Punica granatum L. peels recording inhibition zones of 23.7, 21.8, 15.6 and 14.7 mm respectively. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of the methanolic fraction of Punica granatum L. peels against S. aureus were 0.125 and 0.250 mg/mL, respectively. In addition, the pomegranate acetonic and methanolic fractions revealed an impressive antiradical efficiency against DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) radical recording radical scavenging activity percentages of 86.9 and 79.4%, respectively. In this regard, the acetonic fraction of pomegranate peels revealed the highest anti-proliferative efficiency after 48 h incubation against MCF7 cancer cells recording IC50 of 8.15 µg/mL, while the methanolic extract was highly selective against transformed cancer cells compared to normal cell line recording selectivity index of 5.93. GC–MS results demonstrated that 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural was the main active component of methanolic and acetonic extracts of pomegranate peels recording relative percentages of 37.55 and 28.84% respectively. The study recommends application of pomegranate peel extracts in the biofabrication of safe food preservatives, antioxidants and carcinopreventive agents. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Structural and Functional Analysis of Extracts in Plants II)
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9 pages, 3798 KiB  
Communication
Alkaloid Profiling and Cholinesterase Inhibitory Potential of Crinum × amabile Donn. (Amaryllidaceae) Collected in Ecuador
by Luciana R. Tallini, Angelo Carrasco, Karen Acosta León, Diego Vinueza, Jaume Bastida and Nora H. Oleas
Plants 2021, 10(12), 2686; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10122686 - 7 Dec 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2788
Abstract
Natural products are one of the main sources for developing new drugs. The alkaloids obtained from the plant family Amaryllidaceae have interesting structures and biological activities, such as acetylcholinesterase inhibition potential, which is one of the mechanisms used for the palliative treatment of [...] Read more.
Natural products are one of the main sources for developing new drugs. The alkaloids obtained from the plant family Amaryllidaceae have interesting structures and biological activities, such as acetylcholinesterase inhibition potential, which is one of the mechanisms used for the palliative treatment of Alzheimer’s disease symptoms. Herein we report the alkaloidal profile of bulbs and leaves extracts of Crinum × amabile collected in Ecuador and their in vitro inhibitory activity on acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) enzymes. Using Gas Chromatography coupled to Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS), we identified 12 Amaryllidaceae alkaloids out of 19 compounds detected in this species. The extracts from bulbs and leaves showed great inhibitory activity against AChE and BuChE, highlighting the potential of Amaryllidaceae family in the search of bioactive molecules. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Structural and Functional Analysis of Extracts in Plants II)
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14 pages, 1863 KiB  
Article
Identification and Content of Astaxanthin and Its Esters from Microalgae Haematococcus pluvialis by HPLC-DAD and LC-QTOF-MS after Extraction with Various Solvents
by Biljana Todorović, Veno Jaša Grujić, Andreja Urbanek Krajnc, Roman Kranvogl and Jana Ambrožič-Dolinšek
Plants 2021, 10(11), 2413; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10112413 - 9 Nov 2021
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 4315
Abstract
Haematococcus pluvialis, a unicellular green microalga that produces a secondary metabolite under stress conditions, bears one of the most potent antioxidants, namely xanthophyll astaxanthin. The aim of our study was to determine the content of astaxanthin and its esterified forms using three [...] Read more.
Haematococcus pluvialis, a unicellular green microalga that produces a secondary metabolite under stress conditions, bears one of the most potent antioxidants, namely xanthophyll astaxanthin. The aim of our study was to determine the content of astaxanthin and its esterified forms using three different solvents—methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), hexane isopropanol (HEX -IPA) and acetone (ACE)—and to identify them by using high performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detection and the quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD and LC-QTOF-MS) technique. We identified eleven astaxanthin monoesters, which accounted for 78.8% of the total astaxanthin pool, six astaxanthin diesters (20.5% of total), while free astaxanthin represented the smallest fraction (0.7%). Astaxanthin monoesters (C16:2, C16:1, C16:0), which were the major bioactive compounds in the H. pluvialis samples studied, ranged from 10.2 to 11.8 mg g−1 DW. Astaxanthin diesters (C18:4/C18:3, C18:1/C18:3) were detected in the range between 2.3 and 2.6 mg g−1 DW. All three solvents were found to be effective for extraction, but MTBE and hexane-isopropanol extracted the greatest amount of free bioactive astaxanthin. Furthermore, MTBE extracted more low-chain astaxanthin monoesters (C16), and hexane-isopropanol extracted more long-chain monoesters (C18 and above) and more diesters. We can conclude that MTBE is the solvent of choice for the extraction of monoesters and hexane-isopropanol for diesters. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Structural and Functional Analysis of Extracts in Plants II)
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14 pages, 3543 KiB  
Article
Alleviation of Malathion Toxicity Effect by Coffea arabica L. Oil and Olea europaea L. Oil on Lipid Profile: Physiological and In Silico Study
by Khalid M. Al-Asmari, Isam M. Abu Zeid, Hisham N. Altayb, Atef M. Al-Attar and Mohammed Y. Alomar
Plants 2021, 10(11), 2314; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10112314 - 27 Oct 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2338
Abstract
The community health plans commonly use malathion (MAL), an organophosphate pesticide (OP), to eliminate pathogenic insects. The objective of the present research is to evaluate the consequences of Coffea arabica L. oil and Olea europaea L. oil on MAL-intoxicated male rats. Six equal [...] Read more.
The community health plans commonly use malathion (MAL), an organophosphate pesticide (OP), to eliminate pathogenic insects. The objective of the present research is to evaluate the consequences of Coffea arabica L. oil and Olea europaea L. oil on MAL-intoxicated male rats. Six equal groups of animals were used for conducting this study (n = 10). Animals in group one were designated as control, animals belonging to group two were exposed to MAL in the measure of hundred mg per kg BW (body weight) for forty-nine days (seven weeks), rats in the third and fourth groups were administered with 400 mg/kg BW of Coffea arabica L. and Olea europaea L. oils, respectively, and the same amount of MAL as given to the second group. Groups five and six were administered with the same amount of Coffea arabica L. oil and Olea europaea L. oil as given to group three. Exposure of rats to 100 mg/kg body weight of MAL resulted in statistical alteration of the serum lipid profile. A marked decline was noticed in the severe changes of these blood parameters when MAL-intoxicated rats were treated with Coffea arabica L. oil and Olea europaea L. oil. Two compounds from Coffea arabica L. oil (Chlorogenic acid) and Olea europaea L. oil (Oleuropein) demonstrated good interaction with xanthine oxidase (XO) and 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGR) enzymes that are associated with cholesterol production. The present study indicated that Coffea arabica L. oil and Olea europaea L. oil could be considered prospective and potential healing agents against metabolic conditions induced by MAL. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Structural and Functional Analysis of Extracts in Plants II)
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10 pages, 1718 KiB  
Article
Aster glehni F. Schmidt Extract Modulates the Activities of HMG-CoA Reductase and Fatty Acid Synthase
by Hyunbeom Lee, Hyoung Ja Kim, Hyungi Chae, Na Eun Yoon and Byung Hwa Jung
Plants 2021, 10(11), 2287; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10112287 - 25 Oct 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1941
Abstract
Aster glehni F. Schmidt (AG), is a natural product known to have anti-obesity effects, but the mechanism underlying these effects is not well documented. We hypothesized that AG may have inhibitory effects on enzymes related to lipid accumulation. Herein, AG fractions were tested [...] Read more.
