Special Issue "Exercise and Inflammation"

A special issue of Antioxidants (ISSN 2076-3921).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 August 2018) | Viewed by 50616

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Katsuhiko Suzuki
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Dr. Llion Roberts
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Lecturer of Human Physiology, School of Allied Health Sciences & Menzies Health Institute, Griffith University, Queensland, Australia
Interests: exercise; adaptation; metabolism; inflammation; hormesis; adaptive-based redox control
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Exercise-induced inflammation is a complex and multi-faceted response, lasting from hours to days after-exercise. The paradoxical view of inflammation, and its application to the hormesis model is intriguing and complex. More so, different exercise modalities, exercise volumes and exercise intensities contribute an added layer of complexity in understanding the dose–response relationship between exercise, the resulting (anti)inflammatory response, and ultimately, the desired consequence of the exercise bout(s). For example, minimising exercise-induced inflammation may be more important when restoring homeostasis and muscle function to the basal state. However, when promoting adaptation to exercise, e.g., within a training environment, allowing a higher dose of inflammation to potentially aid adaptation may be a valuable strategy. Understanding more about the interplay between exercise and the resulting inflammatory response, and the underlying mechanism(s) is crucial.

This Special Issue aims to publish original research papers and reviews on aspects of the exercise-induced inflammatory response in animal and human models. Aspects include the interplay between oxidative stress and inflammation and potential strategies to combat such responses. Suitable topics include, but are not limited to, the following: the role of post-exercise inflammation in governing muscular regeneration and adaption; the paradoxical role of inflammation for post-exercise recovery; inflammation’s role in exercise-induced muscle damage; neutraceutical and applied strategies to combat inflammation.

Prof. Dr. Katsuhiko Suzuki
Dr. Llion Roberts
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Muscle damage
  • Oxidative stress
  • Recovery
  • Adaptation
  • Hormesis

Published Papers (13 papers)

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Editorial

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Editorial
Exercise and Inflammation
Antioxidants 2019, 8(6), 155; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8060155 - 02 Jun 2019
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1389
Abstract
Exercise and inflammation induce multi-faceted physiological responses in their own right, let alone when considered together [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise and Inflammation)

