Special Issue "Dietary Antioxidants and Prevention of Non-Communicable Diseases"

A special issue of Antioxidants (ISSN 2076-3921). This special issue belongs to the section "Health Outcomes of Antioxidants and Oxidative Stress".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 April 2018).

Printed Edition Available!
A printed edition of this Special Issue is available here.

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Giuseppe Grosso
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
NNEdPro Global Centre for Nutrition and Health, St John's Innovation Centre, Cambridge CB4 0WS, UK
Interests: public health nutrition; evidence synthesis; nutritional epidemiology; dietary antioxidants; chronic disease prevention

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Numerous epidemiological studies have demonstrated the association between oxidative stress and non-communicable disease, including cardiovascular disorders, mental disease, and several types of cancer. Oxidative stress is commonly known as an imbalance in the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the biological antioxidant defense system. Exogenous antioxidants gained a great attention because of their beneficial role in preventing chronic disease. The balanced diet contain hundreds of naturally occurring antioxidant compounds, including polyphenols and vitamins. Antioxidants are commonly found in vegetables, fruits, cocoa, grain cereals, olive oil, nuts and beverages, such as coffee and tea.

This Special Issue would welcome original research and reviews of literature concerning dietary antioxidants and the following topics:

- observational studies on nutritional cohorts, case-control studies, or population sample on the association with non-communicable disease;
- clinical trials of dietary antioxidants on disease prevention;
- level of evidence on the association with human health, including systematic reviews and meta-analyses;
- in vitro and in vivo studies on molecular mechanisms and targets of dietary antioxidants

Dr. Giuseppe Grosso
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Antioxidants is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1200 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • antioxidants
  • fruits
  • vegetables
  • functional foods
  • nutrition
  • non-communicable diseases
  • chronic disease
  • human health

Published Papers (13 papers)

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Editorial

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Open AccessEditorial
Dietary Antioxidants and Prevention of Non-Communicable Diseases
Antioxidants 2018, 7(7), 94; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox7070094 - 19 Jul 2018
Cited by 1

