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Metabolites, Volume 8, Issue 4 (December 2018)

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Open AccessArticle Endogenous Anti-Inflammatory Very-Long-Chain Dicarboxylic Acids: Potential Chemopreventive Lipids
Metabolites 2018, 8(4), 76; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo8040076
Received: 26 September 2018 / Revised: 31 October 2018 / Accepted: 1 November 2018 / Published: 3 November 2018
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Abstract
In a paradigm shift, cancer research efforts are being dedicated to the discovery of chemopreventive agents. The goal of this approach is to delay or prevent the progression of augmented cell division to established cancer. Research has focused on dietary supplements, drugs, and
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In a paradigm shift, cancer research efforts are being dedicated to the discovery of chemopreventive agents. The goal of this approach is to delay or prevent the progression of augmented cell division to established cancer. Research has focused on dietary supplements, drugs, and endogenous lipids that possess anti-inflammatory properties. We undertook a lipidomics analysis of potential endogenous anti-inflammatory/anti-proliferative lipids in human plasma. We performed high-resolution mass spectrometric lipidomics analyses of plasma samples from controls and patients with colorectal, kidney, pancreatic, glioblastoma, and breast cancers. We present evidence that endogenous very-long-chain dicarboxylic acids (VLCDCA) are anti-inflammatory lipids that possess chemopreventative properties. In a family of VLCDCAs, we characterized VLCDCA 28:4, which is decreased in the plasma of patients with colorectal, kidney, and pancreatic cancers. The structure of this biomarker was validated by derivatization strategies, synthesis of the analytical standard, and tandem mass spectrometry. Our data suggest that VLCDCA 28:4 may be a useful blood biomarker for a number of cancers and that resupplying this lipid, via a prodrug for example, may offer a new anti-inflammatory therapeutic strategy for delaying or preventing the progression of cancer and other inflammatory diseases. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) Quantification of Metabolites in Stool Using 13C Labelled Compounds
Metabolites 2018, 8(4), 75; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo8040075
Received: 21 September 2018 / Revised: 24 October 2018 / Accepted: 29 October 2018 / Published: 31 October 2018
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Abstract
It has become increasingly important to qualitatively and quantitatively assess the volatile metabolites in a range of bodily fluids for use in monitoring health. There has been relatively little work on the quantitative analysis of compounds, particularly with respect to the effects of
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It has become increasingly important to qualitatively and quantitatively assess the volatile metabolites in a range of bodily fluids for use in monitoring health. There has been relatively little work on the quantitative analysis of compounds, particularly with respect to the effects of ethnicity or geographic location. A novel method for the quantification of compounds in stool using 13C labelled compounds as internal standards is presented. Using thermal desorption gas chromatography mass spectrometry, stool samples from 38 healthy volunteers were analysed. The 13C labelled compounds, acetone, ethyl butanoate, ethanoic acid, butanoic acid, 3-methylbutanoic acid, and indole, were added as internal standards. This process mimics the solubility characteristics of the compounds and thus the method was able to quantify the compounds within the solid stool. In total, 15 compounds were quantified: Dimethyl sulphide (26–25,626 ng/g), acetone (442–3006 ng/g), ethyl butanoate (39–2468 ng/g), ethyl 2-methylbutanoate (0.3–180 ng/g), dimethyl disulphide (35–1303 ng/g), 1-octen-3-one (12 ng/g), dimethyl trisulphide (10–410 ng/g), 1-octen-3-ol (0.4–58 ng/g), ethanoic acid (672–12,963 ng/g), butanoic acid (2493–11,553 ng/g), 3-methylbutanoic acid (64–8262 ng/g), pentanoic acid (88–21,886 ng/g), indole (290–5477 ng/g), and 3-methyl indole (37–3483 ng/g). Moreover, by altering the pH of the stool to pH 13 in conjunction with the addition of 13C trimethylamine, the method was successful in detecting and quantifying trimethylamine for the first time in stool samples (range 40–5312 ng/g). Statistical analysis revealed that samples from U.K. origin had five significantly different compounds (ethyl butanoate, 1-octen-3-ol, ethanoic acid, butanoic acid, pentanoic acid, and indole) from those of South American origin. However, there were no significant differences between vegetarian and omnivore samples. These findings are supported by pre-existing literature evidence. Moreover, we have tentatively identified 12 compounds previously not reported as having been found in stool. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Determination of Predominant Organic Acid Components in Malus Species: Correlation with Apple Domestication
Metabolites 2018, 8(4), 74; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo8040074
Received: 29 September 2018 / Revised: 25 October 2018 / Accepted: 29 October 2018 / Published: 31 October 2018
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Abstract
Significant variation in organic acid components was detected in mature fruits of 101 apple accessions using high-performance liquid chromatography. The Malus species predominantly accumulated malic acid and citric acid, whereas wild fruits exhibited significantly higher levels of organic acid content than that in
