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Antioxidants, Volume 7, Issue 7 (July 2018)

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Cover Story (view full-size image) The interaction between Nox2, a subunit of NADPH oxidase, and oxLDLs derived from atherosclerotic [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle Cytoprotective Activities of Milk Thistle Seed Oil Used in Traditional Tunisian Medicine on 7-Ketocholesterol and 24S-Hydroxycholesterol-Induced Toxicity on 158N Murine Oligodendrocytes
Antioxidants 2018, 7(7), 95; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox7070095
Received: 11 June 2018 / Revised: 4 July 2018 / Accepted: 17 July 2018 / Published: 19 July 2018
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Abstract
The Asteraceae family is economically very important, because many of these plants are grown mainly for their food value, such as lettuce (Lactuca), chicory (Cichorium), and sunflower (Heliantus aminus). One of the typical properties of this family, which includes milk thistle (Sylibum
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The Asteraceae family is economically very important, because many of these plants are grown mainly for their food value, such as lettuce (Lactuca), chicory (Cichorium), and sunflower (Heliantus aminus). One of the typical properties of this family, which includes milk thistle (Sylibum marianum), is the richness of the oil in various compounds (flavonoids, alkaloids, tocopherols, and unsaturated fatty acids). Currently, and for the coming decades, age-related diseases, including neurodegenerative diseases, are a major public health problem. Preventing their appearance or opposing their evolution is a major objective. In this context, the cytoprotective activities of milk thistle seed oil produced in Tunisia were studied on the 158N model using 7-ketocholesterol (7KC) and 24S-hydroxycholesterol (24S) as cytotoxic agents. 7KC and 24S were used because they can be increased in the brain and body fluids of patients with major age-related neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases. In order to evaluate the cytoprotective properties of milk thistle seed oil, complementary techniques of microscopy, flow cytometry, and biochemistry were used. The chemical composition of milk thistle seed oil has also been determined by various chromatography techniques. Milk thistle seed oils from different area of Tunisia are rich in tocopherols and are strongly antioxidant according to various biochemical tests (KRL (Kit Radicaux Libres), FRAP (Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power), and DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl)). The main fatty acids are linoleic acid (C18:2 n-6) and oleic acid (C18:1 n-9). The main polyphenols identified are homovanillic acid, p-coumaric acid, quercetin, and apigenin, with a predominance of vanillic acid. On 158N cells, milk thistle seed oil attenuates the cytotoxicity of 7KC and 24S including: loss of cell adhesion, increased plasma membrane permeability, mitochondrial dysfunction, overproduction of reactive oxygen species, induction of apoptosis, and autophagy. The attenuation of the cytotoxicity of 7KC and 24S observed with the milk thistle seed oil is in the order of that observed with α-tocopherol used as a positive control. In the presence of nigella seed oil, considered potentially cytotoxic, no cytoprotective effects were observed. Given the chemical characteristics, antioxidant properties, and cytoprotective activities of milk thistle seed oil, our results highlight the potential benefit of this oil for human health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Antioxidants in 2018)
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Open AccessEditorial Dietary Antioxidants and Prevention of Non-Communicable Diseases
Antioxidants 2018, 7(7), 94; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox7070094
Received: 18 July 2018 / Accepted: 18 July 2018 / Published: 19 July 2018
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Open AccessReview Modulation of the Oxidative Stress and Lipid Peroxidation by Endocannabinoids and Their Lipid Analogues
Antioxidants 2018, 7(7), 93; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox7070093
Received: 28 June 2018 / Revised: 10 July 2018 / Accepted: 13 July 2018 / Published: 18 July 2018
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Abstract
Growing evidence supports the pivotal role played by oxidative stress in tissue injury development, thus resulting in several pathologies including cardiovascular, renal, neuropsychiatric, and neurodegenerative disorders, all characterized by an altered oxidative status. Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species and lipid peroxidation-derived reactive aldehydes
[...] Read more.