Research

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Article
Exercise and Redox Status Responses Following Alpha-Lipoic Acid Supplementation in G6PD Deficient Individuals
Antioxidants 2018, 7(11), 162; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox7110162 - 12 Nov 2018
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2012
Abstract
G6PD deficiency renders cells more susceptible to oxidative insults, while antioxidant dietary supplementation could restore redox balance and ameliorate exercise-induced oxidative stress. To examine the effects of alpha-lipoic acid (ALA) supplementation on redox status indices in G6PD deficient individuals, eight male adults with [...] Read more.
G6PD deficiency renders cells more susceptible to oxidative insults, while antioxidant dietary supplementation could restore redox balance and ameliorate exercise-induced oxidative stress. To examine the effects of alpha-lipoic acid (ALA) supplementation on redox status indices in G6PD deficient individuals, eight male adults with G6PD deficiency (D) participated in this randomized double-blind placebo-controlled crossover trial. Participants were randomly assigned to receive ALA (600 mg/day) or placebo for 4 weeks separated by a 4-week washout period. Before and at the end of each treatment period, participants exercised following an exhaustive treadmill exercise protocol. Blood samples were obtained before (at rest), immediately after and 1h after exercise for later analysis of total antioxidant capacity (TAC), uric acid, bilirubin, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and protein carbonyls (PC). ALA resulted in significantly increased resting TAC and bilirubin concentrations. Moreover, TAC increased immediately and 1h after exercise following both treatment periods, whereas bilirubin increased immediately after and 1h after exercise following only ALA. No significant change in uric acid, TBARS or PC was observed at any time point. ALA supplementation for 4 weeks may enhance antioxidant status in G6PD individuals; however, it does not affect redox responses to acute exercise until exhaustion or exercise performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise and Inflammation)
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Article
Reduction of Real-Time Imaging of M1 Macrophage Chemotaxis toward Damaged Muscle Cells is PI3K-Dependent
Antioxidants 2018, 7(10), 138; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox7100138 - 08 Oct 2018
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2011
Abstract
Macrophages migrate and invade into damaged muscle rapidly and are important for muscle repair and subsequent regeneration. The exact cellular and biological events that cause macrophage migration toward injured muscle are not completely understood. In this study, the effect of macrophage differentiation on [...] Read more.
Macrophages migrate and invade into damaged muscle rapidly and are important for muscle repair and subsequent regeneration. The exact cellular and biological events that cause macrophage migration toward injured muscle are not completely understood. In this study, the effect of macrophage differentiation on the chemotactic capability to invade local damaged muscle was investigated using an in vitro model of muscle injury. We used C2C12 cell myoblasts and J774 cell macrophages, and the “killed-C2C12” cells were combined with live C2C12 cells as a partially damaged muscle model. The cultured J774 cells, with or without lipopolysaccharide (LPS), were treated with Ly294002 (Ly), which is an inhibitor of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K). In order to evaluate the polarization effect of LPS stimulation on J774 cells, expression of cell surface Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), CD11c and CCR2, and expression of F-actin intensity, were analyzed by flow cytometry. The real-time horizontal chemotaxis assay of J774 cells was tested using the TAXIScan device. The expressions of TLR4, CD11c, and F-actin intensity in LPS-treated cells were significantly higher than those in Ctrl cells. In LPS-treated cells, the chemotactic activity toward damaged muscle cells completely disappeared. Moreover, the reduced chemotaxis depended far more on directionality than velocity. However, Ly treatment reversed the reduced chemotactic activity of the LPS-treated cells. In addition, cell-adhesion and F-actin intensity, but not CCR2 expression, in LPS-treated cells, was significantly reduced by Ly treatment. Taken together, our results suggest that the PI3K/Akt activation state drives migration behavior towards damaged muscle cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise and Inflammation)
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Article
Involvement of Neutrophil Dynamics and Function in Exercise-Induced Muscle Damage and Delayed-Onset Muscle Soreness: Effect of Hydrogen Bath
Antioxidants 2018, 7(10), 127; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox7100127 - 25 Sep 2018
Cited by 20 | Viewed by 2955
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to investigate the involvement of neutrophil dynamics and function in exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD) and delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS), and the effect of molecular hydrogen (H2) intake on these parameters. Nine healthy and active young [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the involvement of neutrophil dynamics and function in exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD) and delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS), and the effect of molecular hydrogen (H2) intake on these parameters. Nine healthy and active young men performed H2 and placebo bath trial in a crossover design. They carried out downhill running (−8% slope) for 30 min at a speed corresponding to 75~85% of peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak). Subsequently, they repeated bathing for 20 min per day for one week. Degree of muscle soreness (visual analogue scale: VAS), peripheral leukocyte counts, neutrophil dynamics and function, muscle damage, and inflammation markers were measured. Plasma interleukin (IL)-6 concentration was significantly correlated with peripheral neutrophil count, VAS, and serum creatine kinase activity, respectively, after downhill running. Peripheral neutrophil count and serum myoglobin concentration were also significantly correlated. Conversely, there were no effects of H2 bath. These results suggest that IL-6 may be involved in the mobilization of neutrophils into the peripheral blood and subsequent EIMD and DOMS after downhill running; however, it is not likely that H2 bath is effective for the inflammatory process that is centered on neutrophils after downhill running. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise and Inflammation)
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Article