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Significant variation in organic acid components was detected in mature fruits of 101 apple accessions using high-performance liquid chromatography. The Malus species predominantly accumulated malic acid and citric acid, whereas wild fruits exhibited significantly higher levels of organic acid content than that in cultivated fruits. Differential accumulation patterns during fruit developmental stages was detected between malic acid and citric acid, thus suggesting a complex genetic regulation mechanism of organic acid metabolism in apple fruit. A highly positive correlation was detected between fruit total organic acid content with malic acid and citric acid content, thus suggesting that malic acid and citric acid are the principal determinants of apple fruit acidity. In contrast to malic acid, citric acid was predominantly detected in partial wild apples, while extremely low to undetectable concentrations of citric acid were observed in cultivated apple fruits; this is likely due to the genetic effects of parental characters. Our results provide vital information that could be useful for future studies on genetic analysis and improvement of organic acid accumulation in apple fruits. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Microbiota and Metabolite Profiling of Spoiled Spanish-Style Green Table Olives
Metabolites 2018, 8(4), 73; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo8040073
Received: 4 October 2018 / Revised: 23 October 2018 / Accepted: 29 October 2018 / Published: 31 October 2018
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Abstract
The aim of the present study was to assess the malodorous spoilages of Spanish-style green table olives through microbial and metabolite composition using current measuring techniques (e.g., high-throughput DNA sequencing, headspace solid-phase microextraction combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry). Under different alkaline and washing
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The aim of the present study was to assess the malodorous spoilages of Spanish-style green table olives through microbial and metabolite composition using current measuring techniques (e.g., high-throughput DNA sequencing, headspace solid-phase microextraction combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry). Under different alkaline and washing conditions, the spoilage fermentations were reproduced with Gordal and Manzanilla olive cultivars using a low salt concentration (71 g L−1 NaCl) in the initial brine. The degradation of lactic acid and significant increases in volatile fatty acids and phenols were found in all the spoiled samples in comparison with the unspoiled control samples. According to high-throughput DNA sequencing, Cardiobacteriaceae and Ruminococcus were the dominant bacteria in the spoiled samples. PLS regression and Pearson’s correlation coefficient analyses revealed positive and negative correlations among microbial communities, metabolites, and sensory spoilage descriptors. Notably, the “zapatera” descriptor was significantly associated with Propionibacterium, which was positively correlated with acetic acid, propionic acid, succinic acid, and methyl propanoate; while the “butyric” descriptor exhibited a significant positive relationship with the genus Ruminococcus, which gave an almost significant correlation with propionic and butyric acids. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Quenching for Microalgal Metabolomics: A Case Study on the Unicellular Eukaryotic Green Alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii
Metabolites 2018, 8(4), 72; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo8040072
Received: 14 October 2018 / Revised: 25 October 2018 / Accepted: 29 October 2018 / Published: 31 October 2018
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Abstract
Capturing a valid snapshot of the metabolome requires rapid quenching of enzyme activities. This is a crucial step in order to halt the constant flux of metabolism and high turnover rate of metabolites. Quenching with cold aqueous methanol is treated as a gold
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Capturing a valid snapshot of the metabolome requires rapid quenching of enzyme activities. This is a crucial step in order to halt the constant flux of metabolism and high turnover rate of metabolites. Quenching with cold aqueous methanol is treated as a gold standard so far, however, reliability of metabolomics data obtained is in question due to potential problems connected to leakage of intracellular metabolites. Therefore, we investigated the influence of various parameters such as quenching solvents, methanol concentration, inclusion of buffer additives, quenching time and solvent to sample ratio on intracellular metabolite leakage from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. We measured the recovery of twelve metabolite classes using gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) in all possible fractions and established mass balance to trace the fate of metabolites during quenching treatments. Our data demonstrate significant loss of intracellular metabolites with the use of the conventional 60% methanol, and that an increase in methanol concentration or quenching time also resulted in higher leakage. Inclusion of various buffer additives showed 70 mM HEPES (4-(2-hydroxyethyl)-1-piperazineethanesulfonic acid) to be suitable. In summary, we recommend quenching with 60% aqueous methanol supplemented with 70 mM HEPES (−40 °C) at 1:1 sample to quenching solvent ratio, as it resulted in higher recoveries for intracellular metabolites with subsequent reduction in the metabolite leakage for all metabolite classes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metabolites from Phototrophic Prokaryotes and Algae Volume 2)
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Open AccessArticle Metabolomic Profiling of Bile Acids in an Experimental Model of Prodromal Parkinson’s Disease
Metabolites 2018, 8(4), 71; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo8040071
Received: 2 October 2018 / Revised: 23 October 2018 / Accepted: 26 October 2018 / Published: 31 October 2018
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Abstract
For people with Parkinson’s disease (PD), considered the most common neurodegenerative disease behind Alzheimer’s disease, accurate diagnosis is dependent on many factors; however, misdiagnosis is extremely common in the prodromal phases of the disease, when treatment is thought to be most effective. Currently,