Growing evidence supports the pivotal role played by oxidative stress in tissue injury development, thus resulting in several pathologies including cardiovascular, renal, neuropsychiatric, and neurodegenerative disorders, all characterized by an altered oxidative status. Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species and lipid peroxidation-derived reactive aldehydes including acrolein, malondialdehyde, and 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal, among others, are the main responsible for cellular and tissue damages occurring in redox-dependent processes. In this scenario, a link between the endocannabinoid system (ECS) and redox homeostasis impairment appears to be crucial. Anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol, the best characterized endocannabinoids, are able to modulate the activity of several antioxidant enzymes through targeting the cannabinoid receptors type 1 and 2 as well as additional receptors such as the transient receptor potential vanilloid 1, the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha, and the orphan G protein-coupled receptors 18 and 55. Moreover, the endocannabinoids lipid analogues N-acylethanolamines showed to protect cell damage and death from reactive aldehydes-induced oxidative stress by restoring the intracellular oxidants-antioxidants balance. In this review, we will provide a better understanding of the main mechanisms triggered by the cross-talk between the oxidative stress and the ECS, focusing also on the enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants as scavengers of reactive aldehydes and their toxic bioactive adducts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidants and Second Messengers of Free Radicals)
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Open AccessCase Report Intravenous Vitamin C Administration Improved Blood Cell Counts and Health-Related Quality of Life of Patient with History of Relapsed Acute Myeloid Leukaemia
Antioxidants 2018, 7(7), 92; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox7070092
Received: 8 June 2018 / Revised: 10 July 2018 / Accepted: 12 July 2018 / Published: 16 July 2018
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Abstract
A 52-year-old female presented to Integrated Health Options Clinic in October 2014 with a history of relapsed acute myeloid leukaemia (AML, diagnosed in 2009 and relapsed in 2014). Intravenous(IV) vitamin C therapy was initiated (in 2014) following completion of chemotherapy as an alternative
[...] Read more.
A 52-year-old female presented to Integrated Health Options Clinic in October 2014 with a history of relapsed acute myeloid leukaemia (AML, diagnosed in 2009 and relapsed in 2014). Intravenous(IV) vitamin C therapy was initiated (in 2014) following completion of chemotherapy as an alternative to haematopoietic stem cell transplantation. IV vitamin C was administered twice weekly at a dose of 70 g/infusion. Within 4 weeks of initiation of IV vitamin C therapy, there was a dramatic improvement in the patient’s blood indices with platelet cell counts increasing from 25 × 109/L to 196 × 109/L and white blood cell counts increasing from 0.29 × 109/L to 4.0 × 109/L, with further improvements observed over the next 18 months. Furthermore, there was a clear and sustained improvement in the patient’s health-related quality of life scores assessed using a validated questionnaire. She has remained healthy and in complete remission until the present day. This case study highlights the benefits of IV vitamin C as a supportive therapy for previously relapsed AML. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamin C: Current Concepts in Human Physiology)
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Open AccessArticle High Vitamin C Status Is Associated with Elevated Mood in Male Tertiary Students
Antioxidants 2018, 7(7), 91; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox7070091
Received: 13 June 2018 / Revised: 10 July 2018 / Accepted: 12 July 2018 / Published: 16 July 2018
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Abstract
Micronutrient status is thought to impact on psychological mood due to the role of nutrients in brain structure and function. The aim of the current study was to investigate the association of vitamin C status with mood state in a sample of male
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Micronutrient status is thought to impact on psychological mood due to the role of nutrients in brain structure and function. The aim of the current study was to investigate the association of vitamin C status with mood state in a sample of male tertiary students. We measured fasting plasma vitamin C levels as an indicator of vitamin C status, and subjective mood was determined using the Profile of Mood States (POMS) questionnaire. One hundred and thirty-nine male students aged 18 to 35 years were recruited from local tertiary institutes in Christchurch, New Zealand. The average plasma vitamin C concentration was 58.2 ± 18.6 (SD) µmol/L and the average total mood disturbance score was 25.5 ± 26.6 (possible score −32 to 200 measuring low to high mood disturbance, respectively). Plasma vitamin C concentration was inversely correlated with total mood disturbance as assessed by POMS (r = −0.181, p < 0.05). Examination of the individual POMS subscales also showed inverse associations of vitamin C status with depression, confusion, and anger. These findings suggest that high vitamin C status may be associated with improved overall mood in young adult males. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamin C: Current Concepts in Human Physiology)
