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Cosmetics, Volume 9, Issue 4 (August 2022) – 21 articles

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Review
Analysis of Prohibited and Restricted Ingredients in Cosmetics
Cosmetics 2022, 9(4), 87; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics9040087 - 18 Aug 2022
Viewed by 132
Abstract
The general public uses cosmetics daily. Cosmetic products contain substances (ingredients) with various functions, from skincare to enhancing appearance, as well as ingredients that preserve the cosmetic products. Some cosmetic ingredients are prohibited or restricted in certain geographical regions, such as the European [...] Read more.
The general public uses cosmetics daily. Cosmetic products contain substances (ingredients) with various functions, from skincare to enhancing appearance, as well as ingredients that preserve the cosmetic products. Some cosmetic ingredients are prohibited or restricted in certain geographical regions, such as the European Union and the United States of America, due to their potential to cause adverse effects such as cancer, birth defects, and/or developmental and reproductive disorders. However, the ingredients may be used in other regions, and, hence, the monitoring of the cosmetic ingredients actually used is important to ensure the safety of cosmetic products. This review provides an overview of recent analytical methods that have been developed for detecting certain ingredients that are restricted or prohibited by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and/or EU legislation on cosmetic products. Full article
Article
Skin Sensory Assessors Highly Agree on the Appraisal of Skin Smoothness and Elasticity but Fairly on Softness and Moisturization
Cosmetics 2022, 9(4), 86; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics9040086 - 18 Aug 2022
Viewed by 148
Abstract
We tested the reliability of sensory evaluations of tactile sensation on bare skin and investigated the reliability among evaluation attributes by trained and untrained assessors. Two trained professional panelists and two untrained researchers evaluated skin in terms of several attributes: smooth–rough, elastic–not [...] Read more.
We tested the reliability of sensory evaluations of tactile sensation on bare skin and investigated the reliability among evaluation attributes by trained and untrained assessors. Two trained professional panelists and two untrained researchers evaluated skin in terms of several attributes: smooth–rough, elastic–not elastic, soft–hard (surface), soft–hard (base), moisturized–dry. Twenty-two women aged 25–57 years were evaluated, and the sensory evaluation was repeated twice. Correlation coefficients and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) were used to examine intra- and inter-assessor reliability. The sensory evaluation and physical quantities acquired by commercial and non-commercial instruments were moderately correlated. Smooth–rough and elastic–not elastic showed high or moderate inter-assessor reliabilities with mean correlation coefficients between panelists of 0.81 and 0.58, respectively. Further, the ICC (2,1) values were 0.64 and 0.51, respectively, and the ICC (2,2) values were 0.77 and 0.67, respectively. Conversely, the reliabilities of soft–hard (surface), soft–hard (base), and moisturized–dry were low; the mean correlation coefficients between the panelists were 0.36, 0.23, and 0.22; the ICC (2,1) values were 0.27, 0.23, and 0.17; and the ICC (2,2) values were 0.42, 0.29, and 0.26, respectively. Reliability differed between attributes. We found no meaningful differences between the trained and untrained panelists regarding intra- or inter-assessor reliability. Full article
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Review
Chemical Permeation Enhancers for Topically-Applied Vitamin C and Its Derivatives: A Systematic Review
Cosmetics 2022, 9(4), 85; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics9040085 - 15 Aug 2022
Viewed by 368
Abstract
This paper reports the permeation-enhancing properties and safety of different chemical permeation enhancers (CPEs) on the topical delivery of vitamin C (VC) and its derivatives. A literature search using search keywords or phrases was done in PubMed®, ScienceDirect, and MEDLINE databases. [...] Read more.
This paper reports the permeation-enhancing properties and safety of different chemical permeation enhancers (CPEs) on the topical delivery of vitamin C (VC) and its derivatives. A literature search using search keywords or phrases was done in PubMed®, ScienceDirect, and MEDLINE databases. The calculated Log P (cLog P) values were referenced from PubChem and the dermal LD50 values were referenced from safety data sheets. Thirteen studies described the permeation-enhancing activity of 18 identified CPEs in the topical delivery of VC. Correlation analysis between ER and cLog P values for porcine (r = 0.114) and rabbit (r = 0.471) showed weak and moderate positive correlation, while mouse (r = −0.135), and reconstructed human epidermis (r = −0.438) had a negative correlation. The majority (n = 17) of the CPEs belonged to Category 5 of the Globally Harmonized System of Classification or low toxicity hazard. CPEs alone or in combination enhanced permeation (ER = 0.198–106.57) of VC in topical formulations. The combination of isopropyl myristate, sorbitan monolaurate, and polyoxyethylene 80 as CPEs for VC resulted in the highest permeation enhancement ratio. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2022)
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Article
Design of a Sensorial-Instrumental Correlation Methodology for a Category of Cosmetic Products: O/W Emulsions
Cosmetics 2022, 9(4), 84; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics9040084 - 15 Aug 2022
Viewed by 322
Abstract
The validation of a cosmetic product is performed by physical analyses and sensory assessment. However, the recruitment of panelists takes a long time and is expensive. Moreover, to apply the product on the skin, microbiology analyses and safety are required but may not [...] Read more.