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For people with Parkinson’s disease (PD), considered the most common neurodegenerative disease behind Alzheimer’s disease, accurate diagnosis is dependent on many factors; however, misdiagnosis is extremely common in the prodromal phases of the disease, when treatment is thought to be most effective. Currently, there are no robust biomarkers that aid in the early diagnosis of PD. Following previously reported work by our group, we accurately measured the concentrations of 18 bile acids in the serum of a prodromal mouse model of PD. We identified three bile acids at significantly different concentrations (p < 0.05) when mice representing a prodromal PD model were compared with controls. These include ω-murichoclic acid (MCAo), tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA) and ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA). All were down-regulated in prodromal PD mice with TUDCA and UDCA at significantly lower levels (17-fold and 14-fold decrease, respectively). Using the concentration of three bile acids combined with logistic regression, we can discriminate between prodromal PD mice from control mice with high accuracy (AUC (95% CI) = 0.906 (0.777–1.000)) following cross validation. Our study highlights the need to investigate bile acids as potential biomarkers that predict PD and possibly reflect the progression of manifest PD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metabolomics in Neurodegenerative Disease)
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Open AccessReview No Country for Old Worms: A Systematic Review of the Application of C. elegans to Investigate a Bacterial Source of Environmental Neurotoxicity in Parkinson’s Disease
Metabolites 2018, 8(4), 70; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo8040070
Received: 7 October 2018 / Revised: 21 October 2018 / Accepted: 26 October 2018 / Published: 29 October 2018
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Abstract
While progress has been made in discerning genetic associations with Parkinson’s disease (PD), identifying elusive environmental contributors necessitates the application of unconventional hypotheses and experimental strategies. Here, we provide an overview of studies that we conducted on a neurotoxic metabolite produced by a
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While progress has been made in discerning genetic associations with Parkinson’s disease (PD), identifying elusive environmental contributors necessitates the application of unconventional hypotheses and experimental strategies. Here, we provide an overview of studies that we conducted on a neurotoxic metabolite produced by a species of common soil bacteria, Streptomyces venezuelae (S. ven), indicating that the toxicity displayed by this bacterium causes stress in diverse cellular mechanisms, such as the ubiquitin proteasome system and mitochondrial homeostasis. This dysfunction eventually leads to age and dose-dependent neurodegeneration in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Notably, dopaminergic neurons have heightened susceptibility, but all of the neuronal classes eventually degenerate following exposure. Toxicity further extends to human SH-SY5Y cells, which also degenerate following exposure. Additionally, the neurons of nematodes expressing heterologous aggregation-prone proteins display enhanced metabolite vulnerability. These mechanistic analyses collectively reveal a unique metabolomic fingerprint for this bacterially-derived neurotoxin. In considering that epidemiological distinctions in locales influence the incidence of PD, we surveyed soils from diverse regions of Alabama, and found that exposure to ~30% of isolated Streptomyces species caused worm dopaminergic neurons to die. In addition to aging, one of the few established contributors to PD appears to be a rural lifestyle, where exposure to soil on a regular basis might increase the risk of interaction with bacteria producing such toxins. Taken together, these data suggest that a novel toxicant within the Streptomyces genus might represent an environmental contributor to the progressive neurodegeneration that is associated with PD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metabolomics in Neurodegenerative Disease)
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Open AccessArticle Evidence That Parietal Lobe Fatty Acids May Be More Profoundly Affected in Moderate Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) Pathology Than in Severe AD Pathology
Metabolites 2018, 8(4), 69; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo8040069
Received: 10 September 2018 / Revised: 19 October 2018 / Accepted: 25 October 2018 / Published: 26 October 2018
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Abstract
Brain is a lipid-rich tissue, and fatty acids (FAs) play a crucial role in brain function, including neuronal cell growth and development. This study used GC-MS to survey all detectable FAs in the human parietal cortex (Brodmann area 7). These FAs were accurately
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Brain is a lipid-rich tissue, and fatty acids (FAs) play a crucial role in brain function, including neuronal cell growth and development. This study used GC-MS to survey all detectable FAs in the human parietal cortex (Brodmann area 7). These FAs were accurately quantified in 27 cognitively normal age-matched controls, 16 cases of moderate Alzheimer’s disease (AD), 30 severe AD, and 14 dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). A total of 24 FA species were identified. Multiple comparison procedures, using stepdown permutation tests, noted higher levels of 13 FAs but the majority of changes were in moderate AD and DLB, rather than severe AD. Subjects with moderate AD and DLB pathology exhibited significantly higher levels of a number of FAs (13 FAs and 12 FAs, respectively). These included nervonic, lignoceric, cis-13,16-docosadienoic, arachidonic, cis-11,14,17-eicosatrienoic, erucic, behenic, α-linolenic, stearic, oleic, cis-10-heptanoic, and palmitic acids. The similarities between moderate AD and DLB were quite striking—arachidic acid was the only FA which was higher in moderate AD than control, and was not similarly affected in DLB. Furthermore, there were no significant differences between moderate AD and DLB. The associations between each FA and a number of variables, including diagnosis, age, gender, Aβ plaque load, tau load, and frontal tissue pH, were also investigated. To conclude, the development of AD or DLB pathology affects brain FA composition but, intriguingly, moderate AD neuropathology impacts this to a much greater extent. Post-mortem delay is a potential confounding factor, but the findings here suggest that there could be a more dynamic metabolic response in the earlier stages of the disease pathology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metabolomics in Neurodegenerative Disease)