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Open AccessReview Therapeutic Agents with AHR Inhibiting and NRF2 Activating Activity for Managing Chloracne
Antioxidants 2018, 7(7), 90; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox7070090
Received: 13 June 2018 / Revised: 2 July 2018 / Accepted: 11 July 2018 / Published: 13 July 2018
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Abstract
Chloracne is the major skin symptom caused by dioxin intoxication. Dioxin activates the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR)–cytochrome p450 1A1 (CYP1A1) system, generates oxidative stress, and induces hyperkeratinization of keratinocytes and sebocytes leading to chloracne. Nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor-2 (NRF2) is a master switch
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Chloracne is the major skin symptom caused by dioxin intoxication. Dioxin activates the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR)–cytochrome p450 1A1 (CYP1A1) system, generates oxidative stress, and induces hyperkeratinization of keratinocytes and sebocytes leading to chloracne. Nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor-2 (NRF2) is a master switch that induces the expression of various antioxidative enzymes, such as heme oxygenase-1. Cinnamaldehyde is an antioxidant phytochemical that inhibits AHR–CYP1A1 signaling and activates the NRF2–antioxidative axis. The cinnamaldehyde-containing Kampo herbal medicine Keishibukuryogan is capable of improving chloracne in Yusho patients who are highly contaminated with dioxin. Agents with dual functions in promoting AHR–CYP1A1 inhibition and NRF2 activation may be useful for managing dioxin-related health hazards. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nrf2 in Dermatological Pathologies)
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Open AccessReview Systematic Review of Intravenous Ascorbate in Cancer Clinical Trials
Antioxidants 2018, 7(7), 89; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox7070089
Received: 10 May 2018 / Revised: 3 July 2018 / Accepted: 6 July 2018 / Published: 12 July 2018
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Abstract
Background: Ascorbate (vitamin C) has been evaluated as a potential treatment for cancer as an independent agent and in combination with standard chemotherapies. This review assesses the evidence for safety and clinical effectiveness of intravenous (IV) ascorbate in treating various types of cancer.
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Background: Ascorbate (vitamin C) has been evaluated as a potential treatment for cancer as an independent agent and in combination with standard chemotherapies. This review assesses the evidence for safety and clinical effectiveness of intravenous (IV) ascorbate in treating various types of cancer. Methods: Single arm and randomized Phase I/II trials were included in this review. The PubMed, MEDLINE, and Cochrane databases were searched. Results were screened by three of the authors (GN, RP, and CJP) to determine if they met inclusion criteria, and then summarized using a narrative approach. Results: A total of 23 trials involving 385 patients met the inclusion criteria. Only one trial, in ovarian cancer, randomized patients to receive vitamin C or standard of care (chemotherapy). That trial reported an 8.75 month increase in progression-free survival (PFS) and an improved trend in overall survival (OS) in the vitamin C treated arm. Conclusion: Overall, vitamin C has been shown to be safe in nearly all patient populations, alone and in combination with chemotherapies. The promising results support the need for randomized placebo-controlled trials such as the ongoing placebo-controlled trials of vitamin C and chemotherapy in prostate cancer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamin C: Current Concepts in Human Physiology)
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Open AccessReview Isoprostanoids in Clinical and Experimental Neurological Disease Models
Antioxidants 2018, 7(7), 88; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox7070088
Received: 13 June 2018 / Revised: 28 June 2018 / Accepted: 9 July 2018 / Published: 11 July 2018
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Abstract
Isoprostanoids are a large family of compounds derived from non-enzymatic oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). Unlike other oxidative stress biomarkers, they provide unique information on the precursor of the targeted PUFA. Although they were discovered about a quarter of century ago, the
[...] Read more.