The validation of a cosmetic product is performed by physical analyses and sensory assessment. However, the recruitment of panelists takes a long time and is expensive. Moreover, to apply the product on the skin, microbiology analyses and safety are required but may not be not enough to avoid inflammatory reaction on the skin. The solution could be the substitution of sensory evaluation by instrumental measurement to predict the sensory profile before the panel. For the study, thirteen different skin care emulsions based on their composition and texture were carried out simultaneously by 12 expert panelists with a quantitative descriptive sensory evaluation profile and by rheological and textural methods. A statistical methodology was the applied to find correlation trends between both data sets. The methodology confirmed that the correlation between sensory assessment and instrumental parameters is a good solution to save time. The multiple factor analysis (MFA) showed the correlation between firmness with no visual residue attribute and the cohesion with sticky 1 min, which are evident but this methodology could be used for finding more complex correlations not found in literature. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2022)
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Review
Safety Assessment of Nanomaterials in Cosmetics: Focus on Dermal and Hair Dyes Products
Cosmetics 2022, 9(4), 83; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics9040083 - 08 Aug 2022
Viewed by 545
Abstract
Nanomaterials use in cosmetics is markedly enhancing, so their exposure and toxicity are important parameters to consider for their risk assessment. This review article provides an overview of the active cosmetic ingredients used for cosmetic application, including dermal cosmetics and also hair dye [...] Read more.
Nanomaterials use in cosmetics is markedly enhancing, so their exposure and toxicity are important parameters to consider for their risk assessment. This review article provides an overview of the active cosmetic ingredients used for cosmetic application, including dermal cosmetics and also hair dye cosmetics, as well as their safety assessment, enriched with a compilation of the safety assessment tests available to evaluate the different types of toxicity. In fact, despite the increase in research and the number of papers published in the field of nanotechnology, the related safety assessment is still insufficient. To elucidate the possible effects that nanosized particles can have on living systems, more studies reproducing similar conditions to what happens in vivo should be conducted, particularly considering the complex interactions of the biological systems and active cosmetic ingredients to achieve newer, safer, and more efficient nanomaterials. Toward this end, ecological issues and the toxicological pattern should also be a study target. Full article
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Article
Study Design on the Presence of Metals in Moisturisers, and Compliance with Regulation (EC) No. 1223/2009 of the European Parliament and of the Council of the European Union, on Cosmetic Products
Cosmetics 2022, 9(4), 82; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics9040082 - 04 Aug 2022
Viewed by 361
Abstract
Metals are present in cosmetics due to deliberate addition by the manufacturers, contamination of raw materials, and/or contamination during their manufacture or storage. The objective of this work was to explore the metal content in the most-consumed moisturising creams on the Spanish market, [...] Read more.
Metals are present in cosmetics due to deliberate addition by the manufacturers, contamination of raw materials, and/or contamination during their manufacture or storage. The objective of this work was to explore the metal content in the most-consumed moisturising creams on the Spanish market, to verify their degree of compliance with Regulation (EC) No. 1223/2009 of the European Parliament and of the Council of the European Union, regarding the presence of metals in cosmetics. The moisturisers were digested (microwave-assisted acid digestion) and analysed by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), for metal assessment. The ICP-MS measurements were successfully validated (RSDs lower than 5% and analytical recoveries within the 91–110% range). Metals banned in cosmetics were found at very low concentrations in some of the moisturisers, as inevitable traces of pollutants. This was the case with beryllium (found in only two samples, at concentrations lower than 0.10 µg g−1), cadmium (found at 0.075 µg g−1 in one sample), mercury (found in four samples at concentrations within the 0.10–0.18 µg g−1 range), and lead (also found in four samples at concentrations from 0.03 to 0.44 µg g−1). Furthermore, nickel (0.16–0.56 µg g−1, six samples), chromium (0.09–0.30 µg g−1, three samples), and cobalt (lower than 0.13 µg g−1, two samples) were also found in the analysed creams. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Regulatory and Technological Aspects of Cosmetics)
Article
Antioxidant Activity of Plant-Derived Colorants for Potential Cosmetic Application
Cosmetics 2022, 9(4), 81; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics9040081 - 02 Aug 2022
Viewed by 438
Abstract
Application of plant-derived colorants in products, i.e., cosmetics or food, apart from imparting the desired color without harming the environment, may provide other benefits. Valuable ingredients in cosmetic formulations include antioxidants showing an advantageous effect on the skin by neutralizing free radicals that [...] Read more.