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Open AccessArticle Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis and Bayesian Networks for Metabolomic Prediction of Childhood Asthma
Metabolites 2018, 8(4), 68; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo8040068
Received: 4 September 2018 / Revised: 18 October 2018 / Accepted: 18 October 2018 / Published: 23 October 2018
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Abstract
To explore novel methods for the analysis of metabolomics data, we compared the ability of Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA) and Bayesian networks (BN) to build predictive plasma metabolite models of age three asthma status in 411 three year olds (n
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To explore novel methods for the analysis of metabolomics data, we compared the ability of Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA) and Bayesian networks (BN) to build predictive plasma metabolite models of age three asthma status in 411 three year olds (n = 59 cases and 352 controls) from the Vitamin D Antenatal Asthma Reduction Trial (VDAART) study. The standard PLS-DA approach had impressive accuracy for the prediction of age three asthma with an Area Under the Curve Convex Hull (AUCCH) of 81%. However, a permutation test indicated the possibility of overfitting. In contrast, a predictive Bayesian network including 42 metabolites had a significantly higher AUCCH of 92.1% (p for difference < 0.001), with no evidence that this accuracy was due to overfitting. Both models provided biologically informative insights into asthma; in particular, a role for dysregulated arginine metabolism and several exogenous metabolites that deserve further investigation as potential causative agents. As the BN model outperformed the PLS-DA model in both accuracy and decreased risk of overfitting, it may therefore represent a viable alternative to typical analytical approaches for the investigation of metabolomics data. Full article
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Open AccessReview Current Applications of Metabolomics in Cirrhosis
Metabolites 2018, 8(4), 67; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo8040067
Received: 4 September 2018 / Revised: 30 September 2018 / Accepted: 8 October 2018 / Published: 22 October 2018
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Abstract
Metabolomics is the identification and quantification of all or specified metabolites in a living system under a specific condition or disease. Metabolomics in cirrhosis can be used in diagnosing complications, determining prognosis and assessment of response to therapy. In this review, we summarized
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Metabolomics is the identification and quantification of all or specified metabolites in a living system under a specific condition or disease. Metabolomics in cirrhosis can be used in diagnosing complications, determining prognosis and assessment of response to therapy. In this review, we summarized representative applications of metabolomics in cirrhosis and significant metabolites associated with cirrhosis and its complications. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Intracellular Fate of Universally Labelled 13C Isotopic Tracers of Glucose and Xylose in Central Metabolic Pathways of Xanthomonas oryzae
Metabolites 2018, 8(4), 66; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo8040066
Received: 31 July 2018 / Revised: 26 September 2018 / Accepted: 11 October 2018 / Published: 15 October 2018
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Abstract
The goal of this study is to map the metabolic pathways of poorly understood bacterial phytopathogen, Xanthomonas oryzae (Xoo) BXO43 fed with plant mimicking media XOM2 containing glutamate, methionine and either 40% [13C5] xylose or 40% [13C
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The goal of this study is to map the metabolic pathways of poorly understood bacterial phytopathogen, Xanthomonas oryzae (Xoo) BXO43 fed with plant mimicking media XOM2 containing glutamate, methionine and either 40% [13C5] xylose or 40% [13C6] glucose. The metabolic networks mapped using the KEGG mapper and the mass isotopomer fragments of proteinogenic amino acids derived from GC-MS provided insights into the activities of Xoo central metabolic pathways. The average 13C in histidine, aspartate and other amino acids confirmed the activities of PPP, the TCA cycle and amino acid biosynthetic routes, respectively. The similar labelling patterns of amino acids (His, Ala, Ser, Val and Gly) from glucose and xylose feeding experiments suggests that PPP would be the main metabolic route in Xoo. Owing to the lack of annotated gene phosphoglucoisomerase in BXO43, the 13C incorporation in alanine could not be attributed to the competing pathways and hence warrants additional positional labelling experiments. The negligible presence of 13C incorporation in methionine brings into question its potential role in metabolism and pathogenicity. The extent of the average 13C labelling in several amino acids highlighted the contribution of pre-existing pools that need to be accounted for in 13C-flux analysis studies. This study provided the first qualitative insights into central carbon metabolic pathway activities in Xoo. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pathway Mapping)
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Open AccessArticle The Effect of High-Intensity Ultraviolet Light to Elicit Microalgal Cell Lysis and Enhance Lipid Extraction
Metabolites 2018, 8(4), 65; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo8040065