Aster glehni F. Schmidt (AG), is a natural product known to have anti-obesity effects, but the mechanism underlying these effects is not well documented. We hypothesized that AG may have inhibitory effects on enzymes related to lipid accumulation. Herein, AG fractions were tested against HMG-CoA reductase (HMGR) and fatty acid synthase (FAS), two important enzymes involved in cholesterol and fatty acid synthesis, respectively. We found that dicaffeoylquinic acid (DCQA) methyl esters present in AG are largely responsible for the inhibition of HMGR and FAS. Since free DCQA is a major form present in AG, we demonstrated that a simple methylation of the AG extract could increase the overall inhibitory effects against those enzymes. Through this simple process, we were able to increase the inhibitory effect by 150%. We believe that our processed AG effectively modulates the HMGR and FAS activities, providing promising therapeutic potential for cholesterol- and lipid-lowering effects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Structural and Functional Analysis of Extracts in Plants II)
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10 pages, 4880 KiB  
Article
Cytotoxic and Genotoxic Evaluation of the Aqueous and Hydroalcoholic Leaf and Bark Extracts of Crataegus oxyacantha in Murine Model
by Fany Renata Aguilera-Rodríguez, Ana Lourdes Zamora-Perez, Clara Luz Galván-Moreno, Rosalinda Gutiérrez-Hernández, Claudia Araceli Reyes Estrada, Edgar L. Esparza-Ibarra and Blanca Patricia Lazalde-Ramos
Plants 2021, 10(10), 2217; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10102217 - 19 Oct 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1796
Abstract
Crataegus oxyacantha has been mainly used in traditional medicine for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. However, its safety profile has not been fully established, since only the genotoxic effects of C. oxyacantha fruit have been described. Therefore, the objective of this work was [...] Read more.
Crataegus oxyacantha has been mainly used in traditional medicine for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. However, its safety profile has not been fully established, since only the genotoxic effects of C. oxyacantha fruit have been described. Therefore, the objective of this work was evaluating the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of the aqueous and hydroalcoholic leaf and bark extracts of C. oxyacantha by means of the micronucleus test in a murine model. Doses of 2000, 1000, and 500 mg/kg of both extracts were administered orally for 5 days in mice of the Balb-C strain. Peripheral blood smears were performed at 0, 24, 48, 72, and 96 h after each administration. The number of polychromatic erythrocytes (PCEs), micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MNPCEs), and micronucleated erythrocytes (MNEs) was determined at the different sampling times. Our results showed that the leaf and bark of C. oxyacantha increase the number of MNEs at the 2000 mg/kg dose, and only the aqueous leaf extract decreases the number of PCEs at the same dose. Therefore, the aqueous and hydroalcoholic leaf and bark extracts of C. oxyacantha showed genotoxic effects, and only the aqueous leaf extract exhibited cytotoxic effects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Structural and Functional Analysis of Extracts in Plants II)
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11 pages, 699 KiB  
Article
Identification of Flavonoids in the Leaves of Eranthis longistipitata (Ranunculaceae) by Liquid Chromatography with High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry (LC-HRMS)
by Vera A. Kostikova, Alexander A. Chernonosov, Alexander A. Kuznetsov, Natalia V. Petrova, Denis A. Krivenko, Olga A. Chernysheva, Wei Wang and Andrey S. Erst
Plants 2021, 10(10), 2146; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10102146 - 10 Oct 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 3042
Abstract
Eranthis longistipitata Regel is an endemic plant of Central Asia. The flavonoid profile of E. longistipitata leaves was studied by mass spectrometry for the first time (natural populations of Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan, in 70% aqueous–ethanol extracts by liquid chromatography coupled with high-resolution mass [...] Read more.
Eranthis longistipitata Regel is an endemic plant of Central Asia. The flavonoid profile of E. longistipitata leaves was studied by mass spectrometry for the first time (natural populations of Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan, in 70% aqueous–ethanol extracts by liquid chromatography coupled with high-resolution mass spectrometry). Mass spectrometry revealed 18 flavonoid compounds. Flavonols featured the highest diversity, and 10 such substances were identified: 2 free aglycones (quercetin and kaempferol), 6 quercetin glycosides (peltatoside, hyperoside, reynoutrin, quercetin 3-sambubioside, rutin, and isoquercitrin), and 2 kaempferol glycosides (juglalin and trifolin). Two flavans (cianidanol and auriculoside), two hydroxyflavanones (6-methoxytaxifolin and aromadendrin), and one C-glycoside flavone—carlinoside—were identified. Dihydroxychalcones aspalathin, phloridzin, and phloretin were found too. Levels of rutin, quercetin, kaempferol, and hyperoside were confirmed by means of standards and high-performance liquid chromatography. Rutin concentration was the highest among all other identified flavonoid compounds: in the leaf samples from Kyrgyzstan, it ranged from 2.46 to 3.20 mg/g, and in those from Uzbekistan, from 1.50 to 3.01 mg/g. The diversity of flavonoid compounds in E. longistipitata leaves is probably due to external ecological and geographic factors and adaptive mechanisms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Structural and Functional Analysis of Extracts in Plants II)
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21 pages, 7180 KiB  
Article
Anti-Proliferative, Cytotoxic and Antioxidant Properties of the Methanolic Extracts of Five Saudi Arabian Flora with Folkloric Medicinal Use: Aizoon canariense, Citrullus colocynthis, Maerua crassifolia, Rhazya stricta and Tribulus macropterus
by Ahmed R. Yonbawi, Hossam M. Abdallah, Faris A. Alkhilaiwi, Abdulrahman E. Koshak and Charles M. Heard
Plants 2021, 10(10), 2073; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10102073 - 30 Sep 2021
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2591
Abstract
Saudi Arabian flora have a history of use as folklore remedies, although such properties have yet to be explored rigorously, and the safety of such remedies should be assessed. This study determined the anti-proliferative, cytotoxic, and antioxidant properties of extracts of the following [...] Read more.