Application of plant-derived colorants in products, i.e., cosmetics or food, apart from imparting the desired color without harming the environment, may provide other benefits. Valuable ingredients in cosmetic formulations include antioxidants showing an advantageous effect on the skin by neutralizing free radicals that accelerate the aging process and cause skin defects. Antioxidant activity can be determined by chemical-based methods. The aim of this study was to determine the antioxidant activity of plant-derived colorants (purple and red colorant) by two methods: CUPRAC and DPPH free-radical scavenging activity. Antioxidant activity evaluation using both methods for colorants samples was also performed after 5, 15, 30, and 60 min of exposure to UVC irradiation. The results obtained by CUPRAC method were for purple and red colorant unexposed samples as follows: 6.87 ± 0.09 and 4.48 ± 0.14 mg/100 mg colorant expressed as caffeic acid equivalent, respectively. UVC treatment did not affect the results of the antioxidant activity for red colorant and for the purple one only a slight influence was observed. DPPH free-radical scavenging activity for unexposed samples was 70.06 ± 7.74% DPPH/100 mg colorant for the red colorant and 96.11 ± 3.80% DPPH/100 mg colorant for the purple one. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2022)
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Article
In Vitro and Ex Vivo Mechanistic Understanding and Clinical Evidence of a Novel Anti-Wrinkle Technology in Single-Arm, Monocentric, Open-Label Observational Studies
Cosmetics 2022, 9(4), 80; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics9040080 - 02 Aug 2022
Viewed by 431
Abstract
Skin aging is a biological process leading to visible skin alterations. The mechanism of action, clinical efficacy and tolerance of a novel anti-wrinkle technology were evaluated in two skin care products formulated for different skin types. Two single-arm monocentric, open-label observational clinical studies, [...] Read more.
Skin aging is a biological process leading to visible skin alterations. The mechanism of action, clinical efficacy and tolerance of a novel anti-wrinkle technology were evaluated in two skin care products formulated for different skin types. Two single-arm monocentric, open-label observational clinical studies, which were 56 days long, evaluated a cream-gel (n = 30) and a cream (n = 33) on the face and neck. Morphometric analyses of five types of wrinkles were performed at 0, 7, 28 and 56 days. Structural changes in extracellular matrix (ECM) including collagen, elastin and hyaluronic acid (HA) were visualized and quantified by histochemical imaging after daily treatment of skin explants for 6 days. Protein and gene expression related to barrier and hydration were analyzed using ELISA and qRT-PCR, respectively, in a reconstituted human skin model treated daily for 48 h. A decrease in wrinkle dimensions was found in the majority of parameters after 28 days of treatment. Collagen, elastin, HA, procollagen type I, hyaluronan synthases, HAS2 and HAS3 were all stimulated. Based on significant and consistent changes in our investigations, we conclude that the underlying mechanism of action of the novel anti-wrinkle technology could be the remodeling of dermal ECM, and both the test formulations were efficacious and well tolerated. Full article
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Article
Anti-Oxidant and Anti-Aging Activities of Callus Culture from Three Rice Varieties
Cosmetics 2022, 9(4), 79; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics9040079 - 30 Jul 2022
Viewed by 383
Abstract
The aims of this study were to induce calli from the seeds of three rice varieties (Hommali 105, Munpu, and Niawdum) and investigate their anti-aging potential. First, rice seeds were cultured on a Murashige and Skoog medium (MS medium) supplemented with 2 mg/L [...] Read more.