Received: 27 August 2018 / Revised: 9 October 2018 / Accepted: 11 October 2018 / Published: 15 October 2018
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Abstract
Currently, the energy required to produce biofuel from algae is 1.38 times the energy available from the fuel. Current methods do not deliver scalable, commercially viable cell wall disruption, which creates a bottleneck on downstream processing. This is primarily due to the methods
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Currently, the energy required to produce biofuel from algae is 1.38 times the energy available from the fuel. Current methods do not deliver scalable, commercially viable cell wall disruption, which creates a bottleneck on downstream processing. This is primarily due to the methods depositing energy within the water as opposed to within the algae. This study investigates ultraviolet B (UVB) as a disruption method for the green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, Dunaliella salina and Micractinium inermum to enhance solvent lipid extraction. After 232 seconds of UVB exposure at 1.5 W/cm2, cultures of C. reinhardtii (culture density 0.7 mg/mL) showed 90% disruption, measured using cell counting, correlating to an energy consumption of 5.6 MJ/L algae. Small-scale laboratory tests on C. reinhardtii showed bead beating achieving 45.3 mg/L fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) and UV irradiation achieving 79.9 mg/L (lipids solvent extracted and converted to FAME for measurement). The alga M. inermum required a larger dosage of UVB due to its thicker cell wall, achieving a FAME yield of 226 mg/L, compared with 208 mg/L for bead beating. This indicates that UV disruption had a higher efficiency when used for solvent lipid extraction. This study serves as a proof of concept for UV irradiation as a method for algal cell disruption. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metabolites from Phototrophic Prokaryotes and Algae Volume 2)
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Open AccessArticle Atypical Antipsychotics and the Human Skeletal Muscle Lipidome
Metabolites 2018, 8(4), 64; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo8040064
Received: 11 September 2018 / Revised: 5 October 2018 / Accepted: 12 October 2018 / Published: 13 October 2018
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Abstract
Atypical antipsychotics (AAPs) are a class of medications associated with significant metabolic side effects, including insulin resistance. The aim of this study was to analyze the skeletal muscle lipidome of patients on AAPs, compared to mood stabilizers, to further understand the molecular changes
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Atypical antipsychotics (AAPs) are a class of medications associated with significant metabolic side effects, including insulin resistance. The aim of this study was to analyze the skeletal muscle lipidome of patients on AAPs, compared to mood stabilizers, to further understand the molecular changes underlying AAP treatment and side effects. Bipolar patients on AAPs or mood stabilizers underwent a fasting muscle biopsy and assessment of insulin sensitivity. A lipidomic analysis of total fatty acids (TFAs), phosphatidylcholines (PCs) and ceramides (CERs) was performed on the muscle biopsies, then lipid species were compared between treatment groups, and correlation analyses were performed with insulin sensitivity. TFAs and PCs were decreased and CERs were increased in the AAP group relative to those in the mood stabilizer group (FDR q-value <0.05). A larger number of TFAs and PCs were positively correlated with insulin sensitivity in the AAP group compared to those in the mood stabilizer group. In contrast, a larger number of CERs were negatively correlated with insulin sensitivity in the AAP group compared to that in the mood stabilizer group. The findings here suggest that AAPs are associated with changes in the lipid profiles of human skeletal muscle when compared to mood stabilizers and that these changes correlate with insulin sensitivity. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Comparative Rice Bran Metabolomics across Diverse Cultivars and Functional Rice Gene–Bran Metabolite Relationships
Metabolites 2018, 8(4), 63; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo8040063
Received: 14 September 2018 / Revised: 3 October 2018 / Accepted: 6 October 2018 / Published: 9 October 2018
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Abstract
Rice (Oryza sativa L.) processing yields ~60 million metric tons of bran annually. Rice genes producing bran metabolites of nutritional and human health importance were assessed across 17 diverse cultivars from seven countries using non-targeted metabolomics, and resulted in 378–430 metabolites. Gambiaka
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Rice (Oryza sativa L.) processing yields ~60 million metric tons of bran annually. Rice genes producing bran metabolites of nutritional and human health importance were assessed across 17 diverse cultivars from seven countries using non-targeted metabolomics, and resulted in 378–430 metabolites. Gambiaka cultivar had the highest number and Njavara had the lowest number of metabolites. The 71 rice bran compounds of significant variation by cultivar included 21 amino acids, seven carbohydrates, two metabolites from cofactors and vitamins, 33 lipids, six nucleotides, and two secondary metabolites. Tryptophan, α-ketoglutarate, γ-tocopherol/β-tocopherol, and γ-tocotrienol are examples of bran metabolites with extensive cultivar variation and genetic information. Thirty-four rice bran components that varied between cultivars linked to 535 putative biosynthetic genes using to the OryzaCyc 4.0, Plant Metabolic Network database. Rice genes responsible for bran composition with animal and human health importance is available for rice breeding programs to utilize in crop improvement. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant, Food and Nutritional Metabolomics for Health Enhancement)
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Open AccessArticle Microdialysis-Assessed Adipose Tissue Metabolism, Circulating Cytokines and Outcome in Critical Illness