Saudi Arabian flora have a history of use as folklore remedies, although such properties have yet to be explored rigorously, and the safety of such remedies should be assessed. This study determined the anti-proliferative, cytotoxic, and antioxidant properties of extracts of the following five plants indigenous to Saudi Arabia: Aizoon canariense, Citrullus colocynthis, Maerua crassifolia, Rhazya stricta, and Tribulus macropterus. The aerial parts of the five plants were collected from various locations of the western and northern regions of Saudi Arabia and used to prepare methanolic extracts. Three approaches were used to determine the proliferation and cytotoxicity effects using HaCaT cells: MTT, FACS, and confocal microscopy. Meanwhile, two approaches were used to study the antioxidant potential: DPPH (acellular) and RosGlo (cellular, using HaCaT cells). C. colocynthis possessed anti-proliferative activity against HaCaT cells, showing a significant decrease in cell proliferation from 24 h onwards, while R. stricta showed significant inhibition of cell growth at 120 and 168 h. The IC50 values were determined for both plant extracts for C. colocynthis, with 17.32 and 16.91 µg/mL after five and seven days of treatment, respectively, and for R. stricta, with 175 and 105.3 µg/mL after five and seven days of treatment. R. stricta and M. crassifolia exhibited the highest capacities for scavenging the DPPH radical with IC50 values of 335 and 448 µg/mL, respectively. The subsequent ROS-Glo H2O2 assay confirmed these findings. The R. stricta and M. crassifolia extracts showed potent antioxidant activity in both acellular and cellular models. The C. colocynthis extract also demonstrated significant anti-proliferation and cytotoxic activity, as did the R. stricta extract. These properties support their usage in folk medicine and also indicate a further potential for development for holistic medicinal use or as sources of new active compounds. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Structural and Functional Analysis of Extracts in Plants II)
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10 pages, 570 KiB  
Communication
Chemical Composition, Production of Secondary Metabolites and Antioxidant Activity in Coffee Cultivars Susceptible and Partially Resistant to Bacterial Halo Blight
by Joyce Alves Goulart da Silva, Mário Lúcio Vilela de Resende, Ingridy Simone Ribeiro, Adriene Ribeiro Lima, Luiz Roberto Marques Albuquerque, Ana Cristina Andrade Monteiro, Matheus Henrique Brito Pereira and Deila Magna dos Santos Botelho
Plants 2021, 10(9), 1915; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10091915 - 15 Sep 2021
Viewed by 2605
Abstract
Coffee production is one of the main agricultural activities in Brazil, and several coffee cultivars with disease resistance have already been developed. The secondary metabolites produced by plants are closely associated with defense strategies, and the resistance of coffee cultivars to bacterial halo [...] Read more.
Coffee production is one of the main agricultural activities in Brazil, and several coffee cultivars with disease resistance have already been developed. The secondary metabolites produced by plants are closely associated with defense strategies, and the resistance of coffee cultivars to bacterial halo blight (BHB) can be related to these compounds. Therefore, this study aims to compare a partially resistant coffee cultivar (Iapar-59) and a susceptible cultivar (Mundo Novo 376/4) to BHB (Pseudomonas syringae pv. garcae) in relation to the chemical composition and antioxidant activity of the leaf extracts. In addition, this study determined the total phenolic and flavonoid contents and phenolic profiles of the Iapar-59 leaf extracts of plants inoculated with P. syringae pv. garcae. The Iapar-59 extract showed a higher content of phenolic compounds and flavonoids than the Mundo Novo 376/4 extract. Both cultivars contained gallic, chlorogenic and caffeic acids; however, the highest contents were quantified in the Iapar-59 cultivar. The leaf extracts from the Iapar-59 cultivar exhibited higher antioxidant activity. Higher concentrations of gallic, caffeic and chlorogenic acids and the presence of vanillin were detected in the extract of cultivar Iapar-59 inoculated with P. syringae pv. garcae. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Structural and Functional Analysis of Extracts in Plants II)
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14 pages, 4330 KiB  
Article
Extracts from the Leaves of Cissus verticillata Ameliorate High-Fat Diet-Induced Memory Deficits in Mice
by Woosuk Kim, Hyun Jung Kwon, Hyo Young Jung, Soon-Sung Lim, Beom-Goo Kang, Yong-Bok Jo, Dong-Sool Yu, Soo Young Choi, In Koo Hwang and Dae Won Kim
Plants 2021, 10(9), 1814; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10091814 - 31 Aug 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2524
Abstract
We investigated the effects of Cissus verticillata leaf extract (CVE) on a high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity and memory deficits. Male mice (5 weeks of age) were fed vehicle (distilled water), or 30, 100, or 300 mg/kg of CVE once a day for 8 [...] Read more.
We investigated the effects of Cissus verticillata leaf extract (CVE) on a high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity and memory deficits. Male mice (5 weeks of age) were fed vehicle (distilled water), or 30, 100, or 300 mg/kg of CVE once a day for 8 weeks with an HFD. Treatment with CVE resulted in lower body weight and glucose levels in a concentration- and feeding time-dependent manner. LDL cholesterol and triglyceride levels were significantly lower in the CVE-treated HFD group than in the vehicle-treated HFD group. In contrast, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels did not show any significant changes. Lipid droplets and ballooning were reduced depending on the concentration of CVE treatment compared to the HFD group. Treatment with CVE ameliorated the increase in glucagon and immunoreactivities in the pancreas, and novel object recognition memory was improved by 300 mg/kg CVE treatment compared to the HFD group. More proliferating cells and differentiated neuroblasts were higher in mice treated with CVE than in vehicle-treated HFD-fed mice. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels were significantly decreased in the HFD group, which was facilitated by treatment with 300 mg/kg CVE in hippocampal homogenates. These results suggest that CVE ameliorates HFD-induced obesity and memory deficits in mice, associated with increased BDNF levels in the hippocampus. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Structural and Functional Analysis of Extracts in Plants II)
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17 pages, 27059 KiB  
Article
Response Surface Optimization of Extraction Conditions and In Vitro Antioxidant and Antidiabetic Evaluation of an Under-Valued Medicinal Weed, Mimosa pudica
by Nor Saffana Baharuddin, Muhamad Aidilfitri Mohamad Roslan, Mohsen Ahmed Mohammed Bawzer, Azzreena Mohamad Azzeme, Zuraida Ab Rahman, Mohd Ezuan Khayat, Nor Aini Abdul Rahman and Zulfazli M. Sobri
Plants 2021, 10(8), 1692; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10081692 - 18 Aug 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 4199
Abstract
Mimosa pudica Linn is a well-known perennial herb and is traditionally used in ayurvedic medicine for the treatment of various illnesses. Despite its abundance in nature, the therapeutic potential of this invasive weed is deemed to be underappreciated in Malaysia. Previous studies have [...] Read more.