Research

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Open AccessArticle
Dietary Micronutrient and Mineral Intake in the Mediterranean Healthy Eating, Ageing, and Lifestyle (MEAL) Study
Antioxidants 2018, 7(7), 79; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox7070079 - 23 Jun 2018
Cited by 4
Abstract
Background: Dietary vitamins and minerals are essential compounds for the proper functioning of metabolic enzymes, regulation of gene transcription, and powering the body’s defense against oxidative stress. The aim of the present study was to investigate micronutrient consumption separately by age and sex, [...] Read more.
Background: Dietary vitamins and minerals are essential compounds for the proper functioning of metabolic enzymes, regulation of gene transcription, and powering the body’s defense against oxidative stress. The aim of the present study was to investigate micronutrient consumption separately by age and sex, major dietary sources, and percentage of individuals meeting the recommended requirements according to Italian (Livelli di Assunzione di Riferimento di Nutrienti (LARN)) and European (European Food Safety Agency (EFSA)) agencies. Methods: Data were obtained from the Mediterranean Healthy Eating, Ageing, and Lifestyle (MEAL) study, which included a sample of 1838 individuals randomly collected in the city of Catania, southern Italy. A validated food frequency questionnaire was used to collect information on diet. Results: Intake of vitamin A, vitamin C, and vitamin B group (except vitamin B9) was in line with other reports and was adequate according to the guidelines, while the percentage of individuals meeting the guidelines for vitamin D, vitamin E, and vitamin B9 was about 3%, 10%, and 40%, respectively. Among minerals, intake of iron, magnesium, and selenium was adequate for most of the sample, while the percentage of individuals meeting the recommendations for calcium, sodium, and potassium intake was about 20%, 8%, and 35%, respectively. Conclusions: An important percentage of the population would benefit from campaigns raising awareness of micronutrient deficiency or excessive consumption potentially affecting their health. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Macronutrient and Major Food Group Intake in a Cohort of Southern Italian Adults
Antioxidants 2018, 7(4), 58; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox7040058 - 15 Apr 2018
Cited by 2
Abstract
Background: Dietary intake of macronutrient and foods is considered crucial to decrease the risk of diet-related non-communicable diseases. Methods: The aim of this study was to describe the intake of major food groups and macronutrients in a random sample of 1838 southern Italian [...] Read more.
Background: Dietary intake of macronutrient and foods is considered crucial to decrease the risk of diet-related non-communicable diseases. Methods: The aim of this study was to describe the intake of major food groups and macronutrients in a random sample of 1838 southern Italian adults. Results: No significant differences of macronutrient consumption between sexes were found. By contrast, younger individuals had significantly higher intake of animal protein than older ones. Men reported consuming significantly more total processed meats and less eggs than women; egg consumption significantly increased by age groups. Significantly lower intake of fruit in the younger age group compared to older ones was found. Various patterns of correlation between food groups were described. More than half of individuals reached the suggested recommendations for carbohydrate and fiber intake, and about two-thirds met the recommendations for total protein and cholesterol intake, while only a minority met for total fat intake. Total and plant protein, monounsaturated and omega-6 fatty acids, were significantly inversely related with BMI (body mass index), while trans fatty acids and cholesterol were directly correlated. A direct association with unprocessed meats and an inverse association with processed meats was also found. Conclusions: The overall findings suggest that relatively healthy dietary habits are common in southern Italy. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Fluid Intake and Beverage Consumption Description and Their Association with Dietary Vitamins and Antioxidant Compounds in Italian Adults from the Mediterranean Healthy Eating, Aging and Lifestyles (MEAL) Study
Antioxidants 2018, 7(4), 56; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox7040056 - 09 Apr 2018
Cited by 2
Abstract
The aim of the present study was to investigate the total water intake (TWI) from drinks and foods and to evaluate the correlation between the different types of drinks on energy and antioxidant intake. The cohort comprised 1602 individuals from the city of [...] Read more.
The aim of the present study was to investigate the total water intake (TWI) from drinks and foods and to evaluate the correlation between the different types of drinks on energy and antioxidant intake. The cohort comprised 1602 individuals from the city of Catania in Southern Italy. A food frequency questionnaire was administered to assess dietary and water intake. The mean total water intake was 2.7 L; more than about two thirds of the sample met the European recommendations for water intake. Water and espresso coffee were the most consumed drinks. Alcohol beverages contributed about 3.0% of total energy intake, and sugar sweetened beverages contributed about 1.4%. All antioxidant vitamins were significantly correlated with TWI. However, a higher correlation was found for water from food rather than water from beverages, suggesting that major food contributors to antioxidant vitamin intake might be fruits and vegetables, rather than beverages other than water. A mild correlation was found between fruit juices and vitamin C; coffee, tea and alcohol, and niacin and polyphenols; and milk and vitamin B12. The findings from the present study show that our sample population has an adequate intake of TWI and that there is a healthy association between beverages and dietary antioxidants. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Microbial Biotransformation of a Polyphenol-Rich Potato Extract Affects Antioxidant Capacity in a Simulated Gastrointestinal Model