The aims of this study were to induce calli from the seeds of three rice varieties (Hommali 105, Munpu, and Niawdum) and investigate their anti-aging potential. First, rice seeds were cultured on a Murashige and Skoog medium (MS medium) supplemented with 2 mg/L of 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), 1 mg/L of 1-Naphthalene acetic acid (NAA), and 1 mg/L of 6-Benzylaminopurine (BAP). After three weeks, the calli were extracted with ethanol. Then, their phenolic contents were determined by spectrophotometer and the amino acids were identified by ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC). Their cytotoxicity, anti-oxidant (potassium ferricyanide reducing power assay (PFRAP), DPPH radical scavenging assay (DPPH), lipid peroxidation inhibition (LPO), and superoxide dismutase activity (SOD)), and anti-aging (keratinocyte proliferation, anti-collagenase, anti-inflammation, and anti-tyrosinase) activities were also investigated. Munpu callus (385%) was obtained with a higher yield than Hommali (322%) and Niawdum (297%) calli. The results revealed that the phenolic and amino acid contents were enhanced in the calli. Moreover, the calli were rich in glutamic acid, alanine, and gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA). The callus extracts showed no cytotoxic effects at a concentration of equal to or lower than 0.25 mg/mL. The highest anti-oxidant activities (PFRAP (0.81 mg AAE/mL), DPPH (68.22%), LPO (52.21%), and SOD (67.16%)) was found in Munpu callus extract. This extract also had the highest keratinocyte proliferation (43.32%), anti-collagenase (53.83%), anti-inflammation (85.40%), and anti-tyrosinase (64.77%) activities. The experimental results suggest that the amounts of bioactive compounds and anti-aging activities of rice seeds can be enhanced by the induction of callus formation. Full article
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Review
Psychological Aspects of Sensitive Skin: A Vicious Cycle
Cosmetics 2022, 9(4), 78; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics9040078 - 29 Jul 2022
Viewed by 425
Abstract
Sensitive Skin Syndrome (SSS) has been the subject of intense research in the past several years. Recent reviews confirm that about 40% of the population report moderate or very sensitive skin, and an additional 30% report slightly sensitive skin. Although certain phenotypes are [...] Read more.
Sensitive Skin Syndrome (SSS) has been the subject of intense research in the past several years. Recent reviews confirm that about 40% of the population report moderate or very sensitive skin, and an additional 30% report slightly sensitive skin. Although certain phenotypes are more susceptible, anyone can suffer from SSS and this condition can manifest in all anatomic sites. A wide variety of environmental and lifestyle factors can trigger SSS symptoms of itching, stinging, burning, pain, and tingling. In order to avoid such triggers, the SSS individuals often alter their behaviors and habits such as restricting their daily activities, and modifying the use of everyday products that non-sensitive individuals take for granted. In addition, there is an association between SSS and some common psychological problems. Sensitive skin symptoms such as itching, stinging, burning and pain can result in sleep disorders, fatigue, stress and anxiety. Conversely, lack of sleep and stress from external sources can make the SSS sufferer more prone to the symptoms. This becomes a vicious cycle that impacts consumers’ quality of life and well-being. We are beginning to understand the importance of the underlying causes that can impact skin conditions. However, in order to better understand the SSS individual, we need to also be aware of the psychological factors that can trigger and/or worsen this skin condition, as well as the psychological stresses the condition places on the individual. Full article
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Review
Cosmeceuticals: A Newly Expanding Industry in South Africa
Cosmetics 2022, 9(4), 77; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics9040077 - 26 Jul 2022
Viewed by 463
Abstract
Africa is counted amongst the cosmetic market contributors; however, South Africa’s remarkable plant diversity is still largely untapped in terms of its potential for medicinal and cosmetic purposes. Thus, we aim to provide a critical assessment of the advancements made in South African [...] Read more.
Africa is counted amongst the cosmetic market contributors; however, South Africa’s remarkable plant diversity is still largely untapped in terms of its potential for medicinal and cosmetic purposes. Thus, we aim to provide a critical assessment of the advancements made in South African cosmeceuticals with emphasis towards online local companies/brands that are manufactured by small, medium and micro enterprises (SMMEs). For the current study, we limited our search of herbal cosmeceutical products to SMMEs with online websites, or products traded in other online cosmetic directories such as ‘Faithful to Nature’ and ‘African Botanicals’ using a simple Google search. We recorded more than 50 South African SMME companies/brands involved in the trade of cosmeceuticals. Skin and hair care were the major product categories widely traded in these online platforms. Furthermore, few patents were recorded from South African researchers and institutions thereof, which is quite alarming considering the extensive research that has been undertaken to study these commercially valuable plants. Based on the increasing number of new products and the wide pool of economically important plants coupled to their associated rich indigenous knowledge systems, the cosmeceutical sector can contribute to the economy, job creation, entrepreneurship skills, socio-economic development and intellectual property generation. Full article
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Article
Green Synthesis Optimization of Glucose Palm Oleate and Its Potential Use as Natural Surfactant in Cosmetic Emulsion
Cosmetics 2022, 9(4), 76; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics9040076 - 25 Jul 2022
Viewed by 373
Abstract
This study aimed to optimize the green synthesis of glucose palm oleate catalyzed by Carica papaya Lipase (CPL) through transesterification in a solvent-free system. Palm olein was used as a fatty acid donor for transesterification reactant and was also employed as a reaction [...] Read more.