Mimosa pudica Linn is a well-known perennial herb and is traditionally used in ayurvedic medicine for the treatment of various illnesses. Despite its abundance in nature, the therapeutic potential of this invasive weed is deemed to be underappreciated in Malaysia. Previous studies have found an abundance of bioactive compounds associated with potent antioxidant properties in all parts of the plant. However, the optimum parameters required for the extraction of antioxidant compounds are still unknown. Therefore, the present study aimed to optimize the solvent extraction parameters of M. pudica using response surface methodology to enrich the accumulation of antioxidant compounds in the extracts. The effects of the optimized M. pudica extracts were then evaluated on the cell viability and glucose uptake ability in a 3T3-L1 adipocyte cell line. The highest total phenolic (91.98 mg of gallic acid equivalent per g of the dry extract) and total flavonoid content (606.31 mg of quercetin equivalent per g of the dry extract) were recorded when using 100% ethanol that was five-fold and three-fold higher, respectively, as compared to using 50% ethanol. The extract concentration required to achieve 50% of antioxidant activity (IC50 value) was 42.0 µg/mL using 100% ethanol as compared to 975.03 µg/mL using 50% ethanol. The results indicated that the use of 100% ethanol solvent had the greatest impact on the accumulation of antioxidant compounds in the extract (p < 0.05). Cell viability assay revealed that all extract concentration treatments recorded a viability level of above 50%. Glucose uptake assay using 2-NBDG analog showed that the cells treated with 50 µg/mL extract combined with insulin were five-fold higher than the control group. Given the high antioxidant and antidiabetic properties of this plant, M. pudica can be easily highlighted as a plant subject of interest, which warrants further investigation for nutraceutical prospects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Structural and Functional Analysis of Extracts in Plants II)
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18 pages, 3592 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of Fatty Acid Compositions, Antioxidant, and Pharmacological Activities of Pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata) Seed Oil from Aqueous Enzymatic Extraction
by Adchara Prommaban, Ratthida Kuanchoom, Natthidaporn Seepuan and Wantida Chaiyana
Plants 2021, 10(8), 1582; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10081582 - 31 Jul 2021
Cited by 24 | Viewed by 4798
Abstract
Pumpkin seed oil is a by-product, abundant in nutrients and bioactive components that promote several health benefits. This study aimed to compare chemical compositions, antioxidant, and pharmacological activities of pumpkin seed oils extracted from Cucurbita moschata Duch. Ex Poir. (PSO1) and Cucurbita moschata [...] Read more.
Pumpkin seed oil is a by-product, abundant in nutrients and bioactive components that promote several health benefits. This study aimed to compare chemical compositions, antioxidant, and pharmacological activities of pumpkin seed oils extracted from Cucurbita moschata Duch. Ex Poir. (PSO1) and Cucurbita moschata (Japanese pumpkin) (PSO2) by aqueous enzymatic extraction. An enzyme mixture consisting of pectinase, cellulase, and protease (1:1:1) was used in the enzymatic extraction process. Fatty acid composition of the oils was determined using fatty acid methyl ester/gas chromatographic-mass spectrometry. Antioxidant activity assays were measured by using stable free radical diphenylpicrylhydrazyl, radical cation 2,2′-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate, ferric reducing/antioxidant power, and ferric thiocyanate assay. Inhibition of enzymes involving skin aging and whitening process was investigated. Linoleic acid was a major component of all pumpkin seed oils. Additionally, there was also a significant amount of oleic acid, palmitic acid, and stearic acid detected. PSO2 possessed the highest antioxidant activities compared to PSO1 and commercial pumpkin seed oils (COM1 and COM2). Both PSO1 and PSO2 exhibited higher inhibitory effects on hyaluronidase, collagenase, and tyrosinase than the commercials. Therefore, aqueous enzymatic extraction could yield pumpkin seed oils with higher antioxidant, anti-aging, and whitening activities. This is beneficial for further pharmacological studies and can be used as a functional food for skin benefits. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Structural and Functional Analysis of Extracts in Plants II)
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14 pages, 3063 KiB  
Article
Polygonum multiflorum Thunb. Hot Water Extract Reverses High-Fat Diet-Induced Lipid Metabolism of White and Brown Adipose Tissues in Obese Mice
by Ra-Yeong Choi and Mi-Kyung Lee
Plants 2021, 10(8), 1509; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10081509 - 23 Jul 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3092
Abstract
The purpose of the present study was to determine whether an anti-obesity effect of a Polygonum multiflorum Thunb. hot water extract (PW) was involved in the lipid metabolism of white adipose tissue (WAT) and brown adipose tissue (BAT) in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced C57BL/6N [...] Read more.
The purpose of the present study was to determine whether an anti-obesity effect of a Polygonum multiflorum Thunb. hot water extract (PW) was involved in the lipid metabolism of white adipose tissue (WAT) and brown adipose tissue (BAT) in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced C57BL/6N obese mice. Mice freely received a normal diet (NCD) or an HFD for 12 weeks; HFD-fed mice were orally given PW (100 or 300 mg/kg) or garcinia cambogia (GC, 200 mg/kg) once a day. After 12 weeks, PW (300 mg/kg) or GC significantly alleviated adiposity by reducing body weight, WAT weights, and food efficiency ratio. PW (300 mg/kg) improved hyperinsulinemia and enhanced insulin sensitivity. In addition, PW (300 mg/kg) significantly down-regulated expression of carbohydrate-responsive element-binding protein (ChREBP) and diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase 2 (DGAT2) genes in WAT compared with the untreated HFD group. HFD increased BAT gene levels such as adrenoceptor beta 3 (ADRB3), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL), cluster of differentiation 36 (CD36), fatty acid-binding protein 4 (FABP4), PPARγ coactivator 1-α (PGC-1α), PPARα, and carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1B (CPT1B) compared with the NCD group; however, PW or GC effectively reversed those levels. These findings suggest that the anti-obesity activity of PW was mediated via suppression of lipogenesis in WAT, leading to the normalization of lipid metabolism in BAT. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Structural and Functional Analysis of Extracts in Plants II)
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18 pages, 5339 KiB  
Article
Combination of Molecular Networking and LC-MS/MS Profiling in Investigating the Interrelationships between the Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Properties of Curculigo latifolia
by Nadiah Mad Nasir, Nur Syafiqah Ezam Shah, Nurul Zulaikha Zainal, Nur Kartinee Kassim, Siti Munirah Mohd Faudzi and Hanan Hasan
Plants 2021, 10(8), 1488; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10081488 - 21 Jul 2021
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 3465
Abstract
Curculigo is a potent plant with a variety of traditional uses, such as anti-oxidant, anti-diabetic, anti-tumor, anti-bacterial, anti-cancer, anti-osteoporosis, and wound-healing. The comprehensive profiling of the Curculigolatifolia metabolome was carried out by generating a molecular network (MN) from Liquid Chromatography–Tandem Mass Spectrometry [...] Read more.