Metabolites 2018, 8(4), 62; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo8040062
Received: 3 September 2018 / Revised: 2 October 2018 / Accepted: 3 October 2018 / Published: 6 October 2018
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Abstract
Microdialysis (MD) can provide continuous information about tissue composition. To assess in critically ill patients adipose tissue metabolic patterns, the relationships between metabolic patterns and blood cytokine concentration associations of adipose tissue energy metabolism and clinical outcome we studied 203 mechanically ventilated general
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Microdialysis (MD) can provide continuous information about tissue composition. To assess in critically ill patients adipose tissue metabolic patterns, the relationships between metabolic patterns and blood cytokine concentration associations of adipose tissue energy metabolism and clinical outcome we studied 203 mechanically ventilated general intensive care unit (ICU) patients. Upon ICU admission an MD catheter was inserted into the subcutaneous adipose tissue of the upper thigh to measure lactate (L), glucose, pyruvate (P), and glycerol. Serum concentrations of IL-10, IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α were determined within 48 h from ICU admission. Mitochondrial dysfunction was defined as L/P ratio >30 and pyruvate ≥70 μmol/L, ischemia as L/P ratio >30 and pyruvate <70 μmol/L and no ischemia/no mitochondrial dysfunction (i.e., aerobic metabolism) was as L/P ratio ≤30. Metabolism was aerobic in 74% of patients. In 13% of patients there was biochemical evidence of ischemia and in 13% of patients of mitochondrial dysfunction. Mitochondrial dysfunction was associated with poor outcome. In conclusion, MD showed that about two thirds of critically ill patients have normal aerobic adipose tissue metabolism. Mitochondrial dysfunction was not common but was associated with poor outcome. Identifying subgroups of critically ill patients is crucial as different treatment strategies may improve survival. Full article
Open AccessArticle Metabolomic Analyses Reveal Extensive Progenitor Cell Deficiencies in a Mouse Model of Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy
Metabolites 2018, 8(4), 61; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo8040061
Received: 18 August 2018 / Revised: 25 September 2018 / Accepted: 30 September 2018 / Published: 3 October 2018
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Abstract
Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a musculoskeletal disorder that causes severe morbidity and reduced lifespan. Individuals with DMD have an X-linked mutation that impairs their ability to produce functional dystrophin protein in muscle. No cure exists for this disease and the few therapies
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Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a musculoskeletal disorder that causes severe morbidity and reduced lifespan. Individuals with DMD have an X-linked mutation that impairs their ability to produce functional dystrophin protein in muscle. No cure exists for this disease and the few therapies that are available do not dramatically delay disease progression. Thus, there is a need to better understand the mechanisms underlying DMD which may ultimately lead to improved treatment options. The muscular dystrophy (MDX) mouse model is frequently used to explore DMD disease traits. Though some studies of metabolism in dystrophic mice exist, few have characterized metabolic profiles of supporting cells in the diseased environment. Using nontargeted metabolomics we characterized metabolic alterations in muscle satellite cells (SCs) and serum of MDX mice. Additionally, live-cell imaging revealed MDX-derived adipose progenitor cell (APC) defects. Finally, metabolomic studies revealed a striking elevation of acylcarnitines in MDX APCs, which we show can inhibit APC proliferation. Together, these studies highlight widespread metabolic alterations in multiple progenitor cell types and serum from MDX mice and implicate dystrophy-associated metabolite imbalances in APCs as a potential contributor to adipose tissue disequilibrium in DMD. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Traceability of “Tuscan PGI” Extra Virgin Olive Oils by 1H NMR Metabolic Profiles Collection and Analysis
Metabolites 2018, 8(4), 60; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo8040060
Received: 11 September 2018 / Revised: 26 September 2018 / Accepted: 28 September 2018 / Published: 30 September 2018
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Abstract
According to Coldiretti, Italy still continues to hold the European Quality record in extra virgin olive oils with origin designation and protected geographical indication (PDO and PGI). To date, 46 Italian brands are recognized by the European Union: 42 PDO and 4 PGI
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According to Coldiretti, Italy still continues to hold the European Quality record in extra virgin olive oils with origin designation and protected geographical indication (PDO and PGI). To date, 46 Italian brands are recognized by the European Union: 42 PDO and 4 PGI (Tuscan PGI, Calabria PGI; Tuscia PGI and PGI Sicily). Specific regulations, introduced for these quality marks, include the designation of both the geographical areas and the plant varieties contributing to the composition of the olive oil. However, the PDO and PGI assessment procedures are currently based essentially on farmer declarations. Tuscan PGI extra virgin olive oil is one of the best known Italian trademarks around the world. Tuscan PGI varietal platform is rather wide including 31 specific olive cultivars which should account for at least 95% of the product. On the other hand, while the characteristics of other popular Italian extra virgin olive oils (EVOOs) cultivars from specific geographical areas have been extensively studied (such as those of Coratina based blends from Apulia), little is still known about Tuscan PGI EVOO constituents. In this work, we performed, for the first time, a large-scale analysis of Tuscan PGI monocultivar olive oils by 1H NMR spectroscopy and multivariate statistical analyses (MVA). After genetic characterization of 217 leaf samples from 24 selected geographical areas, distributed all over the Tuscany, a number of 202 micro-milled oil samples including 10 PGI cultivars, was studied. The results of the present work confirmed the need of monocultivar genetically certified EVOO samples for the construction of 1H-NMR-metabolic profiles databases suitable for cultivar and/or geographical origin assessment. Such specific PGI EVOOs databases could be profitably used to justify the high added value of the product and the sustainability of the related supply chain. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue NMR-based Metabolomics and Its Applications Volume 2)