This study aimed to optimize the green synthesis of glucose palm oleate catalyzed by Carica papaya Lipase (CPL) through transesterification in a solvent-free system. Palm olein was used as a fatty acid donor for transesterification reactant and was also employed as a reaction medium. Reaction optimization was performed by using response surface methodology (RSM). Seventeen synthesis conditions were generated by a Box–Behnken design and the products were further determined by ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC). Fatty acid compositions of palm olein identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) found that oleic acid (51.77 ± 0.67%) and palmitic acid (37.22 ± 0.48%) were major components. The synthesis variable factors of 50 °C, 45 h reaction time, and 1400 U of CPL were predicted by the RSM to be optimum conditions and thus provided the highest glucose palm oleate of 0.3542 mmol/g. Conjugation between palm olein fatty acids and glucose via transesterification resulted in glucose palm oleate being obviously verified by UPLC, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and thin-layer chromatography (TLC) analyses. The synthesized sugar fatty acid ester revealed an HLB value of 6.20 represented by the lowest % creaming index (%CI) of 35.40 ± 3.21%. It also exhibited a critical micelle concentration (CMC) of 3.16 × 10−5 M. This study is the first report to reveal the transesterification of glucose and palm olein catalyzed by CPL in a system without using any solvent. Glucose palm oleate has been shown to be derived from an environmentally friendly synthesis process and would be promising as a potential alternative natural surfactant for cosmetic application. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cosmetics in the Age of Green Technologies)
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Review
A Review of Moisturizing Additives for Atopic Dermatitis
Cosmetics 2022, 9(4), 75; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics9040075 - 25 Jul 2022
Viewed by 559
Abstract
Atopic dermatitis, the most common form of eczema, is a chronic, relapsing inflammatory skin condition that occurs with dry skin, persistent itching, and scaly lesions. This debilitating condition significantly compromises the patient’s quality of life due to the intractable itching and other associated [...] Read more.
Atopic dermatitis, the most common form of eczema, is a chronic, relapsing inflammatory skin condition that occurs with dry skin, persistent itching, and scaly lesions. This debilitating condition significantly compromises the patient’s quality of life due to the intractable itching and other associated factors such as disfigurement, sleeping disturbances, and social stigmatization from the visible lesions. The treatment mainstay of atopic dermatitis involves applying topical glucocorticosteroids and calcineurin inhibitors, combined with regular use of moisturizers. However, conventional treatments possess a certain degree of adverse effects, which raised concerns among the patients resulting in non-adherence to treatment. Hence, the modern use of moisturizers to improve barrier repair and function is of great value. One of the approaches includes incorporating bioactive ingredients with clinically proven therapeutic benefits into dermocosmetics emollient. The current evidence suggests that these dermocosmetics emollients aid in the improvement of the skin barrier and alleviate inflammation, pruritus and xerosis. We carried out a critical and comprehensive narrative review of the literature. Studies and trials focusing on moisturizers that include phytochemicals, natural moisturizing factors, essential fatty acids, endocannabinoids, and antioxidants were identified by searching electronic databases (PubMed and MEDLINE). We introduce the current knowledge on the roles of moisturizers in alleviating symptoms of atopic dermatitis. We then further summarize the science and rationale of the active ingredients in dermocosmetics and medical device emollients for treating atopic dermatitis. Finally, we highlight the limitations of the current evidence and future perspectives of cosmeceutical research on atopic dermatitis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Active Substances and Bioavailability in Cosmetics)
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Article
Open-Label Study to Evaluate the Efficacy of a Topical Anhydrous Formulation with 15% Pure Ascorbic Acid and Ginger as a Potent Antioxidant
Cosmetics 2022, 9(4), 74; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics9040074 - 22 Jul 2022
Viewed by 384
Abstract
Vitamin C is one of the naturally occurring antioxidants capable of reducing or preventing skin photoaging. Achieving a stable formulation with the optimal dose of ascorbic acid to ensure a biologically significant antioxidant effect is a challenge when developing cosmetic formulations. The objective [...] Read more.