The Effects of Beta-Hydroxy-Beta-Methylbutyrate-Free Acid Supplementation and Resistance Training on Oxidative Stress Markers: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study
Antioxidants 2018, 7(6), 76; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox7060076 - 11 Jun 2018
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2677
Abstract
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of 6-week beta-hydroxy-beta methylbutyrate-free acid (HMB-FA) supplementation on oxidative stress and biochemical variables in responses to resistance training. Sixteen healthy young males participated in this study and were randomly assigned to a HMB-FA [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of 6-week beta-hydroxy-beta methylbutyrate-free acid (HMB-FA) supplementation on oxidative stress and biochemical variables in responses to resistance training. Sixteen healthy young males participated in this study and were randomly assigned to a HMB-FA supplementation group (n = 8) or a placebo supplementation group (n = 8). The resistance training program was applied for 6 weeks with two sessions per week. Blood samples were collected before and after training, and 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), malondialdehyde (MDA), protein carbonyl (PC), and biochemical variables, such as alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and the numbers of total white blood cells (WBC), neutrophils, lymphocytes, and monocytes were analyzed. Following intervention, both the HMB-FA and placebo supplementation groups showed significant decreases in MDA (effect size [ES]; −0.39, −0.33) and PC (ES; −1.37, −1.41), respectively. However, 8-OHdG did not change after 6 weeks of training in any of the groups. In addition, both groups showed similar training effects on biochemical variables after 6 weeks of intervention. It was concluded that HMB-FA supplementation during resistance training did not add further adaptive changes related to oxidative stress markers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise and Inflammation)
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Article
Exogenous Plant-Based Nutraceutical Supplementation and Peripheral Cell Mononuclear DNA Damage Following High Intensity Exercise
Antioxidants 2018, 7(5), 70; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox7050070 - 21 May 2018
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2429
Abstract
Plant-based nutraceuticals are categorised as nutritional supplements which contain a high concentration of antioxidants with the intention of minimising the deleterious effect of an oxidative insult. The primary aim of this novel study was to determine the effect of exogenous barley-wheat grass juice [...] Read more.
Plant-based nutraceuticals are categorised as nutritional supplements which contain a high concentration of antioxidants with the intention of minimising the deleterious effect of an oxidative insult. The primary aim of this novel study was to determine the effect of exogenous barley-wheat grass juice (BWJ) on indices of exercise-induced oxidative stress. Ten (n = 10) apparently healthy, recreationally trained (V̇O2max 55.9 ± 6 mL·kg−1·min−1), males (age 22 ± 2 years, height 181 ± 6 cm, weight 87 ± 8 kg, body mass index (BMI) 27 ± 1) volunteered to participant in the study. In a randomised, double-blinded, placebo-controlled crossover design, participants consumed either a placebo, a low dose (70 mL per day) of BWJ, or a high dose (140 mL per day) of BWJ for 7-days. Experimental exercise consisted of a standard maximal oxygen uptake test until volitional fatigue. DNA damage, as assessed by the single cell gel electrophoresis comet assay, increased following high intensity exercise across all groups (time × group; p < 0.05, Effect Size (ES) = 0.7), although there was no selective difference for intervention (p > 0.05). There was a main effect for time in lipid hydroperoxide concentration (pooled-group data, pre- vs. post-exercise, p < 0.05, ES = 0.2) demonstrating that exercise increased lipid peroxidation. Superoxide dismutase activity (SOD) increased by 44.7% following BWJ supplementation (pooled group data, pre- vs. post). The ascorbyl free radical (p < 0.05, ES = 0.26), α-tocopherol (p = 0.007, ES = 0.2), and xanthophyll (p = 0.000, ES = 0.5), increased between the pre- and post-exercise time points indicating a main effect of time. This study illustrates that a 7-day supplementation period of a novel plant-derived nutraceutical product is insufficient at attenuating exercise-induced oxidative damage. It is possible that with a larger sample size, and longer supplementation period, this novel plant-based nutraceutical could potentially offer effective prophylaxis against exercise-induced oxidative stress; as such, this justifies the need for further research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise and Inflammation)
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Article
Effects of Ingestion of Different Amounts of Carbohydrate after Endurance Exercise on Circulating Cytokines and Markers of Neutrophil Activation
Antioxidants 2018, 7(4), 51; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox7040051 - 02 Apr 2018
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3241
Abstract
We aimed to examine the effects of ingestion of different amounts of carbohydrate (CHO) after endurance exercise on neutrophil count, circulating cytokine levels, and the markers of neutrophil activation and muscle damage. Nine participants completed three separate experimental trials consisting of 1 h [...] Read more.
We aimed to examine the effects of ingestion of different amounts of carbohydrate (CHO) after endurance exercise on neutrophil count, circulating cytokine levels, and the markers of neutrophil activation and muscle damage. Nine participants completed three separate experimental trials consisting of 1 h of cycling exercise at 70% V · O2 max, followed by ingestion of 1.2 g CHO·kg body mass−1·h−1 (HCHO trial), 0.2 g CHO·kg body mass−1·h−1 (LCHO trial), or placebo (PLA trial) during the 2 h recovery phase in random order. Circulating glucose, insulin, and cytokine levels, blood cell counts, and the markers of neutrophil activation and muscle damage were measured. The concentrations of plasma glucose and serum insulin at 1 h after exercise were higher in the HCHO trial than in the LCHO and PLA trials. Although there were significant main effects of time on several variables, including neutrophil count, cytokine levels, and the markers of neutrophil activation and muscle damage, significant time × trial interactions were not observed for any variables. These results suggest that CHO ingestion after endurance exercise does not enhance exercise-induced increase in circulating neutrophil and cytokine levels and markers of neutrophil activation and muscle damage, regardless of the amount of CHO ingested. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise and Inflammation)
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Review

