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Universe, Volume 8, Issue 5 (May 2022) – 45 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): We present NEAR, the new experimental area at CERN-n_TOF. It was realized with the aim of performing Maxwellian averaged neutron cross sections (MACS) via the activation technique. The NEAR station at n_TOF is now ready for the physics program; the neutron beam is expected to have a satisfactory Maxwellian energy distribution whose peak could be fixed from hundreds of eV up to hundreds of keV, with a special emphasis on the 5–30 keV interval, important for the s-process and i-process in AGBs, and the 15–90 keV interval for the s-process in massive stars. The first generation’s measures will be 88Sr(n,γ), 89Y(n,γ), 94Zr(n,γ), and 64Ni(n,γ). The success of this program is expected to open the way to new and more challenging measures of MACS at n_TOF, for rare and/or exotic isotopes of interest for nuclear astrophysics. View this paper
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Article
Positive Energy and Non-SUSY Flows in ISO(7) Gauged Supergravity
Universe 2022, 8(5), 293; https://doi.org/10.3390/universe8050293 - 23 May 2022
Viewed by 375
Abstract
We consider maximal gauged supergravity in 4D with the ISO(7) gauge group, which arises from a consistent truncation of massive IIA supergravity on a six-sphere. Within its G2-invariant sector, the theory is known to possess a supersymmetric AdS [...] Read more.
We consider maximal gauged supergravity in 4D with the ISO(7) gauge group, which arises from a consistent truncation of massive IIA supergravity on a six-sphere. Within its G2-invariant sector, the theory is known to possess a supersymmetric AdS extremum, as well as two non-supersymmetric ones. In this context, we provide a first-order formulation of the theory by making use of the Hamilton–Jacobi (HJ) formalism. This allows us to derive a positive energy theorem for both non-supersymmetric extrema. Subsequently, we also find novel non-supersymmetric domain walls (DWs) interpolating between the supersymmetric extremum and each of the other two. Finally, we discuss a perturbative HJ technique that may be used in order to solve for curved DW geometries. Full article
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Article
Bounce Universe with Finite-Time Singularity
Universe 2022, 8(5), 292; https://doi.org/10.3390/universe8050292 - 23 May 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 524
Abstract
This work explains how the presence of a Type-IV singularity (a mild singularity) can influence the dynamics of a bouncing universe. In particular, we examine the bounce cosmology that appears with a Type-IV singularity in the context of a ghost-free Gauss–Bonnet theory of [...] Read more.
This work explains how the presence of a Type-IV singularity (a mild singularity) can influence the dynamics of a bouncing universe. In particular, we examine the bounce cosmology that appears with a Type-IV singularity in the context of a ghost-free Gauss–Bonnet theory of gravity. Depending on the time of occurrence of the Type-IV singularity, three different cases may arise—when the singularity occurs before the bounce, after the bounce, or at the instant of the bounce. However, in all of these cases, we find that in the case when the singularity “globally” affects the spacetime, the scalar power spectrum becomes red-tilted, and the tensor-to-scalar ratio is too large to be consistent with the observational data. Based on these findings, we investigate a different bouncing scenario which also appears with a Type-IV singularity, and wherein the singularity affects the spacetime “locally” around the time when it occurs. As a result, and unlike the previous scenario, the perturbation modes in the second bouncing scenario are likely to be generated far away from the bounce in the deep contracting phase. This finally results in the simultaneous compatibility of the observable quantities with the Planck data and ensures the viability of the bounce model where the Type-IV singularity has local effects on the spacetime around the time of the singularity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Higher-Derivative Theories of Gravity)
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Article
Gasflows in Barred Galaxies with Big Orbital Loops—A Comparative Study of Two Hydrocodes
Universe 2022, 8(5), 290; https://doi.org/10.3390/universe8050290 - 22 May 2022
Viewed by 437
Abstract
We study the flow of gas in a barred-galaxy model, in which a considerable part of the underlying stable periodic orbits have loops where, close to the ends of the bar, several orbital families coexist and chaos dominates. Such conditions are typically encountered [...] Read more.
We study the flow of gas in a barred-galaxy model, in which a considerable part of the underlying stable periodic orbits have loops where, close to the ends of the bar, several orbital families coexist and chaos dominates. Such conditions are typically encountered in a zone between the 4:1 resonance and corotation. The purpose of our study is to understand the gaseous flow in the aforementioned environment and trace the morphology of the shocks that form. We use two conceptually different hydrodynamic schemes for our calculations, namely, the mesh-free Lagrangian SPH method and the adaptive mesh refinement code RAMSES. This allows us to compare responses by means of the two algorithms. We find that the big loops of the orbits, mainly belonging to the x1 stable periodic orbits, do not help the shock loci to approach corotation. They deviate away from the regions occupied by the loops, bypass them and form extensions at an angle with the straight-line shocks. Roughly at the distance from the center at which we start to observe the big loops, we find characteristic “tails” of dense gas streaming towards the straight-line shocks. The two codes give complementary information for understanding the hydrodynamics of the models. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Probing Structure, Morphology and Dynamics of Galaxies)
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Article
Quantum Capacity and Vacuum Compressibility of Spacetime: Thermal Fields
Universe 2022, 8(5), 291; https://doi.org/10.3390/universe8050291 - 21 May 2022
Viewed by 470
Abstract
An important yet perplexing result from work in the 1990s and 2000s is the near-unity value of the ratio of fluctuations in the vacuum energy density of quantum fields to the mean in a collection of generic spacetimes. This was carried out by [...] Read more.
