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Minerals, Volume 8, Issue 9 (September 2018)

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Cover Story (view full-size image) Artificial and singular geochemical environments are created around the engineered barrier systems [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle Rare Earth and Phosphorus Leaching from a Flotation Tailings of Florida Phosphate Rock
Minerals 2018, 8(9), 416; https://doi.org/10.3390/min8090416
Received: 8 August 2018 / Revised: 7 September 2018 / Accepted: 11 September 2018 / Published: 19 September 2018
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Abstract
Phosphorite, or phosphate rock, is the raw material of phosphoric acid production. It has also been regarded as the most important secondary rare earth element (REE) resource due to low contents of rare earth elements contained in the ore. In Florida, there is [...] Read more.
Phosphorite, or phosphate rock, is the raw material of phosphoric acid production. It has also been regarded as the most important secondary rare earth element (REE) resource due to low contents of rare earth elements contained in the ore. In Florida, there is about 19 Mt of phosphate rock mined annually. After beneficiation, the phosphate rock concentrate is utilized to produce phosphoric acid via a wet-process in which sulfuric acid is used to digest phosphate. During these processes, REEs and some phosphorus get lost in the byproducts including phosphatic clay, flotation tailings, phosphogypsum (PG), and phosphoric sludge. Recovering REEs and phosphorus from these wastes is beneficial to maximize the utilization of these valuable resources. This study focused on the effects of wet-process operating conditions on REE and phosphorus leaching from a kind of flotation tailing of Florida phosphate rock. The tailings were first beneficiated with a shaking table, and then a series of leaching tests were conducted on the shaking table concentrate. The results indicated that REEs had similar trends of leaching efficiency to those of phosphorus. Under the conditions of 16% phosphoric acid concentration in the initial pulp, a temperature of 75 °C, a stoichiometric ratio of sulfuric acid (H2SO4) to calcium oxide (CaO) of 1.1, and a weight ratio of liquid to solid of 3.5, REE and phosphorus leaching efficiencies reached relatively high values of approximately 61% and 91%, respectively. Analyses indicated that the phosphate ions (PO43−) in the leaching solution tended to combine with REE ions to form REE phosphates which precipitated into PG, but the other large amount of anions such as sulfate ions (SO42−) and fluoride ions (F) took effect of steric hindrance to prevent PO43− from combining with REE cations. These two opposite effects determined the REE distribution between the leaching solution and PG. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Mineral Processing and Metallurgy)
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Open AccessArticle Aurihydrargyrumite, a Natural Au6Hg5 Phase from Japan
Minerals 2018, 8(9), 415; https://doi.org/10.3390/min8090415
Received: 28 August 2018 / Revised: 14 September 2018 / Accepted: 17 September 2018 / Published: 19 September 2018
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Abstract
Aurihydrargyrumite, a natural Au6Hg5 phase, was found in Iyoki, Uchiko, Ehime Prefecture, Shikoku Island, Japan. Aurihydrargyrumite with a metallic silver luster occurs as a submicron- to 2 μm-thick layer on the outermost surface of the placer gold. A prismatic face [...] Read more.
Aurihydrargyrumite, a natural Au6Hg5 phase, was found in Iyoki, Uchiko, Ehime Prefecture, Shikoku Island, Japan. Aurihydrargyrumite with a metallic silver luster occurs as a submicron- to 2 μm-thick layer on the outermost surface of the placer gold. A prismatic face may be formed by {001} and {100} or {110}. The streak is also silver white and its Mohs hardness value is ca. 2.5. Its tenacity is ductile and malleable, and its density, as calculated based on the empirical formula and powder unit-cell data, is 16.86 g·cm−3. The empirical formula of aurihydrargyrumite, on the basis of 11 Au + Hg, is Au5.95Hg5.05. Aurihydrargyrumite is hexagonal, P63/mcm, with the lattice parameters a = 6.9960(10) Å, c = 10.154(2) Å and V = 430.40(15) Å3, which is identical with the synthetic Au6Hg5 phase. The seven strongest lines in the powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern [d in Å(I/I0)(hkl)] were 2.877(29)(112), 2.434(42)(113), 2.337(100)(104), 2.234(87)(211), 1.401(39)(314), 1.301(41)(404), and 1.225(65)(217). Aurihydrargyrumite forms through the weathering of mercury-bearing placer gold by involvement of self-electrorefining. This new mineral has been approved by the IMA-CNMNC (2017-003) and it is named for its composition, being a natural amalgam of gold (Latin: aurum) and mercury (Latin: hydrargyrum). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Mineral Species and Their Crystal Structures)
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Open AccessArticle Supergene Uranyl Mineralization of the Rabejac Deposit, Lodève, France
Minerals 2018, 8(9), 414; https://doi.org/10.3390/min8090414
Received: 21 August 2018 / Revised: 8 September 2018 / Accepted: 11 September 2018 / Published: 18 September 2018
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Abstract
The Rabejac uranium deposit that is located in the Lodève region, France, is the type locality for three uranyl minerals species (fontanite, seelite, and rabejacite). In addition, this deposit shows an extraordinary supergene uranyl mineralization characterized by the presence of many rare secondary [...] Read more.