Curculigo is a potent plant with a variety of traditional uses, such as anti-oxidant, anti-diabetic, anti-tumor, anti-bacterial, anti-cancer, anti-osteoporosis, and wound-healing. The comprehensive profiling of the Curculigolatifolia metabolome was carried out by generating a molecular network (MN) from Liquid Chromatography–Tandem Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) data to profile the methanol extract and correlating them with their antioxidant (2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl-hydrate (DPPH), total phenolic contents (TPC), and β-carotene) and antimicrobial (disk-diffusion agar method, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC)) properties. The antioxidant capacity was observed to be significantly higher in the rhizome crude extract, with 18.10 ± 0.91 µg/mL DPPH activity, and a β-carotene bleaching result of 35.20%. For the antimicrobial activity, the leaf crude extract exhibited a strong Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella choleraesuis (8–15 ± 3.0 mm) inhibition in the disk-diffusion agar. The leaf extract also exhibited maximum antibacterial activity against S. aureus (MIC = ±0.25 mg/mL, MBC = ±0.25 mg/mL) and S. choleraesuis (MIC = ±0.25 mg/mL, MBC = ±0.25 mg/mL). LC-MS/MS analysis and MN revealed norlignans and phenolic glycosides as major metabolites in the rhizome and leaf extracts of the negative mode (M − H). Fourteen known compounds were identified, and three unknown compounds were putatively identified in the rhizome extract, while ten known compounds and six unknown compounds were putatively identified in the leaf extract. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Structural and Functional Analysis of Extracts in Plants II)
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15 pages, 2823 KiB  
Article
Recovery of Polyphenolic Fraction from Arabica Coffee Pulp and Its Antifungal Applications
by Jiraporn Sangta, Malaiporn Wongkaew, Tibet Tangpao, Patchareeya Withee, Sukanya Haituk, Chaiwat Arjin, Korawan Sringarm, Surat Hongsibsong, Kunrunya Sutan, Tonapha Pusadee, Sarana Rose Sommano and Ratchadawan Cheewangkoon
Plants 2021, 10(7), 1422; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10071422 - 12 Jul 2021
Cited by 37 | Viewed by 4905
Abstract
Coffee pulp is one of the most underutilised by-products from coffee processing. For coffee growers, disposing of this agro-industrial biomass has become one of the most difficult challenges. This study utilised this potential biomass as raw material for polyphenolic antifungal agents. First, the [...] Read more.
Coffee pulp is one of the most underutilised by-products from coffee processing. For coffee growers, disposing of this agro-industrial biomass has become one of the most difficult challenges. This study utilised this potential biomass as raw material for polyphenolic antifungal agents. First, the proportion of biomass was obtained from the Arabica green bean processing. The yield of by-products was recorded, and the high-potency biomass was serially extracted with organic solvents for the polyphenol fraction. Quantification of the polyphenols was performed by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC), then further confirmed by mass spectrometry modes of the liquid chromatography–quadrupole time-of-flight (QTOF). Then, the fraction was used to test antifungal activities against Alternaria brassicicola, Pestalotiopsis sp. and Paramyrothecium breviseta. The results illustrated that caffeic acid and epigallocatechin gallate represented in the polyphenol fraction actively inhibited these fungi with an inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 0.09, 0.31 and 0.14, respectively. This study is also the first report on the alternative use of natural biocontrol agent of P. breviseta, the pathogen causing leaf spot in the Arabica coffee. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Structural and Functional Analysis of Extracts in Plants II)
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14 pages, 8271 KiB  
Article
Cissus verticillata Extract Decreases Neuronal Damage Induced by Oxidative Stress in HT22 Cells and Ischemia in Gerbils by Reducing the Inflammation and Phosphorylation of MAPKs
by Woosuk Kim, Hyun Jung Kwon, Hyo Young Jung, Soon-Sung Lim, Beom-Goo Kang, Yong-Bok Jo, Dong-Sool Yu, Soo Young Choi, In Koo Hwang and Dae Won Kim
Plants 2021, 10(6), 1217; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10061217 - 15 Jun 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2743
Abstract
In the present study, we examined the effects of Cissus verticillata leaf extracts (CVE) against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)- and ischemia-induced neuronal damage in HT22 cells and gerbil hippocampus. Incubation with CVE produced concentration-dependent toxicity in HT22 cells. Significant cellular [...] Read more.
In the present study, we examined the effects of Cissus verticillata leaf extracts (CVE) against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)- and ischemia-induced neuronal damage in HT22 cells and gerbil hippocampus. Incubation with CVE produced concentration-dependent toxicity in HT22 cells. Significant cellular toxicity was observed with >75 μg/mL CVE. CVE treatment at 50 μg/mL ameliorated H2O2-induced reactive oxygen species formation, DNA fragmentation, and cell death in HT22 cells. In addition, incubation with CVE significantly mitigated the increase in Bax and decrease in Bcl-2 induced by H2O2 treatment in HT22 cells. In an in vivo study, the administration of CVE to gerbils significantly decreased ischemia-induced motor activity 1 d after ischemia, as well as neuronal death and microglial activation 4 d after ischemia, respectively. CVE treatment reduced the release of interleukin-1β, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α 6 h after ischemia. Furthermore, CVE treatment significantly ameliorated ischemia-induced phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase, extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2, and p38. These results suggest that CVE has the potential to reduce the neuronal damage induced by oxidative and ischemic stress by reducing the inflammatory responses and phosphorylation of MAPKs, suggesting that CVE could be a functional food to prevent neuronal damage induced by ischemia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Structural and Functional Analysis of Extracts in Plants II)
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20 pages, 1951 KiB  
Article
Anthocyanins from Rubus fruticosus L. and Morus nigra L. Applied as Food Colorants: A Natural Alternative
by Erika N. Vega, Adriana K. Molina, Carla Pereira, Maria Inês Dias, Sandrina A. Heleno, Paula Rodrigues, Isabel P. Fernandes, Maria Filomena Barreiro, Dejan Stojković, Marina Soković, Márcio Carocho, João C. M. Barreira, Isabel C. F. R. Ferreira and Lillian Barros
Plants 2021, 10(6), 1181; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10061181 - 10 Jun 2021
Cited by 22 | Viewed by 3337
Abstract
Given the importance of colour in the general acceptance or rejection of a product, the use of colorants is a widespread practice, particularly in the food industry. At the same time, with the increasing consumers’ awareness of the health effects that some artificial [...] Read more.