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Open AccessArticle A Framework for Development of Useful Metabolomic Biomarkers and Their Effective Knowledge Translation
Metabolites 2018, 8(4), 59; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo8040059
Received: 6 September 2018 / Revised: 27 September 2018 / Accepted: 28 September 2018 / Published: 30 September 2018
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Abstract
Despite the significant advantages of metabolomic biomarkers, no diagnostic tests based on metabolomics have been introduced to clinical use. There are many reasons for this, centered around substantial obstacles in developing clinically useful metabolomic biomarkers. Most significant is the need for interdisciplinary teams
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Despite the significant advantages of metabolomic biomarkers, no diagnostic tests based on metabolomics have been introduced to clinical use. There are many reasons for this, centered around substantial obstacles in developing clinically useful metabolomic biomarkers. Most significant is the need for interdisciplinary teams with expertise in metabolomics, analysis of complex clinical and metabolomic data, and clinical care. Importantly, the clinical need must precede biomarker discovery, and the experimental design for discovery and validation must reflect the purpose of the biomarker. Standard operating procedures for procuring and handling samples must be developed from the beginning, to ensure experimental integrity. Assay design is another challenge, as there is not much precedent informing this. Another obstacle is that it is not yet clear how to protect any intellectual property related to metabolomic biomarkers. Viewing a metabolomic biomarker as a natural phenomenon would inhibit patent protection and potentially stifle commercial interest. However, demonstrating that a metabolomic biomarker is actually a derivative of a natural phenomenon that requires innovation would enhance investment in this field. Finally, effective knowledge translation strategies must be implemented, which will require engagement with end users (clinicians and lab physicians), patient advocate groups, policy makers, and payer organizations. Addressing each of these issues comprises the framework for introducing a metabolomic biomarker to practice. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Identifying Antibacterial Compounds in Black Walnuts (Juglans nigra) Using a Metabolomics Approach
Metabolites 2018, 8(4), 58; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo8040058
Received: 1 September 2018 / Revised: 22 September 2018 / Accepted: 28 September 2018 / Published: 29 September 2018
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Abstract
Black walnut (Juglans nigra L.) is one of the most economically valuable hardwood species and a high value tree for edible nut production in the United States. Although consumption of black walnut has been linked to multiple health-promoting effects (e.g., antioxidant, antimicrobial,
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Black walnut (Juglans nigra L.) is one of the most economically valuable hardwood species and a high value tree for edible nut production in the United States. Although consumption of black walnut has been linked to multiple health-promoting effects (e.g., antioxidant, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory), the bioactive compounds have not been systematically characterized. In addition, the associations between different black walnut cultivars and their health-promoting compounds have not been well established. In this study, the kernels of twenty-two black walnut cultivars selected for nut production by the University of Missouri Center for Agroforestry (Columbia, MO, USA) were evaluated for their antibacterial activities using agar-well diffusion assay. Among the selected cultivars, four black walnut cultivars (i.e., Mystry, Surprise, D.34, and A.36) exhibited antibacterial activity against a Gram-positive bacterium (Staphylococcus aureus), whereas other cultivars showed no effect on the inhibition of this bacterium. The antibacterial compounds showing the strongest activity were isolated with bioassay-guided purification and identified using a metabolomics approach. Six antibacterial bioactive compounds responsible for antimicrobial activity were successfully identified. Glansreginin A, azelaic acid, quercetin, and eriodictyol-7-O-glucoside are novel antibacterial compounds identified in the kernels of black walnuts. The metabolomics approach provides a simple and cost-effective tool for bioactive compound identification. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mass Spectrometry-Based Metabolomics and Its Applications)
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Open AccessArticle HPLC-qTOF-MS/MS-Based Profiling of Flavan-3-ols and Dimeric Proanthocyanidins in Berries of Two Muscadine Grape Hybrids FLH 13-11 and FLH 17-66
Metabolites 2018, 8(4), 57; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo8040057
Received: 22 August 2018 / Revised: 18 September 2018 / Accepted: 22 September 2018 / Published: 26 September 2018
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Abstract
FLH 13-11 FL and FLH 17-66 FL are two interspecific hybrid varieties of muscadine grape resulting from the cross of Vitis munsoniana (Simpson) ex Munson and V. rotundifolia. However, profiles of flavan-3-ols and proanthocyanidins in these two hybrids have not been characterized.