The Rabejac uranium deposit that is located in the Lodève region, France, is the type locality for three uranyl minerals species (fontanite, seelite, and rabejacite). In addition, this deposit shows an extraordinary supergene uranyl mineralization characterized by the presence of many rare secondary uranyl species. In the present study, a mineralogical description as well as new chemical and crystallographic data are reported on (meta)zeunerite, (meta)nováčekite, (meta)uranospinite, heinrichite, nováčekite-I, arsenuranospathite, umohoite, calcurmolite, becquerelite, billietite, and liebigite. The chemical data indicate that the arsenate members of the autunite/meta-autunite group incorporate a significant amount of phosphorus. Moreover, the uranospinite samples usually exhibit high Mg content, thus moving toward the nováčekite end-member composition. The refined unit-cell parameters for all of the investigated mineral species are in agreement with the previous data reported in the literature. Finally, a model describing the alteration of the primary uraninite and the formation of secondary uranyl minerals is proposed in agreement with the observed mineral assemblages. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Actinide Mineralogy and Crystallography)
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Open AccessArticle Infra Red Spectroscopy of the Regulated Asbestos Amphiboles
Minerals 2018, 8(9), 413; https://doi.org/10.3390/min8090413
Received: 21 August 2018 / Revised: 4 September 2018 / Accepted: 14 September 2018 / Published: 18 September 2018
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Abstract
Vibrational spectroscopies (Fourier Transform Infra Red, FTIR, and Raman) are exceptionally valuable tools for the identification and crystal–chemical study of fibrous minerals, and asbestos amphiboles in particular. Raman spectroscopy has been widely applied in toxicological studies and thus a large corpus of reference [...] Read more.
Vibrational spectroscopies (Fourier Transform Infra Red, FTIR, and Raman) are exceptionally valuable tools for the identification and crystal–chemical study of fibrous minerals, and asbestos amphiboles in particular. Raman spectroscopy has been widely applied in toxicological studies and thus a large corpus of reference data on regulated species is found in the literature. However, FTIR spectroscopy has been mostly used in crystal–chemical studies and very few data are found on asbestos amphiboles. This paper is intended to fill this gap. We report new FTIR data collected on a suite of well-characterized samples of the five regulated amphibole species: anthophyllite, amosite, and crocidolite, provided by the Union for International Cancer Control (UICC) Organization, and tremolite and actinolite, from two well-known occurrences. The data from these reference samples have been augmented by results from additional specimens to clarify some aspects of their spectroscopic features. We show that the FTIR spectra in both the OH-stretching region and in the lattice modes region can be effective for rapid identification of the asbestos type. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Occurrence, Crystal-Chemistry and Properties of Fibrous Minerals)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Intracrystalline Reaction-Induced Cracking in Olivine Evidenced by Hydration and Carbonation Experiments
Minerals 2018, 8(9), 412; https://doi.org/10.3390/min8090412
Received: 3 August 2018 / Revised: 7 September 2018 / Accepted: 14 September 2018 / Published: 18 September 2018
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Abstract
In order to better understand the microtextural changes associated with serpentinization reactions, natural millimeter-sized olivine grains were experimentally reacted with alkaline NaOH and NaHCO3 solutions at a temperature of 200 °C and for durations of 3 to 12 months. During hydration experiments, [...] Read more.
In order to better understand the microtextural changes associated with serpentinization reactions, natural millimeter-sized olivine grains were experimentally reacted with alkaline NaOH and NaHCO3 solutions at a temperature of 200 °C and for durations of 3 to 12 months. During hydration experiments, dissolution and precipitation were intimately correlated in time and space, with reaction products growing in situ, either as layered veins or as nearly continuous surface cover. In contrast, carbonation experiments showed a strong decoupling between both processes leading to essentially delocalized precipitation of the reaction products away from dissolution sites. Textural analyses of the samples using scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and X-ray synchrotron microtomography provided experimental evidence for a cause-and-effect relationship between in situ precipitation and intracrystalline reaction-induced cracking in olivine. Juvenile cracks typically nucleated at the tip of dissolution notches or on diamond-shaped pores filled with reaction products, and propagated through the olivine crystal lattice during the course of the reaction. The occurrence of new cracks at the tip of diamond-shaped pores, but also of tiny subspherical pores lining up along microcracks, indicated that fracturation and porosity networks were mutually driven, making serpentinization an extremely efficient alteration process over time. Alternatively, our data suggested that some form of porosity also developed in absence of fracturation, thus further highlighting the remarkable efficiency and versatility of serpentinization processes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Serpentine Group Minerals)
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Open AccessArticle Chemical Stability and Leaching Behavior of One-Part Geopolymer from Soil and Coal Fly Ash Mixtures
Minerals 2018, 8(9), 411; https://doi.org/10.3390/min8090411
Received: 15 July 2018 / Revised: 12 September 2018 / Accepted: 13 September 2018 / Published: 18 September 2018
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Abstract
Aluminosilicate minerals have become an important resource for an emerging sustainable material for construction known as geopolymer. Geopolymer, an alkali-activated material, is becoming an attractive alternative to Portland cement because of its lower carbon footprint and embodied energy. However, the synthesis process requires [...] Read more.
