Special Issue "Phytochemical Antioxidants and Health"

A special issue of Antioxidants (ISSN 2076-3921). This special issue belongs to the section "Health Outcomes of Antioxidants and Oxidative Stress".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 June 2019

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Baojun Xu

Food Science and Technology Program, Beijing Normal University-Hong Kong Baptist University United International College, Zhuhai, China
Website | E-Mail
Interests: phytochemicals; natural products; functional foods; human health

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

It is widely accepted that free-radical-induced oxidative damage is involved with various human diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases, neural disorders, such as Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s disease, diabetes, obesity, and various cancers. Antioxidants are substances that delay or inhibit oxidative damage when present in small quantities compared to an oxidizable substrate. Therefore, antioxidants can help in disease prevention by effectively quenching free radicals or inhibiting damage caused by them. It is recognized that the health effects of natural products including food and herbal medicines are generally associated with antioxidative activities or free radical scavenging properties of phytochemicals.

We invite you to contribute your latest research findings or a review article to this Special Issue, which will bring together current research concerning and critical thinking on phytochemical antioxidants, and the role that antioxidants can play in reducing oxidative stress in various disease statuses. Your contribution can include either in vitro or in vivo studies relating to any of the following topics: Antioxidative activities of phytochemicals; molecular mechanisms of phytochemical antioxidants in disease prevention; and the role of phytochemicals or antioxidants in signaling, cell metabolism, cell cycle, cellular stress, and chronic diseases.

We look forward to your contribution.

Prof. Baojun Xu
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Antioxidants is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 550 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Antioxidants
  • Oxidative stress
  • Free radical scavenging
  • Phytochemicals
  • Molecular mechanisms
  • Health promotion
  • Disease prevention

