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Antioxidants, Volume 7, Issue 6 (June 2018)

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Cover Story (view full-size image) The aim of this research project was to recover polyphenols from olive oil mill wastewaters with [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle The Extract of D. dasycarpus Ameliorates Oxazolone-Induced Skin Damage in Mice by Anti-Inflammatory and Antioxidant Mechanisms
Antioxidants 2018, 7(6), 77; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox7060077
Received: 1 June 2018 / Revised: 12 June 2018 / Accepted: 12 June 2018 / Published: 15 June 2018
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Abstract
Dictamni dasycarpus is a type of Chinese medicine made from the root bark of D. dasycarpus. It has been reported to show a wide spectrum of biological and pharmacological effects, for example, it has been used widely for the treatment of rheumatism,
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Dictamni dasycarpus is a type of Chinese medicine made from the root bark of D. dasycarpus. It has been reported to show a wide spectrum of biological and pharmacological effects, for example, it has been used widely for the treatment of rheumatism, nettle rash, itching, jaundice, chronic hepatitis and skin diseases. In the current study, D. dasycarpus extract was investigated for its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects, as well as its capability to alleviate oxazolone-induced skin damage in mice. The possible anti-inflammatory mechanism of D. dasycarpus extract against oxidative challenge was elucidated by measuring the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, interleukin-6, Tumor necrosis factor-α, NLRP3 (NACHT, LRR and PYD domains-containing protein 3 (NALP3)) inflammasome and interleukin-1β in HaCaT cells. D. dasycarpus extract did not affect cell viability in basal conditions. The extract significantly reduced oxazolone-induced epidermal swelling compared to untreated animal in the hairless albino mice (ICR mice) model. At the molecular level, Western blot assays indicated that the D. dasycarpus extract attenuated oxazolone-induced activation of apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing CARD (ASC), procaspase-1, NF-κB and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPKs) such as c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase (JNK) and p38. This study demonstrates that D. dasycarpus extract could protect skin cells against oxidative and inflammatory insult by modulating the intracellular levels of ROS, TNF-α, interleukin-1, interleukin-6, NLR family pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome generation, antioxidant enzyme activity and cell signaling pathways. D. dasycarpus extract also attenuated the expression of NF-κB in HaCaT keratinocytes and thereby effectively downregulated inflammatory responses in the skin. Furthermore, D. dasycarpus extract alleviated oxazolone-induced damage in mice. Our results suggest the potential application of D. dasycarpus extract in preventing inflammatory processes in dermatitis. Full article
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Open AccessArticle The Effects of Beta-Hydroxy-Beta-Methylbutyrate-Free Acid Supplementation and Resistance Training on Oxidative Stress Markers: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study
Antioxidants 2018, 7(6), 76; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox7060076
Received: 5 May 2018 / Revised: 2 June 2018 / Accepted: 8 June 2018 / Published: 11 June 2018
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Abstract
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of 6-week beta-hydroxy-beta methylbutyrate-free acid (HMB-FA) supplementation on oxidative stress and biochemical variables in responses to resistance training. Sixteen healthy young males participated in this study and were randomly assigned to a HMB-FA
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The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of 6-week beta-hydroxy-beta methylbutyrate-free acid (HMB-FA) supplementation on oxidative stress and biochemical variables in responses to resistance training. Sixteen healthy young males participated in this study and were randomly assigned to a HMB-FA supplementation group (n = 8) or a placebo supplementation group (n = 8). The resistance training program was applied for 6 weeks with two sessions per week. Blood samples were collected before and after training, and 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), malondialdehyde (MDA), protein carbonyl (PC), and biochemical variables, such as alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and the numbers of total white blood cells (WBC), neutrophils, lymphocytes, and monocytes were analyzed. Following intervention, both the HMB-FA and placebo supplementation groups showed significant decreases in MDA (effect size [ES]; −0.39, −0.33) and PC (ES; −1.37, −1.41), respectively. However, 8-OHdG did not change after 6 weeks of training in any of the groups. In addition, both groups showed similar training effects on biochemical variables after 6 weeks of intervention. It was concluded that HMB-FA supplementation during resistance training did not add further adaptive changes related to oxidative stress markers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise and Inflammation)
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Open AccessCommunication Identification of Phenolic Compounds-Rich Grape Pomace Extracts Urine Metabolites and Correlation with Gut Microbiota Modulation