Aluminosilicate minerals have become an important resource for an emerging sustainable material for construction known as geopolymer. Geopolymer, an alkali-activated material, is becoming an attractive alternative to Portland cement because of its lower carbon footprint and embodied energy. However, the synthesis process requires typically a two-part system for alkali activation wherein the solid geopolymer precursor is mixed with aqueous alkali solutions. These alkali activators are corrosive and may be difficult to handle in the field-scale application. In this study, a one-part geopolymer in which coal fly ash was mixed with solid alkali activators such as sodium hydroxide and sodium silicate to form a powdery cementitious binder was developed. This binder mixed with soil only requires water to form the soil-fly ash (SO-CFA) geopolymer cement, which can be used as stabilized soil for backfill/foundation. This geopolymer product was then evaluated for chemical stability by immersing the material with 5% by weight of sulfuric acid solution for 28 days. Indication suggests that the geopolymer exhibited high resistance against acid attack with an observed increase of unconfined compressive strength even when the immersion time in acidic solution was increased to 56 days. The mineralogical phase, microstructure, and morphology of the material were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX), respectively. Results not only confirmed the formation of gypsum due to acid attack but also indicated the dissolution of anorthite and albite that may have caused the microstructure to be composed of sodium aluminosilicate hydrate (N–A–S–H) and calcium (alumino) silicate hydrate (C(–A)–S–H) with poly(ferro-sialate-siloxo) and poly(ferro-sialate-disiloxo) networks. A column leaching test with deionized water was also performed on the soil-fly ash geopolymer to study the leachability of metals in the material. Results showed that arsenic exhibits higher mobility in the geopolymer as compared to that of cadmium, chromium, and lead. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Geopolymers)
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Open AccessArticle Petrology of Peridotites and Nd-Sr Isotopic Composition of Their Clinopyroxenes from the Middle Andaman Ophiolite, India
Minerals 2018, 8(9), 410; https://doi.org/10.3390/min8090410
Received: 26 May 2018 / Revised: 22 August 2018 / Accepted: 13 September 2018 / Published: 17 September 2018
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Abstract
The Andaman Ophiolite, India, is located at the southeastern end of the Tethyan ophiolites. We examine petrology and mineralogy of two lherzolites and a completely serpentinized dunite associated with lherzolite from the middle Andaman Island. Major and trace element compositions of minerals in [...] Read more.
The Andaman Ophiolite, India, is located at the southeastern end of the Tethyan ophiolites. We examine petrology and mineralogy of two lherzolites and a completely serpentinized dunite associated with lherzolite from the middle Andaman Island. Major and trace element compositions of minerals in the lherzolites suggest their residual origin after low-degree of partial melting with less flux infiltration, and are similar to those of abyssal peridotites recovered from mid-ocean ridges. The dunite with spinels having low-Cr/(Cr + Al) ratio was formed by interaction between peridotite and mid-ocean ridge basalt-like melt. The 87Sr/86Sr and 143Nd/144Nd isotopic systematics of clinopyroxenes of the two lherzolites are consistent with MORB-type mantle source. Petrology and light rare earth element (LREE)-depleted patterns of clinopyroxene from the studied lhezolites are the same as those from some of the western Tethyan ophiolites. The age-corrected initial εNd values of the Tethyan lherzolite clinopyroxenes with LREE-depleted patterns are likely to be consistent with the depleted mantle evolution line. Full article
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Open AccessReview The Lengenbach Quarry in Switzerland: Classic Locality for Rare Thallium Sulfosalts
Minerals 2018, 8(9), 409; https://doi.org/10.3390/min8090409
Received: 11 July 2018 / Revised: 6 September 2018 / Accepted: 6 September 2018 / Published: 14 September 2018
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Abstract
The Lengenbach quarry is a world-famous mineral locality, especially known for its rare and well-crystallized Tl, Pb, Ag, and Cu bearing sulfosalts. As of June 2018, it is the type locality for 44 different mineral species, making it one of the most prolific [...] Read more.
The Lengenbach quarry is a world-famous mineral locality, especially known for its rare and well-crystallized Tl, Pb, Ag, and Cu bearing sulfosalts. As of June 2018, it is the type locality for 44 different mineral species, making it one of the most prolific localities worldwide. A total of 33 thallium mineral species have been identified, 23 of which are type minerals. A brief description of several thallium species of special interest follows a concise and general overview of the thallium mineralization. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Thallium: Mineralogy, Geochemistry and Ore Processes)
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Open AccessArticle Structural Control on Clay Mineral Authigenesis in Faulted Arkosic Sandstone of the Rio do Peixe Basin, Brazil
Minerals 2018, 8(9), 408; https://doi.org/10.3390/min8090408
Received: 3 July 2018 / Revised: 29 August 2018 / Accepted: 13 September 2018 / Published: 14 September 2018
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Abstract
Clay minerals in structurally complex settings influence fault zone behavior and characteristics such as permeability and frictional properties. This work aims to understand the role of fault zones on clay authigenesis in arkosic, high-porosity sandstones of the Cretaceous Rio do Peixe basin, northeast [...] Read more.
Clay minerals in structurally complex settings influence fault zone behavior and characteristics such as permeability and frictional properties. This work aims to understand the role of fault zones on clay authigenesis in arkosic, high-porosity sandstones of the Cretaceous Rio do Peixe basin, northeast Brazil. We integrated field, petrographic and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observations with X-ray diffraction data (bulk and clay-size fractions). Fault zones in the field are characterized by low-porosity deformation bands, typical secondary structures developed in high-porosity sandstones. Laboratory results indicate that in the host rock far from faults, smectite, illite and subordinately kaolinite, are present within the pores of the Rio do Peixe sandstones. Such clay minerals formed after sediment deposition, most likely during shallow diagenetic processes (feldspar dissolution) associated with meteoric water circulation. Surprisingly, within fault zones the same clay minerals are absent or are present in amounts which are significantly lower than those in the undeformed sandstone. This occurs because fault activity obliterates porosity and reduces permeability by cataclasis, thus: (1) destroying the space in which clay minerals can form; and (2) providing a generally impermeable tight fabric in which external meteoric fluid flow is inhibited. We conclude that the development of fault zones in high-porosity arkosic sandstones, contrary to other low-porosity lithologies, inhibits clay mineral authigenesis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Structural Control of Mineral Deposits: Theory and Reality)
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Open AccessArticle Particle Size Distribution of Cemented Rockfill Effects on Strata Stability in Filling Mining
Minerals 2018, 8(9), 407; https://doi.org/10.3390/min8090407
Received: 2 August 2018 / Revised: 25 August 2018 / Accepted: 11 September 2018 / Published: 14 September 2018
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Abstract
It is of great significance for engineering safety, economic benefits, environmental protection, and sustainable development to investigate the strata stability in filling mining with cemented rockfill. Consequently, this paper is based on a specific coal mine where we applied the fully-mechanized longwall mining [...] Read more.