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Vitis vinifera L. Leaf Extract Inhibits In Vitro Mediators of Inflammation and Oxidative Stress Involved in Inflammatory-Based Skin Diseases
Antioxidants 2019, 8(5), 134; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8050134
Received: 26 April 2019 / Revised: 11 May 2019 / Accepted: 13 May 2019 / Published: 16 May 2019
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Abstract
Psoriasis is a chronic cutaneous condition characterized by the release of pro-inflammatory mediators and oxidative stress. The reduction of these factors is currently the most effective strategy to inhibit the symptoms of pathology. Antioxidants from natural sources are increasingly used to improve skin [...] Read more.
Psoriasis is a chronic cutaneous condition characterized by the release of pro-inflammatory mediators and oxidative stress. The reduction of these factors is currently the most effective strategy to inhibit the symptoms of pathology. Antioxidants from natural sources are increasingly used to improve skin conditions. Dried red leaves from grapevine (Vitis vinifera L., cv Teinturiers) showed anti-inflammatory and anti-bacterial activities, but their possible effects on keratinocytes have not been previously investigated. In this study we tested the ability of a water extract from grapevine leaves (VVWE) to inhibit inflammatory conditions in human keratinocytes (HaCaT cells), challenged with proinflammatory (tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) or lipopolysaccharide (LPS)) or prooxidant (ultraviolet B radiation (UVB) or H2O2) mediators. VVWE inhibited interleukin-8 (IL-8) secretion induced by proinflammatory stimuli, acting on the IL-8 promoter activity, but the effect was lower when prooxidant mediators were used. The effect was partly explained by the reduction of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB)-driven transcription and nuclear translocation. Furthermore, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) secretion, a regulator of angiogenesis, was inhibited by VVWE, but not matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), a protease involved in matrix remodeling. VVWE, assayed on Franz diffusion cell system, showed a marked reduction of High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC)-identified compounds. Pure molecules individually failed to reduce TNF-α-induced IL-8 release, suggesting synergistic effects or the presence of other bioactive compounds still unknown. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phytochemical Antioxidants and Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Natural Antioxidant Resveratrol Suppresses Uterine Fibroid Cell Growth and Extracellular Matrix Formation In Vitro and In Vivo
Antioxidants 2019, 8(4), 99; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8040099
Received: 9 March 2019 / Revised: 8 April 2019 / Accepted: 10 April 2019 / Published: 12 April 2019
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Abstract
Resveratrol (RSV) is a polyphenolic phytoalexin found in peanuts, grapes, and other plants. Uterine fibroids (UF) are benign growths that are enriched in extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of RSV on UF using in vivo [...] Read more.
Resveratrol (RSV) is a polyphenolic phytoalexin found in peanuts, grapes, and other plants. Uterine fibroids (UF) are benign growths that are enriched in extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of RSV on UF using in vivo and in vitro approaches. In mouse xenograft models, tumors were implanted through the subcutaneous injection of Eker rat-derived uterine leiomyoma cells transfected with luciferase (ELT-3-LUC) in five-week-old female nude (Foxn1nu) mice. When the tumors reached a size of 50–100 mm3, the mice were randomly assigned to intraperitoneal treatment with RSV (10 mg·kg−1) or vehicle control (dimethyl sulfoxide). Tumor tissues were assayed using an immunohistochemistry analysis. We also used primary human leiomyoma cells as in vitro models. Cell viability was determined using the sodium bicarbonate and 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The protein expression was assayed using Western blot analysis. The messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) expression was assayed using quantitative reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction (qRT–PCR). Cell apoptosis was assayed using Annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) and propidium iodide (PI) and Hoechst 33342 staining. RSV significantly suppressed tumor growth in vivo and decreased the proportion of cells showing expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA). In addition, RSV decreased the protein expression of PCNA, fibronectin, and upregulated the ratio of Bax (Bcl-2-associated X) and Bcl-2 (B-cell lymphoma/leukemia 2) in vivo. Furthermore, RSV reduced leiomyoma cell viability, and decreased the mRNA levels of fibronectin and the protein expression of collagen type 1 (COL1A1) and α-SMA (ECM protein marker), as well as reducing the levels of β-catenin protein. RSV induced apoptosis and cell cycle arrest at sub-G1 phase. Our findings indicated the inhibitory effects of RSV on the ELT-3-LUC xenograft model and indicated that RSV reduced ECM-related protein expression in primary human leiomyoma cells, demonstrating its potential as an anti-fibrotic therapy for UF. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phytochemical Antioxidants and Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Inhibitory Effects of Auraptene and Naringin on Astroglial Activation, Tau Hyperphosphorylation, and Suppression of Neurogenesis in the Hippocampus of Streptozotocin-Induced Hyperglycemic Mice
Antioxidants 2018, 7(8), 109; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox7080109
Received: 24 July 2018 / Revised: 10 August 2018 / Accepted: 17 August 2018 / Published: 19 August 2018
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Abstract
Auraptene, a citrus-related compound, exerts anti-inflammatory effects in peripheral tissues, and we demonstrated these effects in the brains of a lipopolysaccharide-injected systemic inflammation animal model and a brain ischemic mouse model. Naringin, another citrus-related compound, has been shown to exert antioxidant effects in [...] Read more.
Auraptene, a citrus-related compound, exerts anti-inflammatory effects in peripheral tissues, and we demonstrated these effects in the brains of a lipopolysaccharide-injected systemic inflammation animal model and a brain ischemic mouse model. Naringin, another citrus-related compound, has been shown to exert antioxidant effects in several animal models. Hyperglycemia induces oxidative stress and inflammation and causes extensive damage in the brain; therefore, we herein evaluated the anti-inflammatory and other effects of auraptene and naringin in streptozotocin-induced hyperglycemic mice. Both compounds inhibited astroglial activation and the hyperphosphorylation of tau at 231 of threonine in neurons, and also recovered the suppression of neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus in hyperglycemic mice. These results suggested that auraptene and naringin have potential effects as neuroprotective agents in the brain. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phytochemical Antioxidants and Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Protective Effect of Aqueous Extract from the Leaves of Justicia tranquebariesis against Thioacetamide-Induced Oxidative Stress and Hepatic Fibrosis in Rats
Antioxidants 2018, 7(7), 78; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox7070078
Received: 6 May 2018 / Revised: 9 June 2018 / Accepted: 17 June 2018 / Published: 22 June 2018
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Abstract