Antioxidants 2018, 7(6), 75; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox7060075
Received: 18 April 2018 / Revised: 18 May 2018 / Accepted: 21 May 2018 / Published: 4 June 2018
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Abstract
The high diversity of phenolic compounds (PC) found in food matrices makes it challenging to analyze their bioavailability and their impact on health and functional metabolism. It is well recognized that PC do modulate the composition of the gut microbiota (GM), however, the
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The high diversity of phenolic compounds (PC) found in food matrices makes it challenging to analyze their bioavailability and their impact on health and functional metabolism. It is well recognized that PC do modulate the composition of the gut microbiota (GM), however, the literature still lacks significant data concerning the link between the metabolic fate of the ingested compounds and their bioactivity, mainly when considering the secondary metabolites produced. In this study, we assessed the metabolic fate of PC for a period covering 14 months of daily intake to identify the metabolites that could be responsible for the effects of PC on the GM observed in our previous work. Urinary analysis of polyphenol metabolites was performed using a high resolution mass spectrometry LC-QTOF-MS method. Among the sixteen metabolites identified, 3-hydroxyphenylacetic acid and 2-(4-hydroxyphenyl) propionic acid were detected simultaneously and, therefore, correlated with the growth of Bifidobacterium in the rat GM. In addition, Daidzedin, detected only at 14 months post-treatment, mostly interfered with the growth inhibition of Clostridium (Cluster I). In conclusion, the impact of the long-term intake of PC on rat GM seems to be related to specific metabolites produced after ingestion of the parental compounds and this may also be due to their additional synergistic effects. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Comparing Palm Oil, Tocotrienol-Rich Fraction and α-Tocopherol Supplementation on the Antioxidant Levels of Older Adults
Antioxidants 2018, 7(6), 74; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox7060074
Received: 11 April 2018 / Revised: 15 May 2018 / Accepted: 21 May 2018 / Published: 28 May 2018
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Abstract
Background: Tocotrienol and tocopherol are known to prevent numerous degenerative diseases. The aim of this study is to compare the effects of tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF) with α-tocopherol (α-TF) on the antioxidant status of healthy individuals aged between 50 and 55 years. Methods: Volunteers
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Background: Tocotrienol and tocopherol are known to prevent numerous degenerative diseases. The aim of this study is to compare the effects of tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF) with α-tocopherol (α-TF) on the antioxidant status of healthy individuals aged between 50 and 55 years. Methods: Volunteers were divided into groups receiving placebo (n = 23), α-TF (n = 24) and TRF (n = 24). Fasting venous blood samples were taken at baseline (0 month), 3 months and 6 months of supplementation for the determination of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities as well as for reduced glutathione (GSH) and oxidized glutathione (GSSG) concentrations. Results: CAT and GPx were unaffected by TRF and α-TF supplementations. SOD activity increased significantly after six months of TRF supplementation. Analysis by gender showed that only female subjects had significant increases in SOD and GPx activities after six months of TRF supplementation. GPx activity was also significantly higher in females compared to males after six months of TRF supplementation. The GSH/GSSG ratio increased significantly after six months of TRF and α-TF supplementation in only the female subjects. Conclusion: TRF and α-TF supplementation exhibited similar effects to the antioxidant levels of older adults with TRF having more significant effects in females. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Inhibitory Effects of Solvent-Partitioned Fractions of Two Nigerian Herbs (Spondias mombin Linn. and Mangifera indica L.) on α-Amylase and α-Glucosidase
Antioxidants 2018, 7(6), 73; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox7060073
Received: 4 March 2018 / Revised: 20 April 2018 / Accepted: 27 April 2018 / Published: 26 May 2018
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Abstract
Therapies directed towards controlling hyperglycemia, the hallmark of type-2 diabetes mellitus, go a long way in managing diabetes and its related complications. Reducing glucose level through the inhibition of the relevant carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzymes is one among many routes in the management of
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Therapies directed towards controlling hyperglycemia, the hallmark of type-2 diabetes mellitus, go a long way in managing diabetes and its related complications. Reducing glucose level through the inhibition of the relevant carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzymes is one among many routes in the management of diabetes. This study investigates the in vitro enzyme inhibitory and antioxidant properties of solvent-partitioned fractions of Spondias mombin and Mangifera indica leaves; which are used extensively in the treatment of diabetic patients locally. The leaves of S. mombin and M. indica were extracted with methanol and fractionated to obtain n-hexane (HF), ethyl acetate (EAF), n-butanol (BF), and aqueous (AF) fractions successively. The α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities of fractions of S. mombin and M. indica leaves were investigated while the antioxidant activity of each fraction was analyzed using iron chelating and ABTS (2,2’-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline)-6-sulphonic acid) radical scavenging assay. Our findings indicated that the ethyl acetate fraction of M. indica leaves contained a considerably higher (p < 0.05) amount of total phenolic, flavonoids, metal ion, and ABTS radical scavenging activity than the ethyl acetate fractions of S. mombin. Furthermore, the ethyl acetate fraction of M. indica had a considerably higher (p < 0.05) inhibitory effect on α-glucosidase (IC50 = 25.11 ± 0.01 μg mL−1), and α-amylase (IC50 = 24.04 ± 0.12 μg mL−1) activities than the S. mombin fraction. Hence, the inhibitory activities of S. mombin and M. indica leaves suggest that they are a potential source of orally active antidiabetic agents and could be employed to formulate new plant-based pharmaceutical and nutraceutical drugs to improve human health. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Valorization of Olive Mill Wastewater by Membrane Processes to Recover Natural Antioxidant Compounds for Cosmeceutical and Nutraceutical Applications or Functional Foods
Antioxidants 2018, 7(6), 72; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox7060072
Received: 5 April 2018 / Revised: 9 May 2018 / Accepted: 17 May 2018 / Published: 23 May 2018
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Abstract
Olive oil boasts numerous health benefits due to the high content of the monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) and functional bioactives including tocopherols, carotenoids, phospholipids, and polyphenolics with multiple biological activities. Polyphenolic components present antioxidant properties by scavenging free radicals and eliminating metabolic byproducts
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Olive oil boasts numerous health benefits due to the high content of the monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) and functional bioactives including tocopherols, carotenoids, phospholipids, and polyphenolics with multiple biological activities. Polyphenolic components present antioxidant properties by scavenging free radicals and eliminating metabolic byproducts of metabolism. The objective of this research project was to recover the biologically active components rich in polyphenols, which include treatment of olive oil mills wastewater, and, at the same time, to remove the pollutant waste component resulting from the olive oil manufacturing processes. With specific focus on using technologies based on the application of ultra and nanofiltration membranes, the polyphenols fraction was extracted after an initial flocculation step. The nano-filtration permeate showed a reduction of about 95% of the organic load. The polyphenols recovery after two filtration steps was about 65% w/v. The nanofiltration retentate, dried using the spray dryer technique, was tested for cell viability after oxidative stress induction on human keratinocytes model in vitro and an improved cell reparation in the presence of this polyphenolic compound was demonstrated in scratch assays assisted through time lapse video-microscopy. The polyphenols recovered from these treatments may be suitable ingredients in cosmeceuticals and possibly nutraceutical preparations or functional foods. Full article
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Open AccessReview Phytochemical Profile of Brown Rice and Its Nutrigenomic Implications
Antioxidants 2018, 7(6), 71; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox7060071
Received: 21 April 2018 / Revised: 16 May 2018 / Accepted: 18 May 2018 / Published: 23 May 2018
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Abstract
Whole grain foods have been promoted to be included as one of the important components of a healthy diet because of the relationship between the regular consumption of whole-grain foods and reduced risk of chronic diseases. Rice is a staple food, which has
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Whole grain foods have been promoted to be included as one of the important components of a healthy diet because of the relationship between the regular consumption of whole-grain foods and reduced risk of chronic diseases. Rice is a staple food, which has been widely consumed for centuries by many Asian countries. Studies have suggested that brown rice is associated with a wide spectrum of nutrigenomic implications such as anti-diabetic, anti-cholesterol, cardioprotective and antioxidant. This is because of the presence of various phytochemicals that are mainly located in bran layers of brown rice. Therefore, this paper is a review of publications that focuses on the bioactive compounds and nutrigenomic implications of brown rice. Although current evidence supports the fact that the consumption of brown rice is beneficial for health, these studies are heterogeneous in terms of their brown rice samples used and population groups, which cause the evaluation to be difficult. Future clinical studies should focus on the screening of individual bioactive compounds in brown rice with reference to their nutrigenomic implications. Full article
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