It is of great significance for engineering safety, economic benefits, environmental protection, and sustainable development to investigate the strata stability in filling mining with cemented rockfill. Consequently, this paper is based on a specific coal mine where we applied the fully-mechanized longwall mining and filling and designed a cemented rockfill material for which the particles satisfied the Talbot gradation. Uniaxial and triaxial compression experiments were carried out on the cemented rockfill specimen, which obtained the relations between the mechanical parameters (Poisson ratio, elastic modulus, compressive strength, cohesive force, internal friction angle, and tensile strength) and the particle size distribution of the aggregate. The excavation and filling processes in the coal seam were simulated based on the numerical software FLAC3D. The characteristics of the displacement and stress fields of the strata when the goaf was filled by cemented rockfill with different granule gradations were discussed. The influences of the particle size distribution and mining distance on the maximum subsidence displacement of the coal seam roof, internal stress of the backfill, and the stress of the rock mass in the coalface were analyzed. The feasibility and effectiveness of the filling mining with cemented rockfill to protect the integrity of the overlying strata were discussed. The results showed that optimizing the particle size distribution of the aggregate in cemented rockfill could increase the loading capacity of the backfill to improve the filling effect, effectively control the strata movement, and decrease the stress of rock mass in the coalface to reduce the potential danger. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Backfilling Materials for Underground Mining)
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Open AccessArticle Comparative Analysis of Attachment to Chalcopyrite of Three Mesophilic Iron and/or Sulfur-Oxidizing Acidophiles
Minerals 2018, 8(9), 406; https://doi.org/10.3390/min8090406
Received: 24 July 2018 / Revised: 3 September 2018 / Accepted: 12 September 2018 / Published: 14 September 2018
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Abstract
Adhesion plays an important role in bacterial dissolution of metal sulfides, since the attached cells initiate the dissolution. In addition, biofilms, forming after bacterial attachment, enhance the dissolution. In this study, interactions between initial adhesion force, attachment behavior and copper recovery were comparatively [...] Read more.
Adhesion plays an important role in bacterial dissolution of metal sulfides, since the attached cells initiate the dissolution. In addition, biofilms, forming after bacterial attachment, enhance the dissolution. In this study, interactions between initial adhesion force, attachment behavior and copper recovery were comparatively analyzed for Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans, Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans, and Leptospirillum ferrooxidans during bioleaching of chalcopyrite. The adhesion forces between bacteria and minerals were measured by atomic force microscopy (AFM). L. ferrooxidans had the largest adhesion force and attached best to chalcopyrite, while A. ferrooxidans exhibited the highest bioleaching of chalcopyrite. The results suggest that the biofilm formation, rather than the initial adhesion, is positively correlated with bioleaching efficiency. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Geology, Apatite Geochronology, and Geochemistry of the Ernest Henry Inter-lens: Implications for a Re-Examined Deposit Model
Minerals 2018, 8(9), 405; https://doi.org/10.3390/min8090405
Received: 2 July 2018 / Revised: 10 September 2018 / Accepted: 11 September 2018 / Published: 13 September 2018
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Abstract
The Ernest Henry Iron-Oxide-Copper-Gold deposit is the largest known Cu-Au deposit in the Eastern Succession of the Proterozoic Mount Isa Inlier, NW Queensland. Cu-Au mineralization is hosted in a K-feldspar altered breccia, bounded by two major pre-mineralization shear zones. Previous research suggests that [...] Read more.
The Ernest Henry Iron-Oxide-Copper-Gold deposit is the largest known Cu-Au deposit in the Eastern Succession of the Proterozoic Mount Isa Inlier, NW Queensland. Cu-Au mineralization is hosted in a K-feldspar altered breccia, bounded by two major pre-mineralization shear zones. Previous research suggests that Cu-Au mineralization and the ore-bearing breccia formed simultaneously through an eruption style explosive/implosive event, facilitated by the mixing of fluids at ~1530 Ma. However, the preservation of a highly deformed, weakly mineralized, pre-mineralization feature (termed the Inter-lens) within the orebody indicates that this model must be re-examined. The paragenesis of the Inter-lens is broadly consistent with previous studies on the deposit, and consists of albitization; an apatite-calcite-quartz-garnet assemblage; biotite-magnetite ± garnet alteration; K-feldspar ± hornblende alteration; Cu-Au mineralization and post-mineralization alteration and veining. Apatite from the paragenetically early apatite-calcite-quartz-garnet assemblage produce U–Pb ages of 1584 ± 22 Ma and 1587 ± 22 Ma, suggesting that the formation of apatite, and the maximum age of the Inter-lens is synchronous with D2 deformation of the Isan Orogeny and regional peak-metamorphic conditions. Apatite rare earth element-depletion trends display: (1) a depletion in rare earth elements evenly, corresponding with an enrichment in arsenic and (2) a selective light rare earth element depletion. Exposure to an acidic NaCl and/or CaCl2-rich sedimentary-derived fluid is responsible for the selective light rare earth element-depletion trend, while the exposure to a neutral to alkaline S, Na-, and/or Ca-rich magmatic fluid resulted in the depletion of rare earth elements in apatite evenly, while producing an enrichment in arsenic. We suggest the deposit experienced at least two hydrothermal events, with the first event related to peak-metamorphism (~1585 Ma) and a subsequent event related to the emplacement of the nearby (~1530 Ma) Williams–Naraku Batholiths. Brecciation resulted from competency contrasts between ductile metasedimentary rocks of the Inter-lens and surrounding shear zones against the brittle metavolcanic rocks that comprise the ore-bearing breccia, providing permeable pathways for the subsequent ore-bearing fluids. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Apatite and Ore Deposits)
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Open AccessArticle Fundamental Studies of SHMP in Reducing Negative Effects of Divalent Ions on Molybdenite Flotation
Minerals 2018, 8(9), 404; https://doi.org/10.3390/min8090404
Received: 19 July 2018 / Revised: 5 September 2018 / Accepted: 11 September 2018 / Published: 13 September 2018
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Abstract
Seawater has been considered as an alternative to freshwater for flotation. However, many ions in seawater were reported to depress molybdenite (MoS2), with the depressing mechanisms being insufficiently understood. In this study, the influence of divalent ions (e.g., Ca2+ and [...] Read more.
Seawater has been considered as an alternative to freshwater for flotation. However, many ions in seawater were reported to depress molybdenite (MoS2), with the depressing mechanisms being insufficiently understood. In this study, the influence of divalent ions (e.g., Ca2+ and Mg2+) and dispersant on MoS2 flotation was systematically investigated. It was found that the detrimental effects of Ca2+ and Mg2+ on the natural flotability of MoS2 were mainly due to the attachment of formed CaMoO4 precipitates and Mg(OH)2 colloids onto MoS2 surface. However, the addition of sodium hexametaphosphate (SHMP) reduced the negative effects. Various measurements, including contact angle, zeta potential, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and atomic force microscope (AFM), were conducted to understand the influencing mechanisms of divalent ions and the beneficial effects of SHMP on MoS2 flotation. In addition, the Extended Derjguin–Landau–Verwey–Overbeek (EDLVO) theory was applied to investigate the total interaction energy between MoS2 particles and formed colloids, revealing that the reduced attraction force between MoS2 and Mg(OH)2 colloids in the presence of SHMP primarily resulted in the increased MoS2 recovery. In addition, SHMP combined with Mg2+ and Ca2+ to form dissolvable complexes, thereby reducing insoluble Mg2+ and Ca2+ compounds or precipitation. Thus, this study demonstrated for the first time two influencing mechanisms of SHMP in improving MoS2 recovery in the presence of Ca2+ and Mg2+. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Characterization of Mine Waste and Acid Mine Drainage Prediction by Simple Testing Methods in Terms of the Effects of Sulfate-Sulfur and Carbonate Minerals
Minerals 2018, 8(9), 403; https://doi.org/10.3390/min8090403
Received: 13 July 2018 / Revised: 4 September 2018 / Accepted: 10 September 2018 / Published: 13 September 2018
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Abstract
Characterization of mine waste rocks and prediction of acid mine drainage (AMD) play an important role in preventing AMD. Although high-tech analytical methods have been highlighted for mineral characterization and quantification, simple testing methods are still practical ways to perform in a field [...] Read more.
Characterization of mine waste rocks and prediction of acid mine drainage (AMD) play an important role in preventing AMD. Although high-tech analytical methods have been highlighted for mineral characterization and quantification, simple testing methods are still practical ways to perform in a field laboratory in mines. Thus, this study applied some simple testing methods to the characterization of mine wastes and AMD prediction in addition to a leaching test and the sequential extraction test with HCl, HF, and HNO3, which have not been applied for these purposes, focusing on the form of sulfur and the neutralization effects of carbonates. The results of the Acid Buffering Characteristic Curve test supported the changing trend of the pH attributing carbonates only during the first 10 leaching cycles in the leaching test. The change in the Net Acid Generating (NAG) pH in the sequential NAG test reflected the solubility of sulfur in the rocks, providing information on the form of sulfur in the rocks and the acid-producing potential over time. Consequently, the sequential NAG test and sequential extraction with the acids in combination with the current standards tests (Acid Base Accounting and NAG tests) provided important information for preventing AMD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Acid Mine Drainage Recovery)
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Open AccessArticle Effect of H2O2 on the Separation of Mo-Bi-Containing Ore by Flotation
Minerals 2018, 8(9), 402; https://doi.org/10.3390/min8090402
Received: 31 July 2018 / Revised: 6 September 2018 / Accepted: 10 September 2018 / Published: 13 September 2018
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Abstract
Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is a strong oxidizer that causes non-selective oxidation of sulfide minerals, and its influence on bismuth sulfide ores is not well-documented. In this study, H2O2 was proposed as an alternative bismuthinite depressant, and [...] Read more.
Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is a strong oxidizer that causes non-selective oxidation of sulfide minerals, and its influence on bismuth sulfide ores is not well-documented. In this study, H2O2 was proposed as an alternative bismuthinite depressant, and its effect on a Mo-Bi-containing ore was intensively investigated by batch flotation tests. Results showed that the addition of H2O2 significantly destabilized the froth phase, thus decreasing the solids and water recovery. The recovery of bismuth in molybdenum concentrate was dramatically decreased to 4.64% by H2O2 compared with that in the absence of H2O2 (i.e., 50.14%). The modified first-order kinetic model demonstrated that the flotation rate of molybdenite slightly declined after H2O2 addition, whereas that of bismuthinite was drastically reduced from 0.30 min−1 to 0.08 min−1 under the same condition. Simulation revealed that H2O2 affected the floatability of both molybdenite and bismuthinite but resulted in more detrimental effect to bismuthinite. Hence, H2O2 has the potential to act as an effective depressant in bismuth sulfide ore flotation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Mineral Processing Technologies)
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Open AccessReview Reflecting on Gold Geomicrobiology Research: Thoughts and Considerations for Future Endeavors
Minerals 2018, 8(9), 401; https://doi.org/10.3390/min8090401
Received: 13 August 2018 / Revised: 10 September 2018 / Accepted: 11 September 2018 / Published: 13 September 2018
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Abstract
Research in gold (Au) geomicrobiology has developed extensively over the last ten years, as more Au-bearing materials from around the world point towards a consistent story: That microbes interact with Au. In weathering environments, Au is mobile, taking the form of oxidized, soluble [...] Read more.