Antioxidants 2018, 7(3), 43; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox7030043 - 20 Mar 2018
Cited by 1
Abstract
A multistage human gastrointestinal model was used to digest a polyphenol-rich potato extract containing chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, ferulic acid, and rutin as the primary polyphenols, to assess for their microbial biotransformation and to measure changes in antioxidant capacity in up to 24 [...] Read more.
A multistage human gastrointestinal model was used to digest a polyphenol-rich potato extract containing chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, ferulic acid, and rutin as the primary polyphenols, to assess for their microbial biotransformation and to measure changes in antioxidant capacity in up to 24 h of digestion. The biotransformation of polyphenols was assessed by liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry. Antioxidant capacity was measured by the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay. Among the colonic reactors, parent (poly)phenols were detected in the ascending (AC), but not the transverse (TC) or descending (DC) colons. The most abundant microbial phenolic metabolites in all colonic reactors included derivatives of propionic acid, acetic acid, and benzoic acid. As compared to the baseline, an earlier increase in antioxidant capacity (T = 8 h) was seen in the stomach and small intestine vessels as compared to the AC (T = 16 h) and TC and DC (T = 24 h). The increase in antioxidant capacity observed in the DC and TC can be linked to the accumulation of microbial smaller-molecular-weight phenolic catabolites, as the parent polyphenolics had completely degraded in those vessels. The colonic microbial digestion of potato-based polyphenols could lead to improved colonic health, as this generates phenolic metabolites with significant antioxidant potential. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
In Vitro and In Vivo Antioxidant and Anti-Hyperglycemic Activities of Moroccan Oat Cultivars
Antioxidants 2017, 6(4), 102; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox6040102 - 06 Dec 2017
Cited by 6
Abstract
Improvement of oat lines via introgression is an important process for food biochemical functionality. This work aims to evaluate the protective effect of phenolic compounds from hybrid Oat line (F11-5) and its parent (Amlal) on hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress and to establish the possible [...] Read more.
Improvement of oat lines via introgression is an important process for food biochemical functionality. This work aims to evaluate the protective effect of phenolic compounds from hybrid Oat line (F11-5) and its parent (Amlal) on hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress and to establish the possible mechanisms of antidiabetic activity by digestive enzyme inhibition. Eight phenolic acids were quantified in our samples including ferulic, p-hydroxybenzoic, caffeic, salicylic, syringic, sinapic, p-coumaric and chlorogenic acids. The Oat extract (2000 mg/kg) ameliorated the glucose tolerance, decreased Fasting Blood Glucose (FBG) and oxidative stress markers, including Superoxide dismutase (SOD), Catalase (CAT), Glutathione peroxidase (GPx), Glutathione (GSH) and Malondialdehyde (MDA) in rat liver and kidney. Furthermore, Metformin and Oat intake prevented anxiety, hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis in diabetic rats. In vivo anti-hyperglycemic effect of Oat extracts has been confirmed by their inhibitory activities on α-amylase (723.91 μg/mL and 1027.14 μg/mL) and α-glucosidase (1548.12 μg/mL & 1803.52 μg/mL) enzymes by mean of a mixed inhibition. Full article
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Phytochemical Profile of Brown Rice and Its Nutrigenomic Implications
Antioxidants 2018, 7(6), 71; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox7060071 - 23 May 2018
Cited by 7
Abstract
Whole grain foods have been promoted to be included as one of the important components of a healthy diet because of the relationship between the regular consumption of whole-grain foods and reduced risk of chronic diseases. Rice is a staple food, which has [...] Read more.
Whole grain foods have been promoted to be included as one of the important components of a healthy diet because of the relationship between the regular consumption of whole-grain foods and reduced risk of chronic diseases. Rice is a staple food, which has been widely consumed for centuries by many Asian countries. Studies have suggested that brown rice is associated with a wide spectrum of nutrigenomic implications such as anti-diabetic, anti-cholesterol, cardioprotective and antioxidant. This is because of the presence of various phytochemicals that are mainly located in bran layers of brown rice. Therefore, this paper is a review of publications that focuses on the bioactive compounds and nutrigenomic implications of brown rice. Although current evidence supports the fact that the consumption of brown rice is beneficial for health, these studies are heterogeneous in terms of their brown rice samples used and population groups, which cause the evaluation to be difficult. Future clinical studies should focus on the screening of individual bioactive compounds in brown rice with reference to their nutrigenomic implications. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Effects of Mulberry Fruit (Morus alba L.) Consumption on Health Outcomes: A Mini-Review