Isoprostanoids are a large family of compounds derived from non-enzymatic oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). Unlike other oxidative stress biomarkers, they provide unique information on the precursor of the targeted PUFA. Although they were discovered about a quarter of century ago, the knowledge on the role of key isoprostanoids in the pathogenesis of experimental and human disease models remains limited. This is mainly due to the limited availability of highly purified molecules to be used as a reference standard in the identification of biological samples. The accurate knowledge on their biological relevance is the critical step that could be translated from some mere technical/industrial advances into a reliable biological disease marker which is helpful in deciphering the oxidative stress puzzle related to neurological disorders. Recent research indicates the value of isoprostanoids in predicting the clinical presentation and evolution of the neurological diseases. This review focuses on the relevance of isoprostanoids as mediators and potential biomarkers in neurological diseases, a heterogeneous family ranging from rare brain diseases to major health conditions that could have worldwide socioeconomic impact in the health sector. The current challenge is to identify the preferential biochemical pathways that actually follow the oxidative reactions in the neurological diseases and the consequence of the specific isoprostanes in the underlying pathogenic mechanisms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lipid Peroxidation: Analysis and Applications in Biological Systems)
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Open AccessArticle Proteomics and Toxicity Analysis of Spinal-Cord Primary Cultures upon Hydrogen Sulfide Treatment
Antioxidants 2018, 7(7), 87; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox7070087
Received: 12 April 2018 / Revised: 5 July 2018 / Accepted: 7 July 2018 / Published: 10 July 2018
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Abstract
Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is an endogenous gasotransmitter recognized as an essential body product with a dual, biphasic action. It can function as an antioxidant and a cytoprotective, but also as a poison with a high probability of causing brain damage when
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Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is an endogenous gasotransmitter recognized as an essential body product with a dual, biphasic action. It can function as an antioxidant and a cytoprotective, but also as a poison with a high probability of causing brain damage when present at noxious levels. In a previous study, we measured toxic liquoral levels of H2S in sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients and in the familial ALS (fALS) mouse model, SOD1G93A. In addition, we experimentally demonstrated that H2S is extremely and selectively toxic to motor neurons, and that it is released by glial cells and increases Ca2+ concentration in motor neurons due to a lack of ATP. The presented study further examines the effect of toxic concentrations of H2S on embryonic mouse spinal-cord cultures. We performed a proteomic analysis that revealed a significant H2S-mediated activation of pathways related to oxidative stress and cell death, particularly the Nrf-2-mediated oxidative stress response and peroxiredoxins. Furthermore, we report that Na2S (a stable precursor of H2S) toxicity is, at least in part, reverted by the Bax inhibitor V5 and by necrostatin, a potent necroptosis inhibitor. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue H2S in Redox Signaling)
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Open AccessArticle S-allylmercaptoglutathione Is a Substrate for Glutathione Reductase (E.C. 1.8.1.7) from Yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
Antioxidants 2018, 7(7), 86; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox7070086
Received: 19 June 2018 / Revised: 28 June 2018 / Accepted: 4 July 2018 / Published: 6 July 2018
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Abstract
Allicin (diallylthiosulfinate) is a potent thiol reagent and natural defense substance produced by garlic (Allium sativum) tissues when damaged. Allicin acts as a redox toxin and oxidizes the cellular glutathione (GSH) pool producing S-allylmercaptoglutathione (GSSA). The cellular enzyme glutathione reductase
[...] Read more.