Vitamin C is one of the naturally occurring antioxidants capable of reducing or preventing skin photoaging. Achieving a stable formulation with the optimal dose of ascorbic acid to ensure a biologically significant antioxidant effect is a challenge when developing cosmetic formulations. The objective of this study was to develop a stable formula in a non-aqueous media with 15% pure vitamin C supplemented with ginger and to study its efficacy, skin tolerance, and cosmetic assessment in 33 women. Vitamin C stability over time was determined via a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) technique versus an aqueous option. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) determination was quantified to provide antioxidant effect. A 56-day in vivo study was performed to evaluate skin luminosity and hyperpigmentation reduction. Skin acceptability was verified by a dermatologist. The HPLC studies demonstrated a high stability of the anhydrous formula compared to an aqueous option. The in vitro studies showed a reduction in ROS of 93% (p-value < 0.0001). In vivo, luminosity increased by 17% (p-value < 0.0001) and skin tone became 10% more uniform (p-value < 0.007). Moreover, very good skin tolerance was determined as the dermatologist did not determine any clinical signs, and the subjects did not report any feelings of discomfort. We were able to develop an anhydrous formula of pure vitamin C that combines very good stability, consumer acceptance, and skin tolerance with a high level of efficacy. Full article
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Article
Complete Genome Sequence and Cosmetic Potential of Viridibacillus sp. JNUCC6 Isolated from Baengnokdam, the Summit Crater of Mt. Halla
Cosmetics 2022, 9(4), 73; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics9040073 - 06 Jul 2022
Viewed by 563
Abstract
Novel microbe-derived products are gaining increasing attention for their ability to modulate skin conditions. The use of microbial metabolites to improve skin health outcomes is of particular interest because growing evidence points to the importance of natural products without side effects on human [...] Read more.
Novel microbe-derived products are gaining increasing attention for their ability to modulate skin conditions. The use of microbial metabolites to improve skin health outcomes is of particular interest because growing evidence points to the importance of natural products without side effects on human health. This study aimed to sequence the genome of Viridibacillus sp. JNUCC6 isolated from Baengnokdam, the summit crater of Mt. Halla. We further investigated the potential use of its extract as a cosmetic ingredient in controlling melanogenesis and inflammation. The genome of this strain was sequenced using both Illumina Novaseq 6000 and third-generation sequencing technology (PacBio RSII) to obtain trustworthy assembly and annotation. Different concentrations of the Viridibacillus sp. JNUCC6 extract were tested for its anti-melanogenic and anti-inflammatory effects in α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH)-induced B16F10 melanoma and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated RAW 264.7 cells, respectively. The whole genome sequence of the strain contained 4,526,142 bp with 35.61% GC content, one contig, and 4364 protein-coding sequences. Furthermore, antiSMASH analysis of the whole genome revealed three putative biosynthetic gene clusters that are responsible for the production of various secondary metabolites. Our study found that the Viridibacillus sp. JNUCC6 extract inhibited the α-MSH-induced melanin production and tyrosinase activity in B16F10 melanoma cells. In addition, it decreased the LPS-induced nitric oxide (NO) production caused by LPS stimulation in a concentration-dependent manner. Therefore, Viridibacillus sp. JNUCC6 has potential applications as an ingredient in skin-whitening and anti-inflammatory products and can be used in the cosmetic and medical industries. Full article
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Review
Overview of Cosmetic Regulatory Frameworks around the World
Cosmetics 2022, 9(4), 72; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics9040072 - 30 Jun 2022
Viewed by 1088
Abstract
To ensure safety and efficacy, cosmetic products are regulated and controlled worldwide. However, the regulatory approaches of each country may be significantly different and impact the competitiveness and economic viability of the industry. This work presents an updated review and comparison of regulatory [...] Read more.
To ensure safety and efficacy, cosmetic products are regulated and controlled worldwide. However, the regulatory approaches of each country may be significantly different and impact the competitiveness and economic viability of the industry. This work presents an updated review and comparison of regulatory requirements from the European Union, United States of America, Canada, Japan, People’s Republic of China and Brazil. It outlines contents such as the definition, classification and categorization of cosmetics, pre-market requirements, ingredients management, general labelling requirements, regulation of claims concerning advertisement and commercial practices, increase of animal testing and marketing bans on cosmetic products. Furthermore, it weighs the impact of regulatory differences on the safety and accessibility of these products in the mentioned regions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Regulatory and Technological Aspects of Cosmetics)
Article
Comparative Analysis of Various Plant-Growth-Regulator Treatments on Biomass Accumulation, Bioactive Phytochemical Production, and Biological Activity of Solanum virginianum L. Callus Culture Extracts
Cosmetics 2022, 9(4), 71; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics9040071 - 30 Jun 2022
Viewed by 652
Abstract
Solanum virginianum L. (Solanum xanthocarpum) is an important therapeutic plant due to the presence of medicinally useful plant-derived compounds. S. virginianum has been shown to have anticancer, antioxidant, antibacterial, antiaging, and anti-inflammatory properties. This plant is becoming endangered due to overexploitation [...] Read more.