Research in gold (Au) geomicrobiology has developed extensively over the last ten years, as more Au-bearing materials from around the world point towards a consistent story: That microbes interact with Au. In weathering environments, Au is mobile, taking the form of oxidized, soluble complexes or reduced, elemental Au nanoparticles. The transition of Au between aqueous and solid states is attributed to varying geochemical conditions, catalyzed in part by the biosphere. Hence, a global Au-biogeochemical-cycle was proposed. The primary focus of this mini-review is to reflect upon the biogeochemical processes that contribute to what we currently know about Au cycling. In general, the global Au-biogeochemical-cycle begins with the liberation of gold-silver particles from a primary host rock, by physical weathering. Through oxidative-complexation, inorganic and organic soluble-Au complexes are produced. However, in the presence of microbes or other reductants—e.g., clays and Fe-oxides—these Au complexes can be destabilized. The reduction of soluble Au ultimately leads to the bioprecipitation and biomineralization of Au, the product of which can aggregate into larger structures, thereby completing the Au cycle. Evidence of these processes have been “recorded” in the preservation of secondary Au structures that have been observed on Au particles from around the world. These structures—i.e., nanometer-size to micrometer-size Au dissolution and reprecipitation features—are “snap shots” of biogeochemical influences on Au, during its journey in Earth-surface environments. Therefore, microbes can have a profound effect on the occurrence of Au in natural environments, given the nutrients necessary for microbial metabolism are sustained and Au is in the system. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Impact of Clay Minerals on the Dewatering of Coal Slurry: An Experimental and Molecular-Simulation Study
Minerals 2018, 8(9), 400; https://doi.org/10.3390/min8090400
Received: 31 July 2018 / Revised: 4 September 2018 / Accepted: 5 September 2018 / Published: 11 September 2018
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Abstract
The cleaning process of coals is challenging due to the existence of clay minerals. The overall objective of this study is to investigate how the dewatering of coal slurry is impacted by the presence of clay minerals, i.e., kaolinite and montmorillonite. Filtration tests [...] Read more.
The cleaning process of coals is challenging due to the existence of clay minerals. The overall objective of this study is to investigate how the dewatering of coal slurry is impacted by the presence of clay minerals, i.e., kaolinite and montmorillonite. Filtration tests were first conducted to investigate the effect of kaolinite and montmorillonite on the dewatering efficiency of coal. Specifically, we measured the filtration velocity, moisture, average specific resistance, and porosity of filter cakes for six slurry samples, in which different amounts of kaolinite and montmorillonite were contained. Filtration tests show that a small amount of kaolinite and montmorillonite leads to a significant reduction in the filtration velocity and porosity, and a big increase in the average specific resistance and the moisture of the filter cake. We observe that most kaolinite existed in the top and middle layers of the filter cake, while most montmorillonite existed in the top layer; on the contrary, little montmorillonite is observed in the middle and bottom layers of the filter cake. Montmorillonite results in a much more deteriorative effect than kaolinite. Considering that the interactions between clay minerals and water may play a key role, we then further investigate the effect of such interactions using molecular simulations. Simulation results show that water molecules could hardly diffuse into kaolinite from the edge, while they could readily penetrate into the montmorillonite layers from the edge surface. This result can be explained by the hydrated cation in montmorillonite. The adsorption density of water on the octahedral surface of kaolinite is higher than that of water on the tetrahedral surface of kaolinite. Furthermore, the adsorption density of water on the double surfaces of kaolinite is higher than that of water on the montmorillonite surface. This research is expected to provide benefits or contributions to the dewatering of clay-rich coal tailings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dewatering of Fine Mineral Tailings)
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Open AccessArticle New Occurrence of Rusinovite, Ca10(Si2O7)3Cl2: Composition, Structure and Raman Data of Rusinovite from Shadil-Khokh Volcano, South Ossetia and Bellerberg Volcano, Germany
Minerals 2018, 8(9), 399; https://doi.org/10.3390/min8090399
Received: 28 August 2018 / Revised: 7 September 2018 / Accepted: 8 September 2018 / Published: 10 September 2018
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Abstract
Rusinovite, Ca10(Si2O7)3Cl2, was found at two new localities, including Shadil-Khokh volcano, South Ossetia and Bellerberg volcano, Caspar quarry, Germany. At both of these localities, rusinovite occurs in altered carbonate-silicate xenoliths embedded in volcanic [...] Read more.
Rusinovite, Ca10(Si2O7)3Cl2, was found at two new localities, including Shadil-Khokh volcano, South Ossetia and Bellerberg volcano, Caspar quarry, Germany. At both of these localities, rusinovite occurs in altered carbonate-silicate xenoliths embedded in volcanic rocks. The occurrence of this mineral is connected to specific zones of the xenolith characterized by a defined Ca:Si < 2 ratio. Chemical compositions, as well as the Raman spectra of the investigated rusinovite samples, correspond to the data from the locality of rusinovite holotype—Upper Chegem Caldera, Northern Caucasus, Russia. The most intense bands of the Raman spectra are related to vibrations of (Si2O7) groups. Unit cell parameters of rusinovite from South Ossetia are: a = 3.76330(4) Å, b = 16.9423(3) Å, c = 17.3325(2) Å, V = 1105.10(4) Å3, Z = 2. The performed synchrotron radiation diffraction experiments did not confirm a doubling of c as reported for the synthetic phase, Ca10(Si2O7)3Cl2. However, one-dimensional diffuse scattering parallel to b* has been observed. This can be interpreted with an ordered arrangement of Si2O7 groups creating layers with a doubled a parameter. Consequently, the two different displacements of neighbouring layers allow random stacking faults to occur. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Mineral Species and Their Crystal Structures)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Tectonic Control, Reconstruction and Preservation of the Tiegelongnan Porphyry and Epithermal Overprinting Cu (Au) Deposit, Central Tibet, China
Minerals 2018, 8(9), 398; https://doi.org/10.3390/min8090398
Received: 9 May 2018 / Revised: 29 August 2018 / Accepted: 6 September 2018 / Published: 10 September 2018
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Abstract
The newly discovered Tiegelongnan Cu (Au) deposit is a giant porphyry deposit overprinted by a high-sulfidation epithermal deposit in the western part of the Bangong–Nujiang metallogenic belt, Duolong district, central Tibet. It is mainly controlled by the tectonic movement of the Bangong–Nujiang Oceanic [...] Read more.
The newly discovered Tiegelongnan Cu (Au) deposit is a giant porphyry deposit overprinted by a high-sulfidation epithermal deposit in the western part of the Bangong–Nujiang metallogenic belt, Duolong district, central Tibet. It is mainly controlled by the tectonic movement of the Bangong–Nujiang Oceanic Plate (post-subduction extension). After the closure of the Bangong–Nujiang Ocean, porphyry intrusions emplaced at around 121 Ma in the Tiegelongnan area, which might be the result of continental crust thickening and the collision of Qiangtang and Lhasa terranes, based on the crustal radiogenic isotopic signature. Epithermal overprinting on porphyry alteration and mineralization is characterized by veins and fracture filling, and replacement textures between two episodes of alteration and sulfide minerals. Alunite and kaolinite replaced sericite, accompanied with covellite, digenite, enargite, and tennantite replacing chalcopyrite and bornite. This may result from extension after the Qiangtang–Lhasa collision from 116 to 112 Ma, according to the reopened quartz veins filled with later epithermal alteration minerals and sulfides. The Tiegelongnan deposit was preserved by the volcanism at ~110 Ma with volcanic rocks covering on the top before the orebody being fully weathered and eroded. The Tiegelongnan deposit was then probably partly dislocated to further west and deeper level by later structures. The widespread post-mineral volcanic rocks may conceal and preserve some unexposed deposits in this area. Thus, there is a great potential to explore porphyry and epithermal deposit in the Duolong district, and also in the entire Bangong–Nujiang metallogenic belt. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Structural Control of Mineral Deposits: Theory and Reality)
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Open AccessArticle The Saint-Honoré Carbonatite REE Zone, Québec, Canada: Combined Magmatic and Hydrothermal Processes
Minerals 2018, 8(9), 397; https://doi.org/10.3390/min8090397
Received: 2 July 2018 / Revised: 22 August 2018 / Accepted: 5 September 2018 / Published: 10 September 2018
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Abstract
The Saint-Honoré carbonatite complex hosts a rare earth element (REE) deposit traditionally interpreted as being produced by late-stage hydrothermal fluids that leached REE from apatite or dolomite found in the early units and concentrated the REE in the late-stage units. New evidence from [...] Read more.
The Saint-Honoré carbonatite complex hosts a rare earth element (REE) deposit traditionally interpreted as being produced by late-stage hydrothermal fluids that leached REE from apatite or dolomite found in the early units and concentrated the REE in the late-stage units. New evidence from deeper units suggest that the Fe-carbonatite was mineralized by a combination of both magmatic and hydrothermal crystallization of rare earth minerals. The upper Fe-carbonatite has characteristics typical of hydrothermal mineralization—polycrystalline clusters hosting bastnäsite-(Ce), which crystallized radially from carbonate or barite crystals, as well as the presence of halite and silicification within strongly brecciated units. However, bastnäsite-(Ce) inclusions in primary magmatic barite crystals have also been identified deeper in the Fe-carbonatite (below 1000 m), suggesting that primary crystallization of rare earth minerals occurred prior to hydrothermal leaching. Based on the intensity of hydrothermal brecciation, Cl depletion at depth and greater abundance of secondary fluid inclusions in carbonates in the upper levels, it is interpreted that hydrothermal activity was weaker in this deepest portion, thereby preserving the original magmatic textures. This early magmatic crystallization of rare earth minerals could be a significant factor in generating high-volume REE deposits. Crystallization of primary barite could be an important guide for REE exploration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mineral Deposits of Critical Elements)
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Open AccessArticle Nature and Evolution of Paleoproterozoic Sn and Rare Metal Albitites from Central Brazil: Constraints Based on Textural, Geochemical, Ar-Ar, and Oxygen Isotopes
Minerals 2018, 8(9), 396; https://doi.org/10.3390/min8090396
Received: 30 June 2018 / Revised: 31 July 2018 / Accepted: 3 August 2018 / Published: 8 September 2018
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Abstract
Economic and subeconomic concentrations of Sn, In, rare earth elements (REE), Ta, and Nb are known in Central Brazil, in the Goias Tin Province. The Sn-P enriched albitites studied in this paper occur in sharp contact with peraluminous granites of the Aurumina Suite [...] Read more.