Allicin (diallylthiosulfinate) is a potent thiol reagent and natural defense substance produced by garlic (Allium sativum) tissues when damaged. Allicin acts as a redox toxin and oxidizes the cellular glutathione (GSH) pool producing S-allylmercaptoglutathione (GSSA). The cellular enzyme glutathione reductase (GR) uses NADPH to reduce glutathione disulfide (GSSG) back to GSH and replenishes the GSH pool. It was not known whether GR could accept GSSA as a substrate. Here, we report that GR from yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) shows Michaelis–Menten kinetics with GSSA as substrate in vitro (Km = 0.50 mM), but that GSSA is not as good a substrate as GSSG (Km = 0.07 mM). Furthermore, cells unable to synthesize GSH because the γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase (GSH1) gene is deleted, cannot grow without GSH supplementation and we show that the auxotrophic requirement for GSH in Δgsh1 mutants can be met by GSSA in the growth medium, suggesting that GSSA can be reduced to GSH in vivo. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Antioxidants in 2018)
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Open AccessReview Reactive Oxygen and Nitrogen Species Regulate Key Metabolic, Anabolic, and Catabolic Pathways in Skeletal Muscle
Antioxidants 2018, 7(7), 85; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox7070085
Received: 18 May 2018 / Revised: 15 June 2018 / Accepted: 29 June 2018 / Published: 5 July 2018
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Abstract
Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS) are important cellular regulators of key physiological processes in skeletal muscle. In this review, we explain how RONS regulate muscle contraction and signaling, and why they are important for membrane remodeling, protein turnover, gene expression, and epigenetic
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Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS) are important cellular regulators of key physiological processes in skeletal muscle. In this review, we explain how RONS regulate muscle contraction and signaling, and why they are important for membrane remodeling, protein turnover, gene expression, and epigenetic adaptation. We discuss how RONS regulate carbohydrate uptake and metabolism of skeletal muscle, and how they indirectly regulate fat metabolism through silent mating type information regulation 2 homolog 3 (SIRT3). RONS are causative/associative signaling molecules, which cause sarcopenia or muscle hypertrophy. Regular exercise influences redox biology, metabolism, and anabolic/catabolic pathways in skeletal muscle in an intensity dependent manner. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise and Inflammation)
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Open AccessReview Transcription Factor ETS-1 and Reactive Oxygen Species: Role in Vascular and Renal Injury
Antioxidants 2018, 7(7), 84; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox7070084
Received: 23 April 2018 / Revised: 15 June 2018 / Accepted: 2 July 2018 / Published: 3 July 2018
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Abstract
The E26 avian erythroblastosis virus transcription factor-1 (ETS-1) is a member of the ETS family and regulates the expression of a variety of genes including growth factors, chemokines and adhesion molecules. Although ETS-1 was discovered as an oncogene, several lines of research show
[...] Read more.