Antioxidants 2018, 7(5), 69; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox7050069 - 21 May 2018
Cited by 14
Abstract
Mulberry (Morus alba L.) belongs to the Moraceae family and is widely planted in Asia. Mulberry fruits are generally consumed as fresh fruits, jams and juices. They contain considerable amounts of biologically active ingredients that might be associated with some potential pharmacological [...] Read more.
Mulberry (Morus alba L.) belongs to the Moraceae family and is widely planted in Asia. Mulberry fruits are generally consumed as fresh fruits, jams and juices. They contain considerable amounts of biologically active ingredients that might be associated with some potential pharmacological activities that are beneficial for health. Therefore, they have been traditionally used in traditional medicine. Studies have reported that the presence of bioactive components in mulberry fruits, including alkaloids and flavonoid, are associated with bioactivities such as antioxidant. One of the most important compounds in mulberry fruits is anthocyanins which are water-soluble bioactive ingredients of the polyphenol class. Studies have shown that mulberry fruits possess several potential pharmacological health benefits including anti-cholesterol, anti-obesity and hepatoprotective effects which might be associated with the presence of some of these bioactive compounds. However, human intervention studies on the pharmacological activities of mulberry fruits are limited. Therefore, future studies should explore the effect of mulberry fruit consumption on human health and elucidate the detailed compounds. This paper provides an overview of the pharmacological activities of mulberry fruits. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Do Coffee Polyphenols Have a Preventive Action on Metabolic Syndrome Associated Endothelial Dysfunctions? An Assessment of the Current Evidence
Antioxidants 2018, 7(2), 26; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox7020026 - 04 Feb 2018
Cited by 6
Abstract
Epidemiologic studies from several countries have found that mortality rates associated with the metabolic syndrome are inversely associated with coffee consumption. Metabolic syndrome can lead to arteriosclerosis by endothelial dysfunction, and increases the risk for myocardial and cerebral infarction. Accordingly, it is important [...] Read more.
Epidemiologic studies from several countries have found that mortality rates associated with the metabolic syndrome are inversely associated with coffee consumption. Metabolic syndrome can lead to arteriosclerosis by endothelial dysfunction, and increases the risk for myocardial and cerebral infarction. Accordingly, it is important to understand the possible protective effects of coffee against components of the metabolic syndrome, including vascular endothelial function impairment, obesity and diabetes. Coffee contains many components, including caffeine, chlorogenic acid, diterpenes and trigonelline. Studies have found that coffee polyphenols, such as chlorogenic acids, have many health-promoting properties, such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, anti-diabetes, and antihypertensive properties. Chlorogenic acids may exert protective effects against metabolic syndrome risk through their antioxidant properties, in particular toward vascular endothelial cells, in which nitric oxide production may be enhanced, by promoting endothelial nitric oxide synthase expression. These effects indicate that coffee components may support the maintenance of normal endothelial function and play an important role in the prevention of metabolic syndrome. However, results related to coffee consumption and the metabolic syndrome are heterogeneous among studies, and the mechanisms of its functions and corresponding molecular targets remain largely elusive. This review describes the results of studies exploring the putative effects of coffee components, especially in protecting vascular endothelial function and preventing metabolic syndrome. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Bioactive Components in Moringa Oleifera Leaves Protect against Chronic Disease
Antioxidants 2017, 6(4), 91; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox6040091 - 16 Nov 2017
Cited by 31
Abstract
Moringa Oleifera (MO), a plant from the family Moringacea is a major crop in Asia and Africa. MO has been studied for its health properties, attributed to the numerous bioactive components, including vitamins, phenolic acids, flavonoids, isothiocyanates, tannins and saponins, which [...] Read more.
Moringa Oleifera (MO), a plant from the family Moringacea is a major crop in Asia and Africa. MO has been studied for its health properties, attributed to the numerous bioactive components, including vitamins, phenolic acids, flavonoids, isothiocyanates, tannins and saponins, which are present in significant amounts in various components of the plant. Moringa Oleifera leaves are the most widely studied and they have shown to be beneficial in several chronic conditions, including hypercholesterolemia, high blood pressure, diabetes, insulin resistance, non-alcoholic liver disease, cancer and overall inflammation. In this review, we present information on the beneficial results that have been reported on the prevention and alleviation of these chronic conditions in various animal models and in cell studies. The existing limited information on human studies and Moringa Oleifera leaves is also presented. Overall, it has been well documented that Moringa Oleifera leaves are a good strategic for various conditions associated with heart disease, diabetes, cancer and fatty liver. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Polyphenols as Promising Drugs against Main Breast Cancer Signatures