Given the importance of colour in the general acceptance or rejection of a product, the use of colorants is a widespread practice, particularly in the food industry. At the same time, with the increasing consumers’ awareness of the health effects that some artificial colorants can exert, there is a growing tendency to prioritize foodstuffs containing natural additives. In this work, Morus nigra L. and Rubus fruticosus L. fruit juices were characterized in terms of anthocyanins, organic acids, free sugars, and tocopherols, as also regarding their bioactive properties. Given their richness in anthocyanins, this study also aimed to prepare different solid colouring formulations by the spray-drying technique, using as stabilizers maltodextrin and arabic gum. Six free sugars and two organic acids were detected in the fruit juices, as well as the four tocopherol isoforms. Two cyanidin derivatives were found in M. nigra (cyanidin-3-O-glucoside and cyanidin-O-rhamnoside) and other four in R. fruticosus (cyanidin-O-hexoside, cyanidin-3-O-glucoside, cyanidin-O-pentoside, and cyanidin-3-O-dioxaloilglucoside). The developed colouring formulations revealed a good stability over time, in terms of anthocyanin concentration and colour parameters, and revealed to be safe for consumption, either concerning their low microbial load and lack of cytotoxicity. Thus, they represent a promising natural alternative to the massively used artificial colorants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Structural and Functional Analysis of Extracts in Plants II)
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19 pages, 5144 KiB  
Article
Topical Gynura procumbens as a Novel Therapeutic Improves Wound Healing in Diabetic Mice
by Nutda Sutthammikorn, Volaluck Supajatura, Hainan Yue, Miho Takahashi, Sunee Chansakaow, Nobuhiro Nakano, Pu Song, Takasuke Ogawa, Shigaku Ikeda, Ko Okumura, Hideoki Ogawa and François Niyonsaba
Plants 2021, 10(6), 1122; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10061122 - 1 Jun 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 3970
Abstract
Nonhealing wounds are major socioeconomic challenges to healthcare systems worldwide. Therefore, there is a substantially unmet need to develop new drugs for wound healing. Gynura procumbens, a herb found in Southeast Asia, may be an effective therapeutic for nonhealing diabetic wounds. The [...] Read more.
Nonhealing wounds are major socioeconomic challenges to healthcare systems worldwide. Therefore, there is a substantially unmet need to develop new drugs for wound healing. Gynura procumbens, a herb found in Southeast Asia, may be an effective therapeutic for nonhealing diabetic wounds. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of G. procumbens on wound healing in the diabetic milieu. G. procumbens extract was obtained using 95% ethanol and its components were determined by thin layer chromatography. Diabetes was induced in mice using streptozotocin. We found that G. procumbens extract contained stigmasterol, kaempferol and quercetin compounds. Topical application of G. procumbens on the wounded skin of diabetic mice accelerated wound healing and induced the expression of angiogenin, epidermal growth factor, fibroblast growth factor, transforming growth factor and vascular endothelial growth factor. Furthermore, G. procumbens promoted in vitro wound healing and enhanced the migration and/or proliferation of human endothelial cells, fibroblasts, keratinocytes and mast cells cultured in diabetic conditions. Finally, G. procumbens promoted vascular formation in the diabetic mice. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study that evaluates in vivo wound healing activities of G. procumbens and activation of cells involved in wound healing process in diabetic conditions. The findings that G. procumbens accelerates wound healing and activates cells involved in the wound healing process suggest that G. procumbens might be an effective alternative therapeutic option for nonhealing diabetic wounds. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Structural and Functional Analysis of Extracts in Plants II)
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14 pages, 1631 KiB  
Communication
Chemical Characterization and Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Phytoconstituents from Swertia alata
by Sakshi Bajaj, Shivkanya Fuloria, Vetriselvan Subramaniyan, Dhanalekshmi Unnikrishnan Meenakshi, Sharad Wakode, Avneet Kaur, Himangini Bansal, Satish Manchanda, Sachin Kumar and Neeraj Kumar Fuloria
Plants 2021, 10(6), 1109; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10061109 - 31 May 2021
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2819
Abstract
Swertia alata C.B Clarke (Gentianaceae) is a well-reported plant in the traditional system of medicine. The present study was intended to isolate the phytoconstituents from the ethanolic extract of the aerial parts of S. alata; and evaluate for in vitro COX-1/COX-2 inhibition [...] Read more.
Swertia alata C.B Clarke (Gentianaceae) is a well-reported plant in the traditional system of medicine. The present study was intended to isolate the phytoconstituents from the ethanolic extract of the aerial parts of S. alata; and evaluate for in vitro COX-1/COX-2 inhibition activity, in vivo anti-inflammatory and ulcerogenic activity. Phytoisolation involved partitioning of S. alata ethanolic extract into petroleum ether and chloroform soluble fractions using silica gel-based column chromatography. The isolation afforded two phytoisolates, namely oleanolic acid (SA-1) and 3-hydroxylup-12-(13)-ene-17-carboxylic acid (SA-4). Phytoisolates structures were established by melting point, ultraviolet (UV), attenuated total reflection-Fourier-transform infrared (ATR-FTIR), nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR, 13C-NMR and HMBC) and mass spectrometry. Phytoisolates were further evaluated for in vitro cyclooxygenase (COX-1/COX-2) inhibitory activity, in vivo anti-inflammatory and ulcerogenic activity. The study revealed SA-4 (COX-1/COX-2 inhibition activity of 104/61.68 µM with % inhibition of 61.36) to be more effective than SA-1 (COX-1/COX-2 inhibition activity of 128.4/87.25 µM, with % inhibition of 47.72). SA-1 and SA-4, when subjected to ulcerogenic study, exhibited significant gastric tolerance. The current study reports chromatographic isolation and spectrometric characterization of SA-1 and SA-4. The present study concludes that compound SA-4 possess significant anti-inflammatory activity and less irritant property over gastric mucosa with no significant ulcerogenicity in comparison to indomethacin. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Structural and Functional Analysis of Extracts in Plants II)
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19 pages, 5831 KiB  
Article
Metabolites Profiling, In Vitro, In Vivo, Computational Pharmacokinetics and Biological Predictions of Aloe perryi Resins Methanolic Extract
by Rasha Saad Suliman, Sahar Saleh Alghamdi, Rizwan Ali, Dimah A. Aljatli, Sarah Huwaizi, Rania Suliman, Ghadeer M. Albadrani, Abdulellah Al Tolayyan and Bandar Alghanem
Plants 2021, 10(6), 1106; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10061106 - 30 May 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 3518
Abstract
Background: Aloe perryi is a traditional herb that has various biological and pharmacological properties such as anti-inflammatory, laxative, antiviral, antidiabetic, and antitumor effects, which have not been deliberated before. The current investigation aims to evaluate in vitro cytotoxicity against several cancer cell lines [...] Read more.