The E26 avian erythroblastosis virus transcription factor-1 (ETS-1) is a member of the ETS family and regulates the expression of a variety of genes including growth factors, chemokines and adhesion molecules. Although ETS-1 was discovered as an oncogene, several lines of research show that it is up-regulated by angiotensin II (Ang II) both in the vasculature and the glomerulus. While reactive oxygen species (ROS) are required for Ang II-induced ETS-1 expression, ETS-1 also regulates the expression of p47phox, which is one of the subunits of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase and a major source of ROS in the kidney and vasculature. Thus, there appears to be a positive feedback between ETS-1 and ROS. ETS-1 is also upregulated in the kidneys of rats with salt-sensitive hypertension and plays a major role in the development of end-organ injury in this animal model. Activation of the renin angiotensin system is required for the increased ETS-1 expression in these rats, and blockade of ETS-1 or haplodeficiency reduces the severity of kidney injury in these rats. In summary, ETS-1 plays a major role in the development of vascular and renal injury and is a potential target for the development of novel therapeutic strategies to ameliorate end-organ injury in hypertension. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oxidative Stress and Salt-Sensitive Hypertension)
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Open AccessArticle Interplay between Oxidative Stress and Platelet Activation in Coronary Thrombus of STEMI Patients
Antioxidants 2018, 7(7), 83; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox7070083
Received: 15 May 2018 / Revised: 24 June 2018 / Accepted: 28 June 2018 / Published: 3 July 2018
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Abstract
Background: Platelet activation and oxidative stress seem to play a key role in coronary thrombus formation and are associated with thrombus burden in ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). However, the interplay between oxidative stress and platelet activation has not been fully elucidated. Materials and
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Background: Platelet activation and oxidative stress seem to play a key role in coronary thrombus formation and are associated with thrombus burden in ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). However, the interplay between oxidative stress and platelet activation has not been fully elucidated. Materials and Methods: For 32 patients with STEMI undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI) and 10 patients with stable angina (SA) and oxidative stress, as assessed by NADPH isoform 2 activity (soluble Nox2-derived peptide, sNox2-dp), levels of oxidized low-density lipoproteins (oxLDLs) and platelet activation markers such as soluble CD40 Ligand (sCD40L) and soluble P-selectin (sP-selectin) were measured in the retrieved material (coronary thrombi plus blood waste) of STEMI patients and in intracoronary blood of SA patients, respectively, and in peripheral blood samples of both groups. Results: In aspirated thrombi and blood waste of STEMI patients we found higher serum levels of sNox2-dp, oxLDLs, sCD40L, and sP-selectin, as compared to the intracoronary blood samples of SA patients. Moreover, in thrombi and blood waste of STEMI patients, a direct correlation between markers of oxidative stress and of platelet activation was found. Also, in STEMI patients a progressive increase of oxidative stress and platelet activation markers was observed according to the thrombus score burden. STEMI patients showed higher peripheral blood Nox2 activity and oxLDL levels as compared to SA patients. Conclusion: This study shows a close relationship between oxidative stress and platelet activation in the intracoronary blood waste and aspirated thrombi of STEMI patients, suggesting a role of oxidative stress in promoting thrombus formation and growth. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oxidative Stress and Cardiovascular Disease)
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Open AccessArticle Spatial Memory Dysfunction Induced by Vitamin C Deficiency Is Associated with Changes in Monoaminergic Neurotransmitters and Aberrant Synapse Formation
Antioxidants 2018, 7(7), 82; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox7070082
Received: 18 May 2018 / Revised: 21 June 2018 / Accepted: 27 June 2018 / Published: 29 June 2018
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Abstract
Vitamin C (vitC) is important in the developing brain, acting both as an essential antioxidant and as co-factor in the synthesis and metabolism of monoaminergic neurotransmitters. In guinea pigs, vitC deficiency results in increased oxidative stress, reduced hippocampal volume and neuronal numbers, and
[...] Read more.