An important yet perplexing result from work in the 1990s and 2000s is the near-unity value of the ratio of fluctuations in the vacuum energy density of quantum fields to the mean in a collection of generic spacetimes. This was carried out by way of calculating the noise kernels which are the correlators of the stress-energy tensor of quantum fields. In this paper, we revisit this issue via a quantum thermodynamics approach, by calculating two quintessential thermodynamic quantities: the heat capacity and the quantum compressibility of some model geometries filled with a quantum field at high and low temperatures. This is because heat capacity at constant volume gives a measure of the fluctuations of the energy density to the mean. When this ratio approaches or exceeds unity, the validity of the canonical distribution is called into question. Likewise, a system’s compressibility at constant pressure is a criterion for the validity of grand canonical ensemble. We derive the free energy density and, from it, obtain the expressions for these two thermodynamic quantities for thermal and quantum fields in 2d Casimir space, 2d Einstein cylinder and 4d (S1×S3 ) Einstein universe. To examine the dependence on the dimensionality of space, for completeness, we have also derived these thermodynamic quantities for the Einstein universes with even-spatial dimensions: S1×S2 and S1×S4. With this array of spacetimes we can investigate the thermodynamic stability of quantum matter fields in them and make some qualitative observations on the compatibility condition for the co-existence between quantum fields and spacetimes, a fundamental issue in the quantum and gravitation conundrum. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Quantum Models for Cosmology)
Review
Multi-Messenger Constraints on the Hubble Constant through Combination of Gravitational Waves, Gamma-Ray Bursts and Kilonovae from Neutron Star Mergers
Universe 2022, 8(5), 289; https://doi.org/10.3390/universe8050289 - 21 May 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 505
Abstract
The simultaneous detection of gravitational waves and light from the binary neutron star merger GW170817 led to independent measurements of distance and redshift, providing a direct estimate of the Hubble constant H0 that does not rely on a cosmic distance ladder, nor [...] Read more.
The simultaneous detection of gravitational waves and light from the binary neutron star merger GW170817 led to independent measurements of distance and redshift, providing a direct estimate of the Hubble constant H0 that does not rely on a cosmic distance ladder, nor assumes a specific cosmological model. By using gravitational waves as “standard sirens”, this approach holds promise to arbitrate the existing tension between the H0 value inferred from the cosmic microwave background and those obtained from local measurements. However, the known degeneracy in the gravitational-wave analysis between distance and inclination of the source led to a H0 value from GW170817 that was not precise enough to resolve the existing tension. In this review, we summarize recent works exploiting the viewing-angle dependence of the electromagnetic signal, namely the associated short gamma-ray burst and kilonova, to constrain the system inclination and improve on H0. We outline the key ingredients of the different methods, summarize the results obtained in the aftermath of GW170817 and discuss the possible systematics introduced by each of these methods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue GRBs Phenomenology, Models and Applications: A Beginner Guide)
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Review
Quantum Current Algebra in Action: Linearization, Integrability of Classical and Factorization of Quantum Nonlinear Dynamical Systems
Universe 2022, 8(5), 288; https://doi.org/10.3390/universe8050288 - 20 May 2022
Viewed by 410
Abstract
This review is devoted to the universal algebraic and geometric properties of the non-relativistic quantum current algebra symmetry and to their representations subject to applications in describing geometrical and analytical properties of quantum and classical integrable Hamiltonian systems of theoretical and mathematical physics. [...] Read more.