Background: Aloe perryi is a traditional herb that has various biological and pharmacological properties such as anti-inflammatory, laxative, antiviral, antidiabetic, and antitumor effects, which have not been deliberated before. The current investigation aims to evaluate in vitro cytotoxicity against several cancer cell lines in addition to in vivo anti-inflammatory activities of Aloe perryi extract using a rat animal model. Moreover, the pharmacokinetic properties of bioactive constituents and possible biological targets were assessed and evaluated. The methanolic extract of Aloe perryi was prepared by maceration, to tentatively identify the biomolecules of the Aloe perryi extract, analytical LC–QTOF-MS method was employed for Aloe perryi methanolic extract. The cytotoxic activity was examined in six cancer cell lines using Titer-Glo assay and the IC50s were calculated in addition to in silico target predictions and in vivo anti-inflammatory activity assessment. Subsequently, the pharmacokinetics of the identified active components of Aloe perryi were predicted using SwissADME, and target prediction using the Molinspiration webserver. The cytotoxic activity on HL60 and MDA-MB-231 was moderately affected by the Aloe perryi extract with IC50 of 63.81, and 89.85 μg/mL, respectively, with no activity on other cells lines. Moreover, the Aloe perryi extract exhibited a significant increase in wound contraction, hair growth, and complete re-epithelization when compared with the negative control. The pharmacokinetic properties of the bioactive constituents suggested a good pharmaceutical profile for the active compounds and nuclear receptors and enzymes were the two main possible targets for these active compounds. Our results demonstrated the promising activity of Aloe perryi extract with cytotoxic and anti-inflammatory properties, indicating a potential therapeutic utility of this plant in various disease conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Structural and Functional Analysis of Extracts in Plants II)
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14 pages, 1777 KiB  
Article
Anti-Inflammatory, Thrombolytic and Hair-Growth Promoting Activity of the n-Hexane Fraction of the Methanol Extract of Leea indica Leaves
by Shahenur Alam Sakib, Abu Montakim Tareq, Ameerul Islam, Ahmed Rakib, Mohammad Nazmul Islam, Mohammad Arafat Uddin, Md. Masudur Rahman, Veronique Seidel and Talha Bin Emran
Plants 2021, 10(6), 1081; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10061081 - 27 May 2021
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 4103
Abstract
The anti-inflammatory, thrombolytic, and hair growth-promoting activity of the n-hexane fraction from the methanol extract of Leea indica (NFLI) leaves was investigated. NFLI showed significant inhibition of hemolysis and protein denaturation, and exhibited a concentration-dependent thrombolytic activity. When applied topically to mice [...] Read more.
The anti-inflammatory, thrombolytic, and hair growth-promoting activity of the n-hexane fraction from the methanol extract of Leea indica (NFLI) leaves was investigated. NFLI showed significant inhibition of hemolysis and protein denaturation, and exhibited a concentration-dependent thrombolytic activity. When applied topically to mice at concentrations of 10, 1, 0.1%, NFLI demonstrated a significant increase in average hair length (p < 0.001) compared with untreated animals. NFLI (1% concentration) exhibited the highest percentage of hair regrowth on day 7, 14 and 21 (81.24, 65.60, and 62.5%, respectively). An in silico study was further conducted to predict the binding affinity of phytochemicals previously reported in L. indica towards PGD2 synthase (PDB ID: 2VD1), an enzyme that catalyses the isomerisation of prostaglandin H2 to PGD2 which is involved in hair loss. Phthalic acid, farnesol, n-tricosane, n-tetracosane, and n-heptacosane showed the best ligand efficiencies towards PGD2 synthase and their intermolecular interactions were visualised using BIOVIA Discovery Studio Visualizer. Our results indicate that L. indica could represent a promising natural alternative to tackle alopecia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Structural and Functional Analysis of Extracts in Plants II)
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11 pages, 3235 KiB  
Communication
Anti-Osteoporotic Effects of Commiphora Myrrha and Its Poly-Saccharide via Osteoclastogenesis Inhibition
by Youn-Hwan Hwang, Ami Lee, Taesoo Kim, Seon-A Jang and Hyunil Ha
Plants 2021, 10(5), 945; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10050945 - 10 May 2021
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 2690
Abstract
In traditional oriental medicines, Commiphora myrrha and its resinous exudate (i.e., myrrh) are used as herbal remedies to treat various inflammatory and metabolic disorders. Until now, C. myrrha-derived herbal products are considered useful source for bioactive compounds to manage numerous human diseases. [...] Read more.
In traditional oriental medicines, Commiphora myrrha and its resinous exudate (i.e., myrrh) are used as herbal remedies to treat various inflammatory and metabolic disorders. Until now, C. myrrha-derived herbal products are considered useful source for bioactive compounds to manage numerous human diseases. This study investigated the effects of water extract of C. myrrha resin (WCM) and its polysaccharide (WCM-PE) on modulatory effects of osteoclast differentiation and/or ovariectomized-induced bone loss. Oral administration of WCM (200 and 500 mg/kg/day for four weeks) notably decreased trabecular bone loss and lipid accumulation in the bone marrow cavity. WCM and WCM-PE dose-dependently inhibited receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclastogenesis and suppressed RANKL-mediated overexpression of c-Fos and nuclear factor of activated T cells, cytoplasmic 1, thereby downregulating osteoclast-specific gene (Atp6v0d2, DC-STAMP and cathepsin K) expression. Thus, our results suggest that WCM and WCM-PE are promising nutraceutical candidates for the management of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Structural and Functional Analysis of Extracts in Plants II)
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14 pages, 2130 KiB  
Article
New Phenolic Compounds in Posidonia oceanica Seagrass: A Comprehensive Array Using High Resolution Mass Spectrometry
by Marina Astudillo-Pascual, Irene Domínguez, Pedro A. Aguilera and Antonia Garrido Frenich
Plants 2021, 10(5), 864; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10050864 - 25 Apr 2021
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 4583
Abstract
The studies on the Posidonia oceanica Delile (P. oceanica) phenolic composition have been focused on the foliar tissues and have often neglected the phenolic compounds in rhizomes or roots alike. With the current improvements in high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) analyzers, [...] Read more.