The present study aims to examine the protective effect of Justicia tranquebariesis on thioacetamide (TAA)-induced oxidative stress and hepatic fibrosis. Male Wister albino rats (150–200 g) were divided into five groups. Group 1 was normal control. Group 2 was J. tranquebariensis (400 mg/kg [...] Read more.
The present study aims to examine the protective effect of Justicia tranquebariesis on thioacetamide (TAA)-induced oxidative stress and hepatic fibrosis. Male Wister albino rats (150–200 g) were divided into five groups. Group 1 was normal control. Group 2 was J. tranquebariensis (400 mg/kg bw/p.o.)-treated control. Group 3 was TAA (100 mg/kg bw/s.c.)-treated control. Groups 4 and 5 were orally administered with the leaf extract of J. tranquebariensis (400 mg/kg bw) and silymarin (50 mg/kg bw) daily for 10 days with a subsequent administration of a single dose of TAA (100 mg/kg/s.c.). Blood and livers were collected and assayed for various antioxidant enzymes (SOD, CAT, GPx, GST, GSH, and GR). Treatment with J. tranquebariensis significantly reduced liver TBARS and enhanced the activities of antioxidant enzymes in TAA-induced fibrosis rats. Concurrently, pretreatment with J. tranquebariensis significantly reduced the elevated liver markers (AST, ALT, ALP, GGT, and TB) in the blood. In addition, J. tranquebariensis- and silymarin- administered rats demonstrated the restoration of normal liver histology and reduction in fibronectin and collagen deposition. Based on these findings, J. tranquebariensis has potent liver protective functions and can alleviate thioacetamide-induced oxidative stress, hepatic fibrosis and possible engross mechanisms connected to antioxidant potential. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phytochemical Antioxidants and Health)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Effects and Mechanisms of Tea and Its Bioactive Compounds for the Prevention and Treatment of Cardiovascular Diseases: An Updated Review
Antioxidants 2019, 8(6), 166; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8060166
Received: 18 May 2019 / Revised: 3 June 2019 / Accepted: 4 June 2019 / Published: 6 June 2019
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Abstract
Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are critical global public health issues with high morbidity and mortality. Epidemiological studies have revealed that regular tea drinking is inversely associated with the risk of CVDs. Additionally, substantial in vitro and in vivo experimental studies have shown that tea [...] Read more.
Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are critical global public health issues with high morbidity and mortality. Epidemiological studies have revealed that regular tea drinking is inversely associated with the risk of CVDs. Additionally, substantial in vitro and in vivo experimental studies have shown that tea and its bioactive compounds are effective in protecting against CVDs. The relevant mechanisms include reducing blood lipid, alleviating ischemia/reperfusion injury, inhibiting oxidative stress, enhancing endothelial function, attenuating inflammation, and protecting cardiomyocyte function. Moreover, some clinical trials also proved the protective role of tea against CVDs. In order to provide a better understanding of the relationship between tea and CVDs, this review summarizes the effects of tea and its bioactive compounds against CVDs and discusses potential mechanisms of action based on evidence from epidemiological, experimental, and clinical studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phytochemical Antioxidants and Health)
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Open AccessReview
Dietary Flavonoids as Cancer Chemopreventive Agents: An Updated Review of Human Studies
Antioxidants 2019, 8(5), 137; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8050137
Received: 25 April 2019 / Revised: 14 May 2019 / Accepted: 16 May 2019 / Published: 18 May 2019
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Abstract
Over the past few years, interest in health research has increased, making improved health a global goal for 2030. The purpose of such research is to ensure healthy lives and promote wellbeing across individuals of all ages. It has been shown that nutrition [...] Read more.
Over the past few years, interest in health research has increased, making improved health a global goal for 2030. The purpose of such research is to ensure healthy lives and promote wellbeing across individuals of all ages. It has been shown that nutrition plays a key role in the prevention of some chronic diseases such as obesity, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and cancer. One of the aspects that characterises a healthy diet is a high intake of vegetables and fruits, as both are flavonoid-rich foods. Flavonoids are one of the main subclasses of dietary polyphenols and possess strong antioxidant activity and anti-carcinogenic properties. Moreover, some population-based studies have described a relationship between cancer risk and dietary flavonoid intake. In this context, the goal of this review was to provide an updated evaluation of the association between the risk of different types of cancers and dietary flavonoid intake. We analysed all relevant epidemiological studies from January 2008 to March 2019 using the PUBMED and Web of Science databases. In summary, this review concludes that dietary flavonoid intake is associated with a reduced risk of different types of cancer, such as gastric, breast, prostate, and colorectal cancers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phytochemical Antioxidants and Health)
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Open AccessReview
Inula L. Secondary Metabolites against Oxidative Stress-Related Human Diseases
Antioxidants 2019, 8(5), 122; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8050122
Received: 29 March 2019 / Revised: 1 May 2019 / Accepted: 2 May 2019 / Published: 6 May 2019
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Abstract
An imbalance in the production of reactive oxygen species in the body can cause an increase of oxidative stress that leads to oxidative damage to cells and tissues, which culminates in the development or aggravation of some chronic diseases, such as inflammation, diabetes [...] Read more.
An imbalance in the production of reactive oxygen species in the body can cause an increase of oxidative stress that leads to oxidative damage to cells and tissues, which culminates in the development or aggravation of some chronic diseases, such as inflammation, diabetes mellitus, cancer, cardiovascular disease, and obesity. Secondary metabolites from Inula species can play an important role in the prevention and treatment of the oxidative stress-related diseases mentioned above. The databases Scopus, PubMed, and Web of Science and the combining terms Inula, antioxidant and secondary metabolites were used in the research for this review. More than 120 articles are reviewed, highlighting the most active compounds with special emphasis on the elucidation of their antioxidative-stress mechanism of action, which increases the knowledge about their potential in the fight against inflammation, cancer, neurodegeneration, and diabetes. Alantolactone is the most polyvalent compound, reporting interesting EC50 values for several bioactivities, while 1-O-acetylbritannilactone can be pointed out as a promising lead compound for the development of analogues with interesting properties. The Inula genus is a good bet as source of structurally diverse compounds with antioxidant activity that can act via different mechanisms to fight several oxidative stress-related human diseases, being useful for development of new drugs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phytochemical Antioxidants and Health)
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