This review is devoted to the universal algebraic and geometric properties of the non-relativistic quantum current algebra symmetry and to their representations subject to applications in describing geometrical and analytical properties of quantum and classical integrable Hamiltonian systems of theoretical and mathematical physics. The Fock space, the non-relativistic quantum current algebra symmetry and its cyclic representations on separable Hilbert spaces are reviewed and described in detail. The unitary current algebra family of operators and generating functional equations are described. A generating functional method to constructing irreducible current algebra representations is reviewed, and the ergodicity of the corresponding representation Hilbert space measure is mentioned. The algebraic properties of the so called coherent states are also reviewed, generated by cyclic representations of the Heisenberg algebra on Hilbert spaces. Unbelievable and impressive applications of coherent states to the theory of nonlinear dynamical systems on Hilbert spaces are described, along with their linearization and integrability. Moreover, we present a further development of these results within the modern Lie-algebraic approach to nonlinear dynamical systems on Poissonian functional manifolds, which proved to be both unexpected and important for the classification of integrable Hamiltonian flows on Hilbert spaces. The quantum current Lie algebra symmetry properties and their functional representations, interpreted as a universal algebraic structure of symmetries of completely integrable nonlinear dynamical systems of theoretical and mathematical physics on functional manifolds, are analyzed in detail. Based on the current algebra symmetry structure and their functional representations, an effective integrability criterion is formulated for a wide class of completely integrable Hamiltonian systems on functional manifolds. The related algebraic structure of the Poissonian operators and an effective algorithm of their analytical construction are described. The current algebra representations in separable Hilbert spaces and the factorized structure of quantum integrable many-particle Hamiltonian systems are reviewed. The related current algebra-based Hamiltonian reconstruction of the many-particle oscillatory and Calogero–Moser–Sutherland quantum models are reviewed and discussed in detail. The related quasi-classical quantum current algebra density representations and the collective variable approach in equilibrium statistical physics are reviewed. In addition, the classical Wigner type current algebra representation and its application to non-equilibrium classical statistical mechanics are described, and the construction of the Lie–Poisson structure on the phase space of the infinite hierarchy of distribution functions is presented. The related Boltzmann–Bogolubov type kinetic equation for the generating functional of many-particle distribution functions is constructed, and the invariant reduction scheme, compatible with imposed correlation functions constraints, is suggested and analyzed in detail. We also review current algebra functional representations and their geometric structure subject to the analytical description of quasi-stationary hydrodynamic flows and their magneto-hydrodynamic generalizations. A unified geometric description of the ideal idiabatic liquid dynamics is presented, and its Hamiltonian structure is analyzed. A special chapter of the review is devoted to recent results on the description of modified current Lie algebra symmetries on torus and their Lie-algebraic structures, related to integrable so-called heavenly type spatially many-dimensional dynamical systems on functional manifolds. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Topics in Gravity, Field Theory and Quantum Mechanics)
Article
GeV Proton Detection in the 8 November 2000 Solar Event
Universe 2022, 8(5), 287; https://doi.org/10.3390/universe8050287 - 20 May 2022
Viewed by 417
Abstract
In this study, we analyze the L3 precision muon spectrometer data from November 2000. The results showed that a 4.7σ muon excess appeared at a time coincident with the solar flare of 8 November 2000. This muon excess corresponded to primary protons above [...] Read more.
In this study, we analyze the L3 precision muon spectrometer data from November 2000. The results showed that a 4.7σ muon excess appeared at a time coincident with the solar flare of 8 November 2000. This muon excess corresponded to primary protons above 40 GeV, coming from a sky cell of solid angle 0.048 sr. The probability of being a background fluctuation was estimated to be about 0.1%. It is interesting and noteworthy that an M-class solar flare may also accelerate solar protons to such high energies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Solar Cosmic Rays)
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Review
A Short Overview on Low Mass Scalars at Future Lepton Colliders
Universe 2022, 8(5), 286; https://doi.org/10.3390/universe8050286 - 20 May 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 401
Abstract
In this manuscript, I give a short summary on scenarios with new physics scalars that could be investigated at future e+e colliders. I concentrate on cases where at least one of the additional scalars has a mass below 125 GeV, [...] Read more.
In this manuscript, I give a short summary on scenarios with new physics scalars that could be investigated at future e+e colliders. I concentrate on cases where at least one of the additional scalars has a mass below 125 GeV, and discuss both models where this could be realized, as well as studies which focus on such scenarios. This work is based on several overview talks I recently gave at the CEPC workshop, FCC week and ECFA future collider workshop, as well as a Snowmass White Paper. Full article
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Communication
Binary X-ray Sources in Massive Brans–Dicke Gravity
Universe 2022, 8(5), 285; https://doi.org/10.3390/universe8050285 - 19 May 2022
Viewed by 389
Abstract
This study focuses on the X-ray emission of low-mass black hole binaries in massive Brans–Dicke gravity. First, we compute the accretion disk with the well-known Shakura–Sunyaev model for an optically thick, cool, and geometrically thin disk. Moreover, we assume that the gravitational field [...] Read more.
This study focuses on the X-ray emission of low-mass black hole binaries in massive Brans–Dicke gravity. First, we compute the accretion disk with the well-known Shakura–Sunyaev model for an optically thick, cool, and geometrically thin disk. Moreover, we assume that the gravitational field generated by the stellar-mass black hole is an analogue of the Schwarzschild space-time of Einstein’s theory in massive Brans–Dicke gravity. We compute the most relevant quantities of interest, i.e., (i) the radial velocity, (ii) the energy and surface density, and (iii) the pressure as a function entirely of the radial coordinate. We also compute the soft spectral component of the X-ray emission produced by the disk. Furthermore, we investigate in detail how the mass of the scalar field modifies the properties of the binary as described by the more standard Schwarzschild solution. Full article
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Review
A Short Review on the Latest Neutrinos Mass and Number Constraints from Cosmological Observables
Universe 2022, 8(5), 284; https://doi.org/10.3390/universe8050284 - 16 May 2022
Viewed by 457
Abstract
We review the neutrino science, focusing on its impact on cosmology along with the latest constraints on its mass and number of species. We also discuss its status as a possible solution to some of the recent cosmological tensions, such as the Hubble [...] Read more.
