Next Article in Journal
A Simple and Convenient Synthesis of Unlabeled and 13C-Labeled 3-(3-Hydroxyphenyl)-3-Hydroxypropionic Acid and Its Quantification in Human Urine Samples
Next Article in Special Issue
Rapid Cerebral Metabolic Shift during Neonatal Sepsis Is Attenuated by Enteral Colostrum Supplementation in Preterm Pigs
Previous Article in Journal
Population-Level Analysis to Determine Parameters That Drive Variation in the Plasma Metabolite Profiles
Previous Article in Special Issue
Traceability of “Tuscan PGI” Extra Virgin Olive Oils by 1H NMR Metabolic Profiles Collection and Analysis
Article

Metabolomics of Breast Milk: The Importance of Phenotypes

1
Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, Neonatal Pathology and Neonatal Section, Azienda University Polyclinic, University of Cagliari, 09124 Cagliari, Italy
2
National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, 10679 Athens, Greece
3
Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, General District, Hospital Alexandra, 11528 Athens, Greece
4
Department of Chemical and Geological Sciences, University of Cagliari, 09124 Cagliari, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
The authors contributed equally to the work.
Metabolites 2018, 8(4), 79; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo8040079
Received: 25 October 2018 / Revised: 15 November 2018 / Accepted: 17 November 2018 / Published: 20 November 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue NMR-based Metabolomics and Its Applications Volume 2)
Breast milk is the gold standard of nutrition for newborns. Its composition is tailored to the nutritional needs of the infant and varies between mothers. In recent years, several bioactive molecules have been discovered in addition to the main nutrients, such as multipotent stem cells, hormones, immunoglobulins, and bacteria. Furthermore, the human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) seem to exert several important protective biological functions. According to the HMOs’ composition, breast milk can be classified as a secretory or non-secretory phenotype. In our study, we investigated the metabolome of milk collected from 58 mothers that delivered neonates at term, that were appropriate, small or large for gestational age, by performing nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-NMR). From the data analysis, two groups were distinguished based on their different types of oligosaccharides, and classified according the mother phenotype: secretory and non-secretory. This information is of major importance given the different biological function of the different HMOs, such as immune-modulation and protection against disease. This would allow us to predict whether the neonate would be, for instance, more prone to developing certain diseases, and to tailor her or his nutrition to fit their needs perfectly and pave the way to a personalized nutrition. View Full-Text
Keywords: metabolomics; human milk; NMR metabolomics; human milk; NMR
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

MDPI and ACS Style

Dessì, A.; Briana, D.; Corbu, S.; Gavrili, S.; Cesare Marincola, F.; Georgantzi, S.; Pintus, R.; Fanos, V.; Malamitsi-Puchner, A. Metabolomics of Breast Milk: The Importance of Phenotypes. Metabolites 2018, 8, 79. https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo8040079

AMA Style

Dessì A, Briana D, Corbu S, Gavrili S, Cesare Marincola F, Georgantzi S, Pintus R, Fanos V, Malamitsi-Puchner A. Metabolomics of Breast Milk: The Importance of Phenotypes. Metabolites. 2018; 8(4):79. https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo8040079

Chicago/Turabian Style

Dessì, Angelica, Despina Briana, Sara Corbu, Stavroula Gavrili, Flaminia Cesare Marincola, Sofia Georgantzi, Roberta Pintus, Vassilios Fanos, and Ariadne Malamitsi-Puchner. 2018. "Metabolomics of Breast Milk: The Importance of Phenotypes" Metabolites 8, no. 4: 79. https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo8040079

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop