Next Article in Journal
Dietary Antioxidants and Prevention of Non-Communicable Diseases
Next Article in Special Issue
Lipid Peroxidation-Derived Aldehydes, 4-Hydroxynonenal and Malondialdehyde in Aging-Related Disorders
Previous Article in Journal
Intravenous Vitamin C Administration Improved Blood Cell Counts and Health-Related Quality of Life of Patient with History of Relapsed Acute Myeloid Leukaemia
Article Menu
Issue 7 (July) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessReview

Modulation of the Oxidative Stress and Lipid Peroxidation by Endocannabinoids and Their Lipid Analogues

1
Department of Physiology and Pharmacology “V. Erspamer”, Sapienza University of Rome, Piazzale Aldo Moro 5, 00185 Rome, Italy
2
C.U.R.E. University Centre for Liver Disease Research and Treatment, Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences, Institute of Internal Medicine, University of Foggia, 71122 Foggia, Italy
3
Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences and Technologies, University of Salento, Via Monteroni, 73100 Lecce, Italy
4
Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Foggia, Via Luigi Pinto, c/o Ospedali Riuniti, 71122 Foggia, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this study.
Antioxidants 2018, 7(7), 93; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox7070093
Received: 28 June 2018 / Revised: 10 July 2018 / Accepted: 13 July 2018 / Published: 18 July 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidants and Second Messengers of Free Radicals)
  |  
PDF [2684 KB, uploaded 19 July 2018]
  |  

Abstract

Growing evidence supports the pivotal role played by oxidative stress in tissue injury development, thus resulting in several pathologies including cardiovascular, renal, neuropsychiatric, and neurodegenerative disorders, all characterized by an altered oxidative status. Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species and lipid peroxidation-derived reactive aldehydes including acrolein, malondialdehyde, and 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal, among others, are the main responsible for cellular and tissue damages occurring in redox-dependent processes. In this scenario, a link between the endocannabinoid system (ECS) and redox homeostasis impairment appears to be crucial. Anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol, the best characterized endocannabinoids, are able to modulate the activity of several antioxidant enzymes through targeting the cannabinoid receptors type 1 and 2 as well as additional receptors such as the transient receptor potential vanilloid 1, the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha, and the orphan G protein-coupled receptors 18 and 55. Moreover, the endocannabinoids lipid analogues N-acylethanolamines showed to protect cell damage and death from reactive aldehydes-induced oxidative stress by restoring the intracellular oxidants-antioxidants balance. In this review, we will provide a better understanding of the main mechanisms triggered by the cross-talk between the oxidative stress and the ECS, focusing also on the enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants as scavengers of reactive aldehydes and their toxic bioactive adducts. View Full-Text
Keywords: oxidative stress; lipid peroxidation; reactive aldehydes; reactive oxygen and nitrogen species; free radicals; endocannabinoids; cannabinoid receptors; peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors; transient receptor potential vanilloid; G protein-coupled receptors oxidative stress; lipid peroxidation; reactive aldehydes; reactive oxygen and nitrogen species; free radicals; endocannabinoids; cannabinoid receptors; peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors; transient receptor potential vanilloid; G protein-coupled receptors
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
SciFeed
Printed Edition Available!
A printed edition of this Special Issue is available here.

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Gallelli, C.A.; Calcagnini, S.; Romano, A.; Koczwara, J.B.; De Ceglia, M.; Dante, D.; Villani, R.; Giudetti, A.M.; Cassano, T.; Gaetani, S. Modulation of the Oxidative Stress and Lipid Peroxidation by Endocannabinoids and Their Lipid Analogues. Antioxidants 2018, 7, 93.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Antioxidants EISSN 2076-3921 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top