We review the neutrino science, focusing on its impact on cosmology along with the latest constraints on its mass and number of species. We also discuss its status as a possible solution to some of the recent cosmological tensions, such as the Hubble constant or the matter fluctuation parameter. We end by showing forecasts from next-generation planned or candidate surveys, highlighting their constraining power, alone or in combination, but also the limitations in determining neutrino mass distribution among its species. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Astroparticle Physics)
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Review
Extended Gravity Constraints at Different Scales
Universe 2022, 8(5), 283; https://doi.org/10.3390/universe8050283 - 15 May 2022
Viewed by 515
Abstract
We review a set of the possible ways to constrain extended gravity models at Galaxy clusters scales (the regime of dark energy explanations and comparison with ΛCDM), for black hole shadows, gravitational wave astronomy, binary pulsars, the Solar system and a Large [...] Read more.
We review a set of the possible ways to constrain extended gravity models at Galaxy clusters scales (the regime of dark energy explanations and comparison with ΛCDM), for black hole shadows, gravitational wave astronomy, binary pulsars, the Solar system and a Large Hadron Collider (consequences for high-energy physics at TeV scale). The key idea is that modern experimental and observational precise data provide us with the chance to go beyond general relativity. Full article
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Article
Space Weather Effects from Observations by Moscow University Cubesat Constellation
Universe 2022, 8(5), 282; https://doi.org/10.3390/universe8050282 - 12 May 2022
Viewed by 611
Abstract
Moscow State University is developing a project for a multi-satellite constellation intended for the monitoring of space radiation. A number of small satellites of CubeSat format were launched into selected orbits crossing the wide range of magnetic drift shells. The primary scope for [...] Read more.
Moscow State University is developing a project for a multi-satellite constellation intended for the monitoring of space radiation. A number of small satellites of CubeSat format were launched into selected orbits crossing the wide range of magnetic drift shells. The primary scope for the project is the operational monitoring of near-Earth’s radiation environment, i.e., fluxes of electrons and protons of Earth’s radiation belts and energetic particles of solar and galactic origin. To date, there are four CubeSat satellites operating in near-Earth orbits, which deliver scientific and telemetric data. Thus, for the first time, a unique multi-satellite constellation has been implemented, which makes it possible to simultaneously measure the particle and quantum fluxes at different areas in the near-Earth space using the same type of instruments. A special compact detector of gamma quanta and energetic charged particles (electrons and protons) DeCoR has been developed to carry out radiation monitoring by CubeSats. With their help, observations of various effects of space weather have been made. These effects include a variety of electron fluxes in the outer belt during geomagnetic activity in late November–early December 2021, filling of polar caps by solar energetic particles accelerated in flares occurring in late October–early November, and the existence of stable electron fluxes near the geomagnetic equator. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Space Weather in the Sun–Earth System)
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Article
Field-Theoretical Representation of Interactions between Particles: Classical Relativistic Probability-Free Kinetic Theory
Universe 2022, 8(5), 281; https://doi.org/10.3390/universe8050281 - 12 May 2022
Viewed by 470
Abstract
It was proven that the class of stable interatomic potentials can be represented exactly as a superposition of Yukawa potentials. In this paper, an auxiliary scalar field was introduced to describe the dynamics of a system of neutral particles (atoms) in the framework [...] Read more.
It was proven that the class of stable interatomic potentials can be represented exactly as a superposition of Yukawa potentials. In this paper, an auxiliary scalar field was introduced to describe the dynamics of a system of neutral particles (atoms) in the framework of classical field theory. In the case of atoms at rest, this field is equivalent to the interatomic potential, but in the dynamic case, it describes the dynamics of a system of atoms interacting through a relativistic classical field. A relativistic Lagrangian is proposed for a system consisting of atoms and an auxiliary scalar field. A complete system of equations for the relativistic dynamics of a system consisting of atoms and an auxiliary field was obtained. A closed kinetic equation was derived for the probability-free microscopic distribution function of atoms. It was shown that the finite mass of the auxiliary field leads to a significant increase in the effect of interaction retardation in the dynamics of a system of interacting particles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Kinetic Processes in Relativistic Domain)
Communication
Modified Supergravity Phenomenology in Gravitational Waves Era
Universe 2022, 8(5), 280; https://doi.org/10.3390/universe8050280 - 12 May 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 462
Abstract
We discuss phenomenological aspects of modified supergravity (MSG) in gravitational wave (GW) physics. MSG naturally provides double inflation and primordial black holes (PBHs) as cold dark matter. Intriguingly, MSG predicts a large amplification of the scalar and tensor perturbation power spectrum, generating a [...] Read more.
We discuss phenomenological aspects of modified supergravity (MSG) in gravitational wave (GW) physics. MSG naturally provides double inflation and primordial black holes (PBHs) as cold dark matter. Intriguingly, MSG predicts a large amplification of the scalar and tensor perturbation power spectrum, generating a secondary GW stochastic background which can be tested in space-based interferometers. Full article
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Article
Short-Term Consequences of Asteroid Impacts into the Ocean: A Portuguese Case Study
Universe 2022, 8(5), 279; https://doi.org/10.3390/universe8050279 - 10 May 2022
Viewed by 522
Abstract
Asteroid impacts are a proven global threat, meaning that any location on Earth might be a subject to their consequences. Such collisions are not likely in any person’s lifetime, but their aftermath could be catastrophic. As Earth’s surface is mostly water, a water [...] Read more.