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FLH 13-11 FL and FLH 17-66 FL are two interspecific hybrid varieties of muscadine grape resulting from the cross of Vitis munsoniana (Simpson) ex Munson and V. rotundifolia. However, profiles of flavan-3-ols and proanthocyanidins in these two hybrids have not been characterized. Herein, we report the use of high-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole, time-of-flight, tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-qTOF-MS/MS) to characterize these two groups of metabolites in berries. Ripe berries collected from two consecutive cropping years were used to extract metabolites. Metabolites were ionized using the negative mode. Collision-induced dissociation was performed to fragmentize ions to obtain feature fragment profiles. Based on standards, MS features, and fragments resulted from MS/MS, four flavan-3-ol aglycones, 18 gallated or glycosylated conjugates, and eight dimeric procyanidins, were annotated from berry extracts. Of these 30 metabolites, six are new methylated flavan-3-ol gallates. Furthermore, comparative profiling analysis showed obvious effects of each cultivar on the composition these 30 metabolites, indicating that genotypes control biosynthesis. In addition, cropping seasons altered profiles of these metabolites, showing effects of growing years on metabolic composition. These data are informative to enhance the application of the two cultivars in grape and wine industries in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Products Metabolomics)
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Open AccessArticle Metabolomics of Two Pecan Varieties Provides Insights into Scab Resistance
Metabolites 2018, 8(4), 56; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo8040056
Received: 30 August 2018 / Revised: 19 September 2018 / Accepted: 20 September 2018 / Published: 23 September 2018
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Abstract
UHPLC-MS-based non-targeted metabolomics was used to investigate the biochemical basis of pecan scab resistance. Two contrasting pecan varieties, Kanza (scab-resistant) and Pawnee (scab-susceptible), were profiled and the metabolomics data analyzed using multivariate statistics. Significant qualitative and quantitative metabolic differences were observed between the
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UHPLC-MS-based non-targeted metabolomics was used to investigate the biochemical basis of pecan scab resistance. Two contrasting pecan varieties, Kanza (scab-resistant) and Pawnee (scab-susceptible), were profiled and the metabolomics data analyzed using multivariate statistics. Significant qualitative and quantitative metabolic differences were observed between the two varieties. Both varieties were found to have some unique metabolites. Metabolites that were only present or more abundant in Kanza relative to Pawnee could potentially contribute to the scab resistance in Kanza. Some of these metabolites were putatively identified as quercetin derivatives using tandem mass spectrometry. This suggests that quercetin derivatives could be important to pecan scab resistance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mass Spectrometry-Based Metabolomics and Its Applications)
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Open AccessArticle Metabolomics Approach for Validation of Self-Reported Ibuprofen and Acetaminophen Use
Metabolites 2018, 8(4), 55; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo8040055
Received: 29 August 2018 / Revised: 18 September 2018 / Accepted: 19 September 2018 / Published: 21 September 2018
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Abstract
Over-the-counter analgesic use is common and is typically assessed through self-report; therefore, it is subject to misclassification. Detection of drug metabolites in biofluids offers a viable tool for validating self-reported analgesic use. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine the utility
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Over-the-counter analgesic use is common and is typically assessed through self-report; therefore, it is subject to misclassification. Detection of drug metabolites in biofluids offers a viable tool for validating self-reported analgesic use. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine the utility of a metabolomics approach for the validation of acetaminophen and ibuprofen use in blood samples. Untargeted mass spectrometry-based metabolomics analysis was conducted in serum samples from 1547 women and plasma samples from 556 men. The presence of two metabolites each for acetaminophen and ibuprofen at levels at or above a defined cutoff value was used to determine concordance with self-reported use. For acetaminophen use based on the presence of both acetaminophen and acetamidophenylglucuronide, concordance was 98.5–100% among individuals reporting use today, and 79.8–91.4% for those reporting never or rare use. Ibuprofen use based on the presence of both carboxyibuprofen and hydroxyibuprofen resulted in concordance of 51.3–52.5% for individuals reporting use today and 99.4–100% for those reporting never or rare use. Our findings suggest that an untargeted metabolomics approach in blood samples may be useful for validating self-reported acetaminophen use. However, this approach appears unlikely to be suitable for validating ibuprofen use. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Lung Protection Strategies during Cardiopulmonary Bypass Affect the Composition of Bronchoalveolar Fluid and Lung Tissue in Cardiac Surgery Patients
Metabolites 2018, 8(4), 54; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo8040054
Received: 28 June 2018 / Revised: 31 August 2018 / Accepted: 19 September 2018 / Published: 21 September 2018
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Abstract
Pulmonary dysfunction is among the most frequent complications to cardiac surgeries. Exposure of blood to the cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) circuit with subsequent lung ischemia-reperfusion leads to the production of inflammatory mediators and increases in microvascular permeability. The study aimed to elucidate histological, cellular,
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Pulmonary dysfunction is among the most frequent complications to cardiac surgeries. Exposure of blood to the cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) circuit with subsequent lung ischemia-reperfusion leads to the production of inflammatory mediators and increases in microvascular permeability. The study aimed to elucidate histological, cellular, and metabolite changes following two lung protective regimens during CPB with Histidine-Tryptophan-Ketoglutarate (HTK) enriched or warm oxygenated blood pulmonary perfusion compared to standard regimen with no pulmonary perfusion. A total of 90 patients undergoing CPB were randomized to receiving HTK, oxygenated blood or standard regimen. Of these, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and lung tissue biopsies were obtained before and after CPB from 47 and 25 patients, respectively. Histopathological scores, BALF cell counts and metabolite screening were assessed. Multivariate and univariate analyses were performed. Profound histological, cellular, and metabolic changes were identified in all patients after CPB. Histological and cellular changes were similar in the three groups; however, some metabolite profiles were different in the HTK patients. While all patients presented an increase in inflammatory cells, metabolic acidosis, protease activity and oxidative stress, HTK patients seemed to be protected against severe acidosis, excessive fatty acid oxidation, and inflammation during ischemia-reperfusion. Additional studies are needed to confirm these findings. Full article
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