Antioxidants 2017, 6(4), 88; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox6040088 - 07 Nov 2017
Cited by 16
Abstract
Breast cancer is one of the most common neoplasms worldwide, and in spite of clinical and pharmacological advances, it is still a clinical problem, causing morbidity and mortality. On the one hand, breast cancer shares with other neoplasms some molecular signatures such as [...] Read more.
Breast cancer is one of the most common neoplasms worldwide, and in spite of clinical and pharmacological advances, it is still a clinical problem, causing morbidity and mortality. On the one hand, breast cancer shares with other neoplasms some molecular signatures such as an imbalanced redox state, cell cycle alterations, increased proliferation and an inflammatory status. On the other hand, breast cancer shows differential molecular subtypes that determine its prognosis and treatment. These are characterized mainly by hormone receptors especially estrogen receptors (ERs) and epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2). Tumors with none of these receptors are classified as triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) and are associated with a worse prognosis. The success of treatments partially depends on their specificity and the adequate molecular classification of tumors. New advances in anticancer drug discovery using natural compounds have been made in the last few decades, and polyphenols have emerged as promising molecules. They may act on various molecular targets because of their promiscuous behavior, presenting several physiological effects, some of which confer antitumor activity. This review analyzes the accumulated evidence of the antitumor effects of plant polyphenols on breast cancer, with special attention to their activity on ERs and HER2 targets and also covering different aspects such as redox balance, uncontrolled proliferation and chronic inflammation. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Effects of Cocoa Antioxidants in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
Antioxidants 2017, 6(4), 84; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox6040084 - 31 Oct 2017
Cited by 14
Abstract
Type 2 Diabetes mellitus (T2D) is the most common form of diabetes and one of the most common chronic diseases. Control of hyperglycaemia by hypoglycaemic drugs is insufficient in for patients and nutritional approaches are currently being explored. Natural dietary compounds such as [...] Read more.
Type 2 Diabetes mellitus (T2D) is the most common form of diabetes and one of the most common chronic diseases. Control of hyperglycaemia by hypoglycaemic drugs is insufficient in for patients and nutritional approaches are currently being explored. Natural dietary compounds such as flavonoids, abundant in fruits and vegetables, have received broad attention because of their potential capacity to act as anti-diabetic agents. Especially cocoa flavonoids have been proved to ameliorate important hallmarks of T2D. In this review, an update of the most relevant reports published during the last decade in cell culture, animal models and human studies is presented. Most results support an anti-diabetic effect of cocoa flavonoids by enhancing insulin secretion, improving insulin sensitivity in peripheral tissues, exerting a lipid-lowering effect and preventing the oxidative and inflammatory damages associated to the disease. While it could be suggested that daily consumption of flavanols from cocoa or dark chocolate would constitute a potential preventive tool useful for the nutritional management of T2D, this recommendation should be cautious since most of commercially available soluble cocoa products or chocolates contain low amount of flavanols and are rich in sugar and calories that may aggravate glycaemic control in T2D patients. Full article
Open AccessReview
Phytochemical Constituents, Health Benefits, and Industrial Applications of Grape Seeds: A Mini-Review
Antioxidants 2017, 6(3), 71; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox6030071 - 15 Sep 2017
Cited by 29
Abstract
Grapes are one of the most widely grown fruits and have been used for winemaking since the ancient Greek and Roman civilizations. Grape seeds are rich in proanthocyanidins which have been shown to possess potent free radical scavenging activity. Grape seeds are a [...] Read more.
Grapes are one of the most widely grown fruits and have been used for winemaking since the ancient Greek and Roman civilizations. Grape seeds are rich in proanthocyanidins which have been shown to possess potent free radical scavenging activity. Grape seeds are a complex matrix containing 40% fiber, 16% oil, 11% proteins, and 7% complex phenols such as tannins. Grape seeds are rich sources of flavonoids and contain monomers, dimers, trimers, oligomers, and polymers. The monomeric compounds includes (+)-catechins, (−)-epicatechin, and (−)-epicatechin-3-O-gallate. Studies have reported that grape seeds exhibit a broad spectrum of pharmacological properties against oxidative stress. Their potential health benefits include protection against oxidative damage, and anti-diabetic, anti-cholesterol, and anti-platelet functions. Recognition of such health benefits of proanthocyanidins has led to the use of grape seeds as a dietary supplement by the consumers. This paper summarizes the studies of the phytochemical compounds, pharmacological properties, and industrial applications of grape seeds. Full article
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