Asteroid impacts are a proven global threat, meaning that any location on Earth might be a subject to their consequences. Such collisions are not likely in any person’s lifetime, but their aftermath could be catastrophic. As Earth’s surface is mostly water, a water impact is more probable than a ground impact, and tsunami waves could pose a significant threat. This study expands the knowledge about asteroid impacts in the ocean and their regional environmental consequences. Three asteroids were assumed to impact the Earth: (1) the Apophis asteroid, a 370 m wide asteroid, (2) a 204 m in diameter asteroid representative of the average impactor on the near-Earth objects, and (3) a 5 km in diameter asteroid. We evaluated the consequences of all impacts for a specific case study, where the chosen impact location was the midpoint between Portugal’s mainland, Azores, and Madeira Islands. The cratering process, generated seismic shaking, overpressure, ejected material, induced thermal radiation, and tsunami waves were assessed, along with the global effects. The overpressure mainly causes structural damage. The thermal radiation can be devastating but has a short reach. The tsunami is undoubtedly the most far-reaching and threatening effect of an asteroid impact in the ocean. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Small Bodies in the Solar System)
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Article
Bound Orbits and Epicyclic Motions around Renormalization Group Improved Schwarzschild Black Holes
Universe 2022, 8(5), 278; https://doi.org/10.3390/universe8050278 - 10 May 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 519
Abstract
We study timelike particles’ bound orbits around renormalization group improved Schwarzschild black holes (RGISBHs), which originate from renormalization group improvement of the Einstein–Hilbert action by using the running Newton constant. By considering the secular periastron precession for the timelike particles orbiting around RGISBHs, [...] Read more.
We study timelike particles’ bound orbits around renormalization group improved Schwarzschild black holes (RGISBHs), which originate from renormalization group improvement of the Einstein–Hilbert action by using the running Newton constant. By considering the secular periastron precession for the timelike particles orbiting around RGISBHs, we found that it is not feasible to distinguish such black holes from Schwarzschild ones in the weak gravitational field. However, in the strong gravitational field, periodic orbits for the particles are investigated by employing a taxonomy. This suggests that the variation of the parameters in RGISBHs can change the taxonomy. This leads to a transition from periodic motion around Schwarzschild black holes to a quasi-periodic motion around these black holes. After that, the epicyclic motions of charged particles around RGISBHs immersed in an external asymptotically uniform magnetic field are taken into account with respect to the observed twin peak quasi-periodic oscillations’ frequencies. The epicyclic motions of charged particles around such black holes in the external magnetic field can give one possible explanation for the 3:2 resonance in three low-mass X-ray binaries. Our results might provide some hints to distinguish RGISBHs from the classical black holes by using periodic orbits and epicyclic motions around the strong gravitational field. Full article
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Article
Goldstone States as Non-Local Hidden Variables
Universe 2022, 8(5), 277; https://doi.org/10.3390/universe8050277 - 09 May 2022
Viewed by 487
Abstract
We consider the theory of spinor fields in polar form, where the spinorial true degrees of freedom are isolated from their Goldstone states, and we show that these carry information about the frames which is not related to gravitation, so that their propagation [...] Read more.
We consider the theory of spinor fields in polar form, where the spinorial true degrees of freedom are isolated from their Goldstone states, and we show that these carry information about the frames which is not related to gravitation, so that their propagation is not restricted to be either causal or local: we use them to build a model of entangled spins where a singlet possesses a uniform rotation that can be made to collapse for both states simultaneously regardless their spatial distance. Models of entangled polarizations with similar properties are also sketched. An analogy with the double-slit experiment is also presented. General comments on features of Goldstone states are given. Full article
Article
On the Non-Abelian U-Duality of 11D Backgrounds
Universe 2022, 8(5), 276; https://doi.org/10.3390/universe8050276 - 09 May 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 482
Abstract
In this work, we generalise the procedure of the non-abelian T-duality based on a B-shift and a sequence of formal abelian T-dualities in non-isometric directions to 11-dimensional backgrounds. This consists of a C-shift followed by either a formal (abelian) U-duality transformation or taking [...] Read more.
In this work, we generalise the procedure of the non-abelian T-duality based on a B-shift and a sequence of formal abelian T-dualities in non-isometric directions to 11-dimensional backgrounds. This consists of a C-shift followed by either a formal (abelian) U-duality transformation or taking an IIB section. By construction, this is a solution generating transformation. We investigate the restrictions and applicability of the procedure and find that it can provide supergravity solutions for the SL(5) exceptional Drinfeld algebra only when the isometry algebra of the sigma-model target space decomposes into a direct sum. This is consistent with examples known in the literature. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section High Energy Nuclear and Particle Physics)
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Article
Solar Radio Bursts Associated with In Situ Detected Energetic Electrons in Solar Cycles 23 and 24
Universe 2022, 8(5), 275; https://doi.org/10.3390/universe8050275 - 09 May 2022
Viewed by 546
Abstract
The first comprehensive analysis between the in situ detected solar energetic electrons (SEEs) from ACE/EPAM satellite and remotely observed radio signatures in solar cycles (SCs) 23 and 24 (1997–2019) is presented. The identified solar origin of the SEEs (in terms of solar flares, [...] Read more.