Solanum virginianum L. (Solanum xanthocarpum) is an important therapeutic plant due to the presence of medicinally useful plant-derived compounds. S. virginianum has been shown to have anticancer, antioxidant, antibacterial, antiaging, and anti-inflammatory properties. This plant is becoming endangered due to overexploitation and the loss of its native habitat. The purpose of this research is to develop an ideal technique for the maximum biomass and phytochemical accumulation in S. virginianum leaf-induced in vitro cultures, as well as to evaluate their potential antiaging, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant abilities. Leaf explants were grown on media (Murashige and Skoog (MS)) that were supplemented with various concentrations and combinations of plant hormones (TDZ, BAP, NAA, and TDZ + NAA) for this purpose. When compared with the other hormones, TDZ demonstrated the best response for callus induction, biomass accumulation, phytochemical synthesis, and biological activities. However, with 5 mg/L of TDZ, the optimal biomass production (FW: 251.48 g/L and DW: 13.59 g/L) was estimated. The highest total phenolic level (10.22 ± 0.44 mg/g DW) was found in 5 mg/L of TDZ, whereas the highest flavonoid contents (1.65 ± 0.11 mg/g DW) were found in 10 mg/L of TDZ. The results of the HPLC revealed that the highest production of coumarins (scopoletin: 4.34 ± 0.20 mg/g DW and esculetin: 0.87 ± 0.040 mg/g DW) was determined for 10 mg/L of TDZ, whereas the highest accumulations of caffeic acid (0.56 ± 0.021 mg/g DW) and methyl caffeate (18.62 ± 0.60 mg/g DW) were shown by 5 mg/L of TDZ. The determination of these phytochemicals (phenolics and coumarins) estimates that the results of our study on biological assays, such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antiaging assays, are useful for future cosmetic applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cosmetics in the Age of Green Technologies)
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Article
Impact of the Interactions between Fragrances and Cosmetic Bases on the Fragrance Olfactory Performance: A Tentative to Correlate SPME-GC/MS Analysis with That of an Experienced Perfumer
Cosmetics 2022, 9(4), 70; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics9040070 - 29 Jun 2022
Viewed by 870
Abstract
Seta e Ciliegia” and “Narguilé” fragrances were mixed to form a binary blend with chemically stable, non-volatile, odourless, simple bases of different lipophilicity widely used in skin care and hair care formulations, such as caprylic-capric triglyceride, glycerine, paraffin, dimethicone, [...] Read more.
Seta e Ciliegia” and “Narguilé” fragrances were mixed to form a binary blend with chemically stable, non-volatile, odourless, simple bases of different lipophilicity widely used in skin care and hair care formulations, such as caprylic-capric triglyceride, glycerine, paraffin, dimethicone, isopropyl myristate and butylene glycol, with the objective to verify how the olfactory performance of fragrances can be influenced by skin or hair care ingredients. The semiquantitative approach applied in this study aims in providing a practical solution to appropriately combine a fragrance with cosmetic ingredients. Pure fragrance and binary blends were analysed by solid phase microextraction gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (SPME-GC/MS), based on the assumption that the solid phase microextraction is able to extract volatile compounds, mimicking the ability of the nose to capture similar volatile compounds. Fifty-seven and forty-four compounds were identified by SPME-GC/MS in pure fragrances “Seta e Ciliegia” and “Narguilé”, respectively. Once mixed with the bases, the analysis of the blends revealed that a qualitative modification in the chromatograms could occur according to the characteristics of the bases. In general, for both fragrances, blends with glycerin and butylene glycol, which are the most hydrophilic bases among the ones tested, were able to release most of the peaks, that were thus still present in the chromatograms. Differently, in the blends with caprylic-capric triglyceride, most of the peaks are lost. Blends with paraffine, dimethicone and isopropyl myristate showed an intermediate behaviour. These results were thus compared with the sensory evaluation made by an experienced perfumer, capable of assessing the different olfactory performances of pure fragrances and their different binary blends. The evaluation made by the perfumer fitted well with the analytical results, and in the blends where most of the peaks were revealed in the chromatogram, the perfumer found a similar olfactory profile for example with glycerin, butylene glycol, while a modification of the olfactory profile was highlighted when several peaks were not still present in the chromatogram, as it was the case with caprylic-capric triglyceride. Interestingly, when the most typical peaks of a fragrance were still observed in the blend, even if some of them were lost, the olfactory performance was not lost, as was the case of paraffin and isopropyl myristate. In the case of dimethicone, its high volatility was considered responsible for a certain decrease in the fragrance “volume”. The results achieved with this investigation can be used to hypothesize that the different compounds of a fragrance, characterized for the first time by different volatility and solubility, could be differently retained by the bases: the more lipophilic are strongly retained by the lipophilic bases with a consequently reduced volatility that limits the possibility of being appreciated by the nose and that corresponds to disappearance or a percentage reduction from the chromatogram. Therefore, in a more accurate and helpful view for a formulator, we could come to the conclusion that based on the results achieved by our investigation, the inclusion of a less lipophilic base can be more appropriate to exalt more lipophilic fragrances. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2022)
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Article
Methylcellulose-Chitosan Smart Gels for Hairstyling
Cosmetics 2022, 9(4), 69; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics9040069 - 27 Jun 2022
Viewed by 774
Abstract
Methylcellulose and chitosan served as promising ingredients for a thermoresponsive hair styling gel after successful application in the medical industry. Both ingredients uphold the clean beauty standard without infringing on performance. By combining these two ingredients, a hair gel can be created that [...] Read more.
