Next Article in Journal
Urolithin A Is a Dietary Microbiota-Derived Human Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Antagonist
Previous Article in Journal
An Improved Genome-Scale Metabolic Model of Arthrospira platensis C1 (iAK888) and Its Application in Glycogen Overproduction
Article Menu
Issue 4 (December) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Metabolites 2018, 8(4), 85; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo8040085

Hepatic Metabolic Profile Reveals the Adaptive Mechanisms of Ewes to Severe Undernutrition during Late Gestation

Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Gastrointestinal Nutrition and Animal Health, Laboratory of Gastrointestinal Microbiology, College of Animal Science and Technology, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 24 October 2018 / Revised: 21 November 2018 / Accepted: 25 November 2018 / Published: 27 November 2018
Full-Text   |   PDF [3036 KB, uploaded 27 November 2018]   |  

Abstract

The mechanisms underlying the adaption of liver metabolism to the undernutrition in ewes during late gestation remain unclear. This research aimed to explore the adaptive mechanisms of liver metabolism by hepatic metabolome analysis in pregnant ewes to the negative energy balance induced by severe feed restriction. Twenty ewes carrying multiple fetuses and gestating for 115 days were fed normally or restricted to a 30% feed level (10 ewes in each group) for 15 days. All ewes were sacrificed and hepatic samples were collected and analyzed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Both the principal components analysis and partial least squares of discriminant analysis of hepatic metabolites showed the clear separation between ewes in the control and severely feed-restricted groups. The metabolic profile demonstrated that the proportions of differential metabolites between the two groups in fatty acids and lipids, organic acids, and amino acids and derivatives were 61.11%, 16.67%, and 11.11%, respectively. Enriched pathways of differential metabolites were mainly involved in fatty acids and amino acids metabolism and biosynthesis. Correlation networks of differential metabolites revealed that general metabolic pattern was changed apparently and mainly based on fatty acids and lipids in the livers of feed-restricted ewes. The accumulation and oxidation of long-chain fatty acids were intensified in the livers of feed-restricted ewes, while those of medium-chain fatty acids were the opposite. In general, severe feed restriction significantly affected the levels of hepatic metabolites and altered the overall metabolic pattern. Furthermore, fatty acids oxidation as well as the utilization of amino acids and organic acids were intensified to adapt to the negative energy balance during late gestation. View Full-Text
Keywords: undernutrition; adaptive mechanisms; lipid metabolism; fatty acid; amino acid undernutrition; adaptive mechanisms; lipid metabolism; fatty acid; amino acid
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material

SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Xue, Y.; Guo, C.; Hu, F.; Liu, J.; Mao, S. Hepatic Metabolic Profile Reveals the Adaptive Mechanisms of Ewes to Severe Undernutrition during Late Gestation. Metabolites 2018, 8, 85.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Metabolites EISSN 2218-1989 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top