The first comprehensive analysis between the in situ detected solar energetic electrons (SEEs) from ACE/EPAM satellite and remotely observed radio signatures in solar cycles (SCs) 23 and 24 (1997–2019) is presented. The identified solar origin of the SEEs (in terms of solar flares, SFs, and coronal mass ejections, CMEs) is associated with solar radio emission of types II, III and IV, where possible. Occurrence rates are calculated as a function of the radio wavelength, from the low corona to the interplanetary space near Earth. The tendencies of the different burst appearances with respect to SC, helio-longitude, and SEE intensity are also demonstrated. The corresponding trends of the driver (in terms of median values of the SF class and CME projected speed) are also shown. A comparison with the respective results when using solar energetic protons is presented and discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Solar Cosmic Rays)
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Article
The Effects of Elemental Abundances on Fitting Supernova Remnant Models to Data
Universe 2022, 8(5), 274; https://doi.org/10.3390/universe8050274 - 07 May 2022
Viewed by 505
Abstract
Models for supernova remnant (SNR) evolution can be used to determine the energy of the explosion, the age of the SNR, and the density of the surrounding medium by matching observations. Observed SNR properties derived from the X-ray spectrum include the electron temperature [...] Read more.
Models for supernova remnant (SNR) evolution can be used to determine the energy of the explosion, the age of the SNR, and the density of the surrounding medium by matching observations. Observed SNR properties derived from the X-ray spectrum include the electron temperature (kTe) and emission measure (EM) of the shocked gas. SNR models are based on hydrodynamic solutions for density, pressure, and velocity. The relations between these and kTe or EM depend on the three inputs of composition, ionization state, and electron-ion temperature ratio (Te/TI). The standard definitions and the XSPEC definitions for kTe and EM have important differences that are not well-known. The same definition used by observers of SNRs must be used in models for correct interpretation. Here, the effects of the three inputs on standard and on XSPEC versions of kTe and EM are investigated, with examples. The ratio of standard EM to the XSPEC value ranges widely, between ∼103 to ∼1, with smallest ratios for gas with low hydrogen abundance. The standard kTe differs from the XSPEC value by less than a few percent. For the illustrative example SNR J0049-7314, the ejecta component is shown to be consistent with core-collapse composition and a stellar wind environment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Galaxies and Clusters)
Article
Spectral and Timing Properties of H 1743-322 in the “Faint” 2005 Normal Outburst
Universe 2022, 8(5), 273; https://doi.org/10.3390/universe8050273 - 06 May 2022
Viewed by 493
Abstract
H 1743-322 is a well-known black hole X-ray binary (BH XRBs) that has been observed in several outbursts over the past. In this work, we have performed the spectral and timing analysis of H 1743-322 during the “faint” 2005 outburst for the first [...] Read more.
H 1743-322 is a well-known black hole X-ray binary (BH XRBs) that has been observed in several outbursts over the past. In this work, we have performed the spectral and timing analysis of H 1743-322 during the “faint” 2005 outburst for the first time with the RXTE/PCA data. In this outburst, the spectral and timing parameters (e.g., Tin, Γ, Rin, rms and QPOs, etc.) presented an obvious change and a q-like pattern was found in the Hardness Intensity Diagram (HID), which often named as the hysteresis effect of BH XRBs. The radius of the innermost stable circular orbit was constrained as RISCO∼3.50 Rg, which predicts that H 1743-322 is a lower-spin black hole. We further explored the correlation between timing and spectral properties. The relation of photon index Γ and X-ray flux, F325keV, presented a transition between negative and positive correlation when the X-ray luminosity, L325keV, is above and below a critical X-ray luminosity, LX,crit2.55×103 LEdd, which can be well explained by the Shakura-Sunyaev disk–corona model (SSD-corona) and advection-dominated accretion flow (ADAF). We also found the tight linear, negative correlation between photon index Γ and the total fractional rms. Since the amount of soft photons from the accretion disk seems invariable, an increase of the number of soft photons will dilute the variability from the harder photons. Therefore, the softer the X-ray spectra will result in the smaller total fractional rms. The above results suggested that the 2005 outburst of H 1743-322 was a normal outburst and H 1743-322 represented similar properties with other black hole X-ray binaries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multi-Messengers of Black Hole Accretion and Emission)
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Article
Oscillating Magnetized Color Superconducting Quark Stars
Universe 2022, 8(5), 272; https://doi.org/10.3390/universe8050272 - 06 May 2022
Viewed by 521
Abstract
The main objective of this work is to study the structure, composition, and oscillation modes of color superconducting quark stars with intense magnetic fields. We adopted the MIT bag model within the color superconductivity CFL framework, and we included the effects of strong [...] Read more.