The studies on the Posidonia oceanica Delile (P. oceanica) phenolic composition have been focused on the foliar tissues and have often neglected the phenolic compounds in rhizomes or roots alike. With the current improvements in high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) analyzers, such as the Orbitrap MS, there is a new opportunity to more deeply study P. oceanica. One of the benefits is the possibility of conducting an exhaustive phenolic monitoring, which is crucial in the search for new stressor-specific biomarkers of coastal deterioration. For this purpose, the different tissues (leaf, rhizome, and root) of P. oceanica seagrass from several marine sampling areas were analyzed through target, suspected, and non-target screenings. This paper brings a fast and tissues-specific extraction, as well as a detection method of phenolic compounds applying for the first time the potential of HRMS (Exactive Orbitrap) in P. oceanica samples. As a result, 42 phenolic compounds were satisfactorily detected, of which, to our knowledge, 24 were not previously reported in P. oceanica, such as naringenin, naringenin chalcone and pinocembrin, among others. Information here reported could be used for the evaluation of new stressor-specific biomarkers of coastal deterioration in the Mediterranean waters. Furthermore, the followed extraction and analytical method could be considered as a reference protocol in other studies on marine seagrasses due to the exhaustive search and satisfactory results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Structural and Functional Analysis of Extracts in Plants II)
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16 pages, 2590 KiB  
Article
Phytochemical Characterization of By-Products of Habanero Pepper Grown in Two Different Types of Soils from Yucatán, Mexico
by Lilian Dolores Chel-Guerrero, Julio Enrique Oney-Montalvo and Ingrid Mayanín Rodríguez-Buenfil
Plants 2021, 10(4), 779; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10040779 - 15 Apr 2021
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 2617
Abstract
By-products of edible plants may contain potentially useful phytochemicals. Herein, we valorized the by-products of Capsicum chinense by phytochemical characterization of its leaves, peduncles and stems. Plants of habanero pepper were grown in a greenhouse, in polyethylene bags with two soils that were [...] Read more.
By-products of edible plants may contain potentially useful phytochemicals. Herein, we valorized the by-products of Capsicum chinense by phytochemical characterization of its leaves, peduncles and stems. Plants of habanero pepper were grown in a greenhouse, in polyethylene bags with two soils that were named according to the Maya classification as: K’ankab lu’um (red soil) and Box lu’um (black soil). Habanero pepper by-products were dried using an oven, the extracts were obtained by Ultrasound Assisted Extraction, and phytochemical quantification in all the extracts was conducted by Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography coupled to Diode Array Detector (UPLC-DAD). Differences in the phytochemical content were observed according to the by-product and soil used. Catechin and rutin showed the highest concentrations in the peduncles of plants grown in both soils. The leaves of plants grown in black soil were rich in myricetin, β-carotene, and vitamin E, and the stems showed the highest protocatechuic acid content. While the leaves of plants grown in red soil were rich in myricetin and vitamin C, the stems showed the highest chlorogenic acid content. This novel information regarding the phytochemical composition of the by-products of C. chinense may be relevant in supporting their potential application in food and pharmaceutical industries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Structural and Functional Analysis of Extracts in Plants II)
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14 pages, 17307 KiB  
Article
Identification and Isolation of an Intermediate Metabolite with Dual Antioxidant and Anti-Proliferative Activity Present in the Fungus Antrodia cinnamomea Cultured on an Alternative Medium with Cinnamomum kanehirai Leaf Extract
by Wen-Wen Zeng, Tsan-Chi Chen, Cheng-Huan Liu, Sheng-Yang Wang, Jei-Fu Shaw and Yu-Ting Chen
Plants 2021, 10(4), 737; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10040737 - 9 Apr 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2633
Abstract
The fungus Antrodia cinnamomea has been used as a folk medicine for various diseases, especially cancer. When A. cinnamomea is cultured on the original host, an endangered woody plant Cinnamomum kanehirai Hayata, the fungus produces more active ingredients, but its growth is slow. [...] Read more.
The fungus Antrodia cinnamomea has been used as a folk medicine for various diseases, especially cancer. When A. cinnamomea is cultured on the original host, an endangered woody plant Cinnamomum kanehirai Hayata, the fungus produces more active ingredients, but its growth is slow. Here, C. kanehirai leaf ethanol extract (KLEE) was used as a substitute for C. kanehirai wood to culture A. cinnamomea on solid medium to shorten the culture period and produce active metabolites en masse. The antioxidant activities of methanol extracts from A. cinnamomea cultured on KLEE (MEAC-KLEE) were evaluated by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging effect, reducing power, and ferrous ion-chelating effect, and the effective concentration (EC50) values were 0.27, 0.74, and 0.37 mg mL−1, respectively. MEAC-KLEE exhibited specific anti-proliferative activity against a non-small-cell lung cancer cell line (A549) by Annexin V assay. A secondary metabolite (2,4-dimethoxy-6-methylbenzene-1,3-diol, DMMB) present in the extract (MEAC-KLEE) was purified by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and identified by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra. DMMB exhibited moderate antioxidant activity against DPPH radicals and reducing power, with EC50 values of 12.97 and 25.59 μg mL−1, respectively, and also induced apoptosis in A549 cells. Our results provide valuable insight into the development of DMMB for nutraceutical biotechnology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Structural and Functional Analysis of Extracts in Plants II)
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14 pages, 2261 KiB  
Article
Three Novel Biphenanthrene Derivatives and a New Phenylpropanoid Ester from Aerides multiflora and Their α-Glucosidase Inhibitory Activity
by May Thazin Thant, Boonchoo Sritularak, Nutputsorn Chatsumpun, Wanwimon Mekboonsonglarp, Yanyong Punpreuk and Kittisak Likhitwitayawuid
Plants 2021, 10(2), 385; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10020385 - 17 Feb 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 3766
Abstract
A phytochemical investigation on the whole plants of Aerides multiflora revealed the presence of three new biphenanthrene derivatives named aerimultins A–C (13) and a new natural phenylpropanoid ester dihydrosinapyl dihydroferulate (4), together with six known compounds ( [...] Read more.
A phytochemical investigation on the whole plants of Aerides multiflora revealed the presence of three new biphenanthrene derivatives named aerimultins A–C (13) and a new natural phenylpropanoid ester dihydrosinapyl dihydroferulate (4), together with six known compounds (510). The structures of the new compounds were elucidated by analysis of their spectroscopic data. All of the isolates were evaluated for their α-glucosidase inhibitory activity. Aerimultin C (3) showed the most potent activity. The other compounds, except for compound 4, also exhibited stronger activity than the positive control acarbose. Compound 3 showed non-competitive inhibition of the enzyme as determined from a Lineweaver–Burk plot. This study is the first phytochemical and biological investigation of A. multiflora. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Structural and Functional Analysis of Extracts in Plants II)
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