Vitamin C (vitC) is important in the developing brain, acting both as an essential antioxidant and as co-factor in the synthesis and metabolism of monoaminergic neurotransmitters. In guinea pigs, vitC deficiency results in increased oxidative stress, reduced hippocampal volume and neuronal numbers, and deficits in spatial memory. This study investigated the effects of 8 weeks of either sufficient (923 mg vitC/kg feed) or deficient (100 mg vitC/kg feed) levels of dietary vitC on hippocampal monoaminergic neurotransmitters and markers of synapse formation in young guinea pigs with spatial memory deficits. Western blotting and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) were used to quantify the selected markers. VitC deficiency resulted in significantly reduced protein levels of synaptophysin (p = 0.016) and a decrease in 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid/5-hydroxytryptamine ratio (p = 0.0093). Protein expression of the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor subunit 1 and monoamine oxidase A were reduced, albeit not reaching statistical significance (p = 0.0898 and p = 0.067, respectively). Our findings suggest that vitC deficiency induced spatial memory deficits might be mediated by impairments in neurotransmission and synaptic development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamin C: Current Concepts in Human Physiology)
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Open AccessArticle Antioxidant Properties of Polyphenolic Extracts from Quercus Laurina, Quercus Crassifolia, and Quercus Scytophylla Bark
Antioxidants 2018, 7(7), 81; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox7070081
Received: 5 May 2018 / Revised: 16 June 2018 / Accepted: 19 June 2018 / Published: 26 June 2018
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Abstract
The objective of this work was to determine the concentration of total phenols, total flavonoids, hydroxycinnamic acids, and proanthocyanidins present in crude extracts of Quercus laurina, Q. crassifolia, and Q. scytophylla bark. They were extracted by ethanol (90%) maceration and hot
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The objective of this work was to determine the concentration of total phenols, total flavonoids, hydroxycinnamic acids, and proanthocyanidins present in crude extracts of Quercus laurina, Q. crassifolia, and Q. scytophylla bark. They were extracted by ethanol (90%) maceration and hot water. The antioxidant capacity was determined by the ability to capture OH•, O2, ROO•, H2O2, NO•, and HClO. The hot water crude extract of Q. crassifolia was chosen to be concentrated and purified due to its higher extraction yield (20.04%), concentration of phenol compounds (747 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g, 25.4 mg quercetin equivalent (QE)/g, 235 mg ChAE/g, 25.7 mg chlorogenic acid equivalents (ChAE)/g), and antioxidant capacity (expressed as half maximal effective concentration (EC50, µg/mL): OH• = 918, O2• = 80.5, ROO• = 577, H2O2 = 597, NO• ≥ 4000, HClO = 740). In a second stage, Q. crassifolia extracted with hot water was treated with ethyl acetate, concentrating the phenol compounds (860 mg GAE/g, 43.6 mg QE/g, 362 ChAE/g, 9.4 cyanidin chloride equivalents (CChE)/g) and improving the scavenging capacity (OH• = 467, O2• = 58.1, ROO• = 716, H2O2 = 22.0, NO• ≥ 4000, HClO = 108). Q. crassifolia had the highest polyphenolic concentration and the better capacity for scavenging reactive species, being a favorable candidate to be considered in the development of new products. Full article
Open AccessReview Neopterin, Inflammation, and Oxidative Stress: What Could We Be Missing?
Antioxidants 2018, 7(7), 80; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox7070080
Received: 12 April 2018 / Revised: 18 June 2018 / Accepted: 22 June 2018 / Published: 26 June 2018
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Abstract
Neopterin has been extensively used as a clinical marker of immune activation during inflammation in a wide range of conditions and stresses. However, the analysis of neopterin alone neglects the cellular reactions that generate it in response to interferon-γ. Neopterin is the oxidation
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Neopterin has been extensively used as a clinical marker of immune activation during inflammation in a wide range of conditions and stresses. However, the analysis of neopterin alone neglects the cellular reactions that generate it in response to interferon-γ. Neopterin is the oxidation product of 7,8-dihydroneopterin, which is a potent antioxidant generated by interferon-γ-activated macrophages. 7,8-Dihydroneopterin can protect macrophage cells from a range of oxidants through a scavenging reaction that generates either neopterin or dihydroxanthopterin, depending on the oxidant. Therefore, plasma and urinary neopterin levels are dependent on both macrophage activation to generate 7,8-dihydroneopterin and subsequent oxidation to neopterin. This relationship is clearly shown in studies of exercise and impact-induced injury during intense contact sport. Here, we argue that neopterin and total neopterin, which is the combined value of 7,8-dihydroneopterin and neopterin, could provide a more comprehensive analysis of clinical inflammation than neopterin alone. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Antioxidants in 2018)