The main objective of this work is to study the structure, composition, and oscillation modes of color superconducting quark stars with intense magnetic fields. We adopted the MIT bag model within the color superconductivity CFL framework, and we included the effects of strong magnetic fields to construct the equation of state of stable quark matter. We calculated observable quantities, such as the mass, radius, frequency, and damping time of the oscillation fundamental f mode of quark stars, taking into account current astrophysical constraints. The results obtained show that color superconducting magnetized quark stars satisfy the constraints imposed by the observations of massive pulsars and gravitational wave events. Furthermore, the quantities associated with the oscillation f mode of these objects fit the universal relationships for compact objects. In the context of the new multi-messenger gravitational wave astronomy era and the future asteroseismology of neutron stars, we hope that our results contribute to the understanding of the behavior of dense matter and compact objects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Superfluidity and Superconductivity in Neutron Stars)
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Article
MASTER Real-Time Multi-Message Observations of High Energy Phenomena
Universe 2022, 8(5), 271; https://doi.org/10.3390/universe8050271 - 05 May 2022
Viewed by 598
Abstract
This review considers synchronous and follow-up MASTER Global Robotic Net optical observations of high energy astrophysical phenomena such as fast radio bursts (FRB), gamma-ray bursts (including prompt optical emission polarization discovery), gravitational-wave events, detected by LIGO/VIRGO (including GW170817 and independent Kilonova discovery), high [...] Read more.
This review considers synchronous and follow-up MASTER Global Robotic Net optical observations of high energy astrophysical phenomena such as fast radio bursts (FRB), gamma-ray bursts (including prompt optical emission polarization discovery), gravitational-wave events, detected by LIGO/VIRGO (including GW170817 and independent Kilonova discovery), high energy neutrino sources (including the detection of IC-170922A progenitor) and others. We report on the first large optical monitoring campaign of the closest at that moment radio burster FRB 180916.J0158+65 simultaneously with a radio burst. We obtained synchronous limits on the optical flux of the FRB 180916.J0158+65 and FRB 200428 (soft gamma repeater SGR 1935+2154) (The CHIME/FRB Collaboration, Nature 2020, 587) at 155093 MASTER images with the total exposure time equal to 2,705,058 s, i.e., 31.3 days. It follows from these synchronous limitations that the ratio of the energies released in the optical and radio ranges does not exceed 4 × 105. Our optical monitoring covered a total of 6 weeks. On 28 April 2020, MASTER automatically following up on a Swift alert began to observe the galactic soft gamma repeater SGR 1935+2154 experienced another flare. On the same day, radio telescopes detected a short radio burst FRB 200428 and MASTER-Tavrida telescope determined the best prompt optical limit of FRB/SGR 1935+2154. Our optical limit shows that X-ray and radio emissions are not explained by a single power-law spectrum. In the course of our observations, using special methods, we found a faint extended afterglow in the FRB 180916.J0158+65 direction associated with the extended emission of the host galaxy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Cosmology and Subatomic Particle Physics)
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Article
Dust Formation in the Wind of AGB Stars—The Effects of Mass, Metallicity and Gas-Dust Drift
Universe 2022, 8(5), 270; https://doi.org/10.3390/universe8050270 - 05 May 2022
Viewed by 640
Abstract
Dust production in the wind of stars evolving through the asymptotic giant branch is investigated by using a stationary wind model, applied to results from stellar evolution modelling. Results regarding 1–8M stars of metallicities Z=0.014 (solar) and [...] Read more.
Dust production in the wind of stars evolving through the asymptotic giant branch is investigated by using a stationary wind model, applied to results from stellar evolution modelling. Results regarding 1–8M stars of metallicities Z=0.014 (solar) and Z=2×103 are compared, to infer the role played by stellar mass and chemical composition on the dust formation process. We find a dichotomy in mass: stars of (initial) mass below ∼3M produce silicates and alumina dust before they become carbon stars, then carbonaceous dust; the higher mass counterparts produce only silicates and alumina dust, in quantities that scale with metallicity. The presence of drifts with average drift velocities ∼5 Km/s leads to higher dust formation rates owing to the higher growth rates of the dust grains of the different species. However, no significant changes are found in the overall optical depths, because the higher rate of dust formations favours a fast expansion of the wind, that prevents further significant production of dust. As far as oxygen-rich stars are concerned, the presence of drifts makes the main dust component to change from olivine to pyroxene. The release of the assumption that the number density of the seed particles is independent of the dust species considered affects dust formation in the wind of carbon stars: a factor 10 reduction in the density of the seeds of SiC leads to bigger sized SiC grains, and partly inhibits the formation of solid carbon, since the wind is accelerated and the densities in the carbon formation zone are smaller. No substantial differences are found in the winds of oxygen-rich stars. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Stellar Astronomy)
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Communication
Causality in a Qubit-Based Implementation of a Quantum Switch
Universe 2022, 8(5), 269; https://doi.org/10.3390/universe8050269 - 04 May 2022
Viewed by 557
Abstract
We introduce a qubit-based version of the quantum switch, consisting of a variation of the Fermi problem. Two qubits start in a superposition state in which one qubit is excited and the other is in the ground state. However, it is not defined [...] Read more.
We introduce a qubit-based version of the quantum switch, consisting of a variation of the Fermi problem. Two qubits start in a superposition state in which one qubit is excited and the other is in the ground state. However, it is not defined which is the excited qubit. Then, after some time, if a photon is detected, we know that it must have experienced an emission by one atom and then an absorption and re-emission by the other one, but the ordering of the emission events by both qubits is undefined. While it is tempting to refer to this scenario as one with indefinite causality or a superposition of causal orders, we show that there is still a precise notion of causality: the probability of excitation of each atom is totally independent of the other one when the times are short enough to prevent photon exchange. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Foundations of Quantum Mechanics and Quantum Gravity)
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Article
Effective Actions for Regge Piecewise Flat Quantum Gravity
Universe 2022, 8(5), 268; https://doi.org/10.3390/universe8050268 - 29 Apr 2022
Viewed by 494
Abstract
We review the construction of the path integral and the corresponding effective action for the Regge formulation of General Relativity under the assumption that the short-distance structure of the spacetime is not a smooth 4-manifold, but a piecewise linear manifold based on a [...] Read more.
We review the construction of the path integral and the corresponding effective action for the Regge formulation of General Relativity under the assumption that the short-distance structure of the spacetime is not a smooth 4-manifold, but a piecewise linear manifold based on a triangulation of a smooth 4-manifold. We point out that the exponentially damped 4-volume path-integral measure does not give a finite path integral, although it can be used for the construction of the perturbative effective action. We modify the 4-volume measure by multiplying it by an inverse power of the product of the edge-lengths such that the new measure gives a finite path integral while it retains all the nice features of the unmodified measure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Probing Quantum Gravity)
Article
Bayesian Methods for Inferring Missing Data in the BATSE Catalog of Short Gamma-Ray Bursts
Universe 2022, 8(5), 267; https://doi.org/10.3390/universe8050267 - 28 Apr 2022
Viewed by 610
Abstract
The knowledge of the redshifts of Short-duration Gamma-Ray Bursts (SGRBs) is essential for constraining their cosmic rates and thereby the rates of related astrophysical phenomena, particularly Gravitational Wave Radiation (GWR) events. Many of the events detected by gamma-ray observatories (e.g., BATSE, Fermi, and [...] Read more.
The knowledge of the redshifts of Short-duration Gamma-Ray Bursts (SGRBs) is essential for constraining their cosmic rates and thereby the rates of related astrophysical phenomena, particularly Gravitational Wave Radiation (GWR) events. Many of the events detected by gamma-ray observatories (e.g., BATSE, Fermi, and Swift) lack experimentally measured redshifts. To remedy this, we present and discuss a generic data-driven probabilistic modeling framework to infer the unknown redshifts of SGRBs in the BATSE catalog. We further explain how the proposed probabilistic modeling technique can be applied to newer catalogs of SGRBs and other astronomical surveys to infer the missing data in the catalogs. Full article
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Article
Avoiding Bias in Measurements of Fundamental Constants from High Resolution Quasar Spectra
Universe 2022, 8(5), 266; https://doi.org/10.3390/universe8050266 - 27 Apr 2022
Viewed by 535
Abstract
Recent advances in spectroscopic instrumentation and calibration methods dramatically improve the quality of quasar spectra. Supercomputer calculations show that, at high spectral resolution, procedures used in some previous analyses of spacetime variations of fundamental constants are likely to generate spurious measurements, biased systematically [...] Read more.
Recent advances in spectroscopic instrumentation and calibration methods dramatically improve the quality of quasar spectra. Supercomputer calculations show that, at high spectral resolution, procedures used in some previous analyses of spacetime variations of fundamental constants are likely to generate spurious measurements, biased systematically towards a null result. Developments in analysis methods are also summarised and a prescription given for the analysis of new and forthcoming data. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Alternative Gravities and Fundamental Cosmology)
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Article
Crossing of Phantom Divide Line in Model of Interacting Tsallis Holographic Dark Energy
Universe 2022, 8(5), 265; https://doi.org/10.3390/universe8050265 - 27 Apr 2022
Viewed by 534
Abstract
We consider a Tsallis holographic dark energy model with interaction between dark energy and matter. The density of dark energy is taken as ρd3C2/L42γ, where C, γ are constants. The [...] Read more.
We consider a Tsallis holographic dark energy model with interaction between dark energy and matter. The density of dark energy is taken as ρd3C2/L42γ, where C, γ are constants. The event horizon is chosen as the characteristic scale L. The cosmological dynamics of the universe are analyzed, with special attention paid to the possibility of crossing the phantom line weff=1. It is shown that for certain values of parameters this may occur not only once, but also twice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Cosmology)
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Article
Effects of a Finite Volume in the Phase Structure of QCD
Universe 2022, 8(5), 264; https://doi.org/10.3390/universe8050264 - 26 Apr 2022
Viewed by 600
Abstract
Working in the SU(2) flavor version of the NJL model, we study the effect of taking a finite system volume on a strongly interacting system of quarks, and, in particular, the location of the chiral phase transition and the CEP. We consider two [...] Read more.
Working in the SU(2) flavor version of the NJL model, we study the effect of taking a finite system volume on a strongly interacting system of quarks, and, in particular, the location of the chiral phase transition and the CEP. We consider two shapes for the volume, spherical and cubic regions with different sizes and different boundary conditions. To analyze the QCD phase diagram, we use a novel criterion to study the crossover zone. A comparison between the results obtained from the two different shapes and several boundary conditions is carried out. We use the method of Multiple Reflection Expansion to determine the density of states and three kinds of boundary conditions over the cubic shape. These boundary conditions are: periodic, anti-periodic and stationary boundary conditions on the quark fields. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section High Energy Nuclear and Particle Physics)
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