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Review
Monocyte Subsets in Atherosclerosis and Modification with Exercise in Humans
Antioxidants 2018, 7(12), 196; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox7120196 - 19 Dec 2018
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 3288
Abstract
Atherosclerosis is a progressive pathological remodeling of the arteries and one of its hallmarks is the presence of chronic inflammation. Notably, there is an increased proportion and activation state of specific monocyte subsets in systemic blood circulation. Monocyte subsets have distinct contributions to [...] Read more.
Atherosclerosis is a progressive pathological remodeling of the arteries and one of its hallmarks is the presence of chronic inflammation. Notably, there is an increased proportion and activation state of specific monocyte subsets in systemic blood circulation. Monocyte subsets have distinct contributions to the formation, progression, and destabilization of the atherosclerotic plaque. Strong clinical and epidemiological studies show that regular aerobic exercise mitigates the progression of cardiovascular disease. In fact, aerobic fitness is a powerful predictor of cardiovascular mortality in adults, independent of traditional risk factors such as hypertension and hyperlipidemia. Acute bouts and chronic exercise training modulate monocyte behavior, ranging from their recruitment from the bone marrow or marginal pool, to tissue margination and functional changes in cytokine and chemokine production. Such modulation could reflect a potential mechanism for the cardio-protective effect of exercise on atherosclerosis. This review summarizes the current knowledge of monocyte subsets and highlights what is known about their responses to exercise. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise and Inflammation)
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Review
Heat Sepsis Precedes Heat Toxicity in the Pathophysiology of Heat Stroke—A New Paradigm on an Ancient Disease
Antioxidants 2018, 7(11), 149; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox7110149 - 25 Oct 2018
Cited by 36 | Viewed by 5807
Abstract
Heat stroke (HS) is an ancient illness dating back more than 2000 years and continues to be a health threat and to cause fatality during physical exertion, especially in military personnel, fire-fighters, athletes, and outdoor laborers. The current paradigm in the pathophysiology and [...] Read more.
Heat stroke (HS) is an ancient illness dating back more than 2000 years and continues to be a health threat and to cause fatality during physical exertion, especially in military personnel, fire-fighters, athletes, and outdoor laborers. The current paradigm in the pathophysiology and prevention of HS focuses predominantly on heat as the primary trigger and driver of HS, which has not changed significantly for centuries. However, pathological and clinical reports from HS victims and research evidence from animal and human studies support the notion that heat alone does not fully explain the pathophysiology of HS and that HS may also be triggered and driven by heat- and exercise-induced endotoxemia. Exposure to heat and exercise stresses independently promote the translocation of lipopolysaccharides (LPS) from gram-negative bacteria in the gut to blood in the circulatory system. Blood concentration of LPS can increase to a threshold that triggers the systemic inflammatory response, leading to the downstream ramifications of cellular and organ damage with sepsis as the end point i.e., heat sepsis. The dual pathway model (DPM) of HS proposed that HS is triggered by two independent pathways sequentially along the core temperature continuum of >40 °C. HS is triggered by heat sepsis at Tc < 42 °C and by the heat toxicity at Tc > 42 °C, where the direct effects of heat alone can cause cellular and organ damage. Therefore, heat sepsis precedes heat toxicity in the pathophysiology of HS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise and Inflammation)
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Review
A Review of the Effects of Leucine Metabolite (β-Hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate) Supplementation and Resistance Training on Inflammatory Markers: A New Approach to Oxidative Stress and Cardiovascular Risk Factors
Antioxidants 2018, 7(10), 148; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox7100148 - 20 Oct 2018
Cited by 20 | Viewed by 3484
Abstract
β-hydroxy β-methylbutyrate (HMB) is a bioactive metabolite formed from the breakdown of the branched-chain amino acid, leucine. Given the popularity of HMB supplements among different athletes, specifically, those who participate in regular resistance training, this review was performed to summarize current literature on [...] Read more.