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Open AccessArticle Dietary Micronutrient and Mineral Intake in the Mediterranean Healthy Eating, Ageing, and Lifestyle (MEAL) Study
Antioxidants 2018, 7(7), 79; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox7070079
Received: 14 May 2018 / Revised: 19 June 2018 / Accepted: 21 June 2018 / Published: 23 June 2018
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Abstract
Background: Dietary vitamins and minerals are essential compounds for the proper functioning of metabolic enzymes, regulation of gene transcription, and powering the body’s defense against oxidative stress. The aim of the present study was to investigate micronutrient consumption separately by age and sex,
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Background: Dietary vitamins and minerals are essential compounds for the proper functioning of metabolic enzymes, regulation of gene transcription, and powering the body’s defense against oxidative stress. The aim of the present study was to investigate micronutrient consumption separately by age and sex, major dietary sources, and percentage of individuals meeting the recommended requirements according to Italian (Livelli di Assunzione di Riferimento di Nutrienti (LARN)) and European (European Food Safety Agency (EFSA)) agencies. Methods: Data were obtained from the Mediterranean Healthy Eating, Ageing, and Lifestyle (MEAL) study, which included a sample of 1838 individuals randomly collected in the city of Catania, southern Italy. A validated food frequency questionnaire was used to collect information on diet. Results: Intake of vitamin A, vitamin C, and vitamin B group (except vitamin B9) was in line with other reports and was adequate according to the guidelines, while the percentage of individuals meeting the guidelines for vitamin D, vitamin E, and vitamin B9 was about 3%, 10%, and 40%, respectively. Among minerals, intake of iron, magnesium, and selenium was adequate for most of the sample, while the percentage of individuals meeting the recommendations for calcium, sodium, and potassium intake was about 20%, 8%, and 35%, respectively. Conclusions: An important percentage of the population would benefit from campaigns raising awareness of micronutrient deficiency or excessive consumption potentially affecting their health. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Protective Effect of Aqueous Extract from the Leaves of Justicia tranquebariesis against Thioacetamide-Induced Oxidative Stress and Hepatic Fibrosis in Rats
Antioxidants 2018, 7(7), 78; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox7070078
Received: 6 May 2018 / Revised: 9 June 2018 / Accepted: 17 June 2018 / Published: 22 June 2018
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Abstract
The present study aims to examine the protective effect of Justicia tranquebariesis on thioacetamide (TAA)-induced oxidative stress and hepatic fibrosis. Male Wister albino rats (150–200 g) were divided into five groups. Group 1 was normal control. Group 2 was J. tranquebariensis (400 mg/kg
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The present study aims to examine the protective effect of Justicia tranquebariesis on thioacetamide (TAA)-induced oxidative stress and hepatic fibrosis. Male Wister albino rats (150–200 g) were divided into five groups. Group 1 was normal control. Group 2 was J. tranquebariensis (400 mg/kg bw/p.o.)-treated control. Group 3 was TAA (100 mg/kg bw/s.c.)-treated control. Groups 4 and 5 were orally administered with the leaf extract of J. tranquebariensis (400 mg/kg bw) and silymarin (50 mg/kg bw) daily for 10 days with a subsequent administration of a single dose of TAA (100 mg/kg/s.c.). Blood and livers were collected and assayed for various antioxidant enzymes (SOD, CAT, GPx, GST, GSH, and GR). Treatment with J. tranquebariensis significantly reduced liver TBARS and enhanced the activities of antioxidant enzymes in TAA-induced fibrosis rats. Concurrently, pretreatment with J. tranquebariensis significantly reduced the elevated liver markers (AST, ALT, ALP, GGT, and TB) in the blood. In addition, J. tranquebariensis- and silymarin- administered rats demonstrated the restoration of normal liver histology and reduction in fibronectin and collagen deposition. Based on these findings, J. tranquebariensis has potent liver protective functions and can alleviate thioacetamide-induced oxidative stress, hepatic fibrosis and possible engross mechanisms connected to antioxidant potential. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phytochemical Antioxidants and Health)
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