Methylcellulose and chitosan served as promising ingredients for a thermoresponsive hair styling gel after successful application in the medical industry. Both ingredients uphold the clean beauty standard without infringing on performance. By combining these two ingredients, a hair gel can be created that promises an extended hold of style once a heated external stimulus, such as a curling wand, is applied to the hair. Chitosan serves as the cationic biopolymer to adhere the gel to the hair, whereas the methylcellulose acts as the smart biopolymer to lock the desired hairstyle in place. Various ranges of chitosan and methylcellulose concentrations were explored for formulation optimization with rheology and curl drop testing. The rheology testing included a flow sweep test to understand the shear-thinning behavior of the sample as well as the effect of concentration on viscosity. Another rheology test completed was a temperature ramp test from room temperature (25 °C) to 60 °C to study the effect of heat on the various concentrations within the samples. A curl drop test was performed as well, over a 48-h period in which the different samples were applied to wet hair tresses, dried, curled, and hung vertically to see how the style held up over a long period of time with the influence of gravity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Cosmetic Ingredients, Formulations and Devices)
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Review
Pickering Emulsions: A Novel Tool for Cosmetic Formulators
Cosmetics 2022, 9(4), 68; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics9040068 - 27 Jun 2022
Viewed by 792
Abstract
The manufacturing of stable emulsion is a very important challenge for the cosmetic industry, which has motivated intense research activity for replacing conventional molecular stabilizers with colloidal particles. These allow minimizing the hazards and risks associated with the use of conventional molecular stabilizers, [...] Read more.
The manufacturing of stable emulsion is a very important challenge for the cosmetic industry, which has motivated intense research activity for replacing conventional molecular stabilizers with colloidal particles. These allow minimizing the hazards and risks associated with the use of conventional molecular stabilizers, providing enhanced stability to the obtained dispersions. Therefore, particle-stabilized emulsions (Pickering emulsions) present many advantages with respect to conventional ones, and hence, their commercialization may open new avenues for cosmetic formulators. This makes further efforts to optimize the fabrication procedures of Pickering emulsions, as well as the development of their applicability in the fabrication of different cosmetic formulations, necessary. This review tries to provide an updated perspective that can help the cosmetic industry in the exploitation of Pickering emulsions as a tool for designing new cosmetic products, especially creams for topical applications. Full article
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Review
In Vitro Sensitive Skin Models: Review of the Standard Methods and Introduction to a New Disruptive Technology
Cosmetics 2022, 9(4), 67; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics9040067 - 23 Jun 2022
Viewed by 751
Abstract
The skin is a protective organ, able to decode a wide range of tactile, thermal, or noxious stimuli. Some of the sensors belonging to the transient receptor potential (TRP) family, for example, TRPV1, can elicit capsaicin-induced heat pain or histamine-induced itching sensations. The [...] Read more.
The skin is a protective organ, able to decode a wide range of tactile, thermal, or noxious stimuli. Some of the sensors belonging to the transient receptor potential (TRP) family, for example, TRPV1, can elicit capsaicin-induced heat pain or histamine-induced itching sensations. The sensory nerve fibers, whose soma is located in the trigeminal or the dorsal root ganglia, are able to carry signals from the skin’s sensory receptors toward the brain via the spinal cord. In some cases, in response to environmental factors, nerve endings might be hyper activated, leading to a sensitive skin syndrome (SSS). SSS affects about 50% of the population and is correlated with small-fiber neuropathies resulting in neuropathic pain. Thus, for cosmetical and pharmaceutical industries developing SSS treatments, the selection of relevant and predictive in vitro models is essential. In this article, we reviewed the different in vitro models developed for the assessment of skin and neuron interactions. In a second part, we presented the advantages of microfluidic devices and organ-on-chip models, with a focus on the first model we developed in this context. Full article
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