β-hydroxy β-methylbutyrate (HMB) is a bioactive metabolite formed from the breakdown of the branched-chain amino acid, leucine. Given the popularity of HMB supplements among different athletes, specifically, those who participate in regular resistance training, this review was performed to summarize current literature on some aspects of HMB supplementation that have received less attention. Because of the small number of published studies, it has not been possible to conclude the exact effects of HMB on cardiovascular parameters, oxidative stress, and inflammatory markers. Thus, the interpretation of outcomes should be taken cautiously. However, the data presented here suggest that acute HMB supplementation may attenuate the pro-inflammatory response following an intense bout of resistance exercise in athletes. Also, the available findings collectively indicate that chronic HMB consumption with resistance training does not improve cardiovascular risk factors and oxidative stress markers greater than resistance training alone. Taken together, there is clearly a need for further well-designed, long-term studies to support these findings and determine whether HMB supplementation affects the adaptations induced by resistance training associated with the body’s inflammatory condition, antioxidative defense system, and cardiovascular risk factors in humans. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise and Inflammation)
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Review
Exercise-Induced Oxidative Stress and the Effects of Antioxidant Intake from a Physiological Viewpoint
Antioxidants 2018, 7(9), 119; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox7090119 - 05 Sep 2018
Cited by 117 | Viewed by 9169
Abstract
It is well established that the increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) and free radicals production during exercise has both positive and negative physiological effects. Among them, the present review focuses on oxidative stress caused by acute exercise, mainly on evidence in healthy [...] Read more.
It is well established that the increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) and free radicals production during exercise has both positive and negative physiological effects. Among them, the present review focuses on oxidative stress caused by acute exercise, mainly on evidence in healthy individuals. This review also summarizes findings on the determinants of exercise-induced oxidative stress and sources of free radical production. Moreover, we outline the effects of antioxidant supplementation on exercise-induced oxidative stress, which have been studied extensively. Finally, the following review briefly summarizes future tasks in the field of redox biology of exercise. In principle, this review covers findings for the whole body, and describes human trials and animal experiments separately. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise and Inflammation)
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Review
Reactive Oxygen and Nitrogen Species Regulate Key Metabolic, Anabolic, and Catabolic Pathways in Skeletal Muscle
Antioxidants 2018, 7(7), 85; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox7070085 - 05 Jul 2018
Cited by 39 | Viewed by 4777
Abstract
Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS) are important cellular regulators of key physiological processes in skeletal muscle. In this review, we explain how RONS regulate muscle contraction and signaling, and why they are important for membrane remodeling, protein turnover, gene expression, and epigenetic [...] Read more.
Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS) are important cellular regulators of key physiological processes in skeletal muscle. In this review, we explain how RONS regulate muscle contraction and signaling, and why they are important for membrane remodeling, protein turnover, gene expression, and epigenetic adaptation. We discuss how RONS regulate carbohydrate uptake and metabolism of skeletal muscle, and how they indirectly regulate fat metabolism through silent mating type information regulation 2 homolog 3 (SIRT3). RONS are causative/associative signaling molecules, which cause sarcopenia or muscle hypertrophy. Regular exercise influences redox biology, metabolism, and anabolic/catabolic pathways in skeletal muscle in an intensity dependent manner. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise and Inflammation)
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Other

Perspective
Cytokine Response to Exercise and Its Modulation
Antioxidants 2018, 7(1), 17; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox7010017 - 17 Jan 2018
Cited by 74 | Viewed by 6701
Abstract
Strenuous exercise induces such inflammatory responses as leukocytosis (neutrophilia) and symptoms as delayed-onset muscle soreness and swelling. However, the association between inflammatory mediator cytokines and oxidative stress is not fully delineated. Herein, in addition to basic background information on cytokines, research findings on [...] Read more.
Strenuous exercise induces such inflammatory responses as leukocytosis (neutrophilia) and symptoms as delayed-onset muscle soreness and swelling. However, the association between inflammatory mediator cytokines and oxidative stress is not fully delineated. Herein, in addition to basic background information on cytokines, research findings on exertional effects on cytokine release and the underlying mechanisms and triggers are introduced. Then, the associations among cytokine responses, oxidative stress, and tissue damage are described not only in overloaded skeletal muscle, but also in other internal organs. Furthermore, we introduce preventive countermeasures against the exhaustive exercise-induced pathogenesis together with the possibility of antioxidant interventions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise and Inflammation)
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