Economic and subeconomic concentrations of Sn, In, rare earth elements (REE), Ta, and Nb are known in Central Brazil, in the Goias Tin Province. The Sn-P enriched albitites studied in this paper occur in sharp contact with peraluminous granites of the Aurumina Suite (2.0–2.17 Ga) and schists of the Archean to Paleoproterozoic Ticunzal Formation, as dikes or lenses from late-stage magma of the peraluminous magmatism, probably in granite cupolas. Geological, petrological, and isotopic studies were conducted. The albitites consist of albite, quartz, cassiterite, apatite, K-feldspar, and muscovite, and have magmatic texture, such as alignment of albite laths, and snowball texture in quartz, apatite, and cassiterite. They are enriched in Na2O, P2O5, Sn, Ta, and Nb (Ta > Nb), and depleted in CaO, K2O, TiO2, MgO, Sr, Ba, Th, and REE. 40Ar/39Ar in muscovite gave a plateau age of 1996.55 ± 13 Ma, interpreted as approaching the crystallization age. Oxygen isotope data in albite-cassiterite pairs resulted in an equilibrium temperature of 653–1016 °C and isotopic fluid composition of 8.66–9.72‰. They were formed by crystallization of a highly evolved and sodic granitic magma. This study has implications for Central Brazil’s economic potential and offers better understanding of tin behavior in rare, evolved peraluminous granitic magmas. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Striving Toward a Circular Economy for Phosphorus: The Role of Phosphate Rock Mining
Minerals 2018, 8(9), 395; https://doi.org/10.3390/min8090395
Received: 30 July 2018 / Revised: 30 August 2018 / Accepted: 5 September 2018 / Published: 8 September 2018
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Abstract
As an element, phosphorus (P) is one of a kind. While it is essential for all life on Earth, phosphorus is neither substitutable nor infinite especially in terms of highly concentrated phosphate rock deposits. Society as a whole—and key stakeholders in particular—must build [...] Read more.
As an element, phosphorus (P) is one of a kind. While it is essential for all life on Earth, phosphorus is neither substitutable nor infinite especially in terms of highly concentrated phosphate rock deposits. Society as a whole—and key stakeholders in particular—must build on and extend the idea of a linear system that begins with exploration, continues with extraction and processing, and ends with the application of fertilizers, by applying mechanisms of circularity. The efficient and sustainable utilization of P including intra-generational and intergenerational fairness requires the recognition of its dissipative structure as an important first step. With its Manifesto for a Resource-Efficient Europe, the European Commission acknowledged the inevitability of the transition toward a regenerative Circular Economy (CE). The concept of a CE evolves around the avoidance of losses, which can be found all along the P supply chain in varying degrees of magnitude and leads to total nutrient-use efficiencies as low as 5% to 10%. This makes P a prime target for moving toward a circular economy. While common state-of-the-art work addresses mostly the loop (i.e., production, use, collection, and recycling) itself, we are discussing the current role of raw materials “feeding” the loop with respect to the mining phase. From a resilience perspective, the aim must be to keep every P atom flowing and circulating within our economy for as long as possible. Hereby, every measure needs to be considered under the principle of proportionality in terms of sustainable development. Therefore, changes to the current approach in the form of multidimensional innovation (e.g., products, processes, and structures) must be considered from various perspectives including technological, geological, and economic aspects. The economic framework conditions, in particular, determine the cut-off between valuable product and “waste”. We build our arguments on the “Phosphate Rock Mining–Innovation Nexus” and illustrate potential best-practice examples. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Geology and U-Th-Pb Dating of the Gakara REE Deposit, Burundi
Minerals 2018, 8(9), 394; https://doi.org/10.3390/min8090394
Received: 27 June 2018 / Revised: 4 September 2018 / Accepted: 5 September 2018 / Published: 7 September 2018
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Abstract
The Gakara Rare Earth Elements (REE) deposit is one of the world’s highest grade REE deposits, likely linked to a carbonatitic magmatic-hydrothermal activity. It is located near Lake Tanganyika in Burundi, along the western branch of the East African Rift. Field observations suggest [...] Read more.
The Gakara Rare Earth Elements (REE) deposit is one of the world’s highest grade REE deposits, likely linked to a carbonatitic magmatic-hydrothermal activity. It is located near Lake Tanganyika in Burundi, along the western branch of the East African Rift. Field observations suggest that the mineralized veins formed in the upper crust. Previous structures inherited from the Kibaran orogeny may have been reused during the mineralizing event. The paragenetic sequence and the geochronological data show that the Gakara mineralization occurred in successive stages in a continuous hydrothermal history. The primary mineralization in bastnaesite was followed by an alteration stage into monazite. The U-Th-Pb ages obtained on bastnaesite (602 ± 7 Ma) and on monazite (589 ± 8 Ma) belong to the Pan-African cycle. The emplacement of the Gakara REE mineralization most likely took place during a pre-collisional event in the Pan-African belt, probably in an extensional context. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Toward Mineral Systems for HFSE Rare Metals)
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Open AccessArticle Carbonaceous Materials in the Fault Zone of the Longmenshan Fault Belt: 2. Characterization of Fault Gouge from Deep Drilling and Implications for Fault Maturity
Minerals 2018, 8(9), 393; https://doi.org/10.3390/min8090393
Received: 22 June 2018 / Revised: 4 September 2018 / Accepted: 5 September 2018 / Published: 7 September 2018
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Abstract
In recent works on the determination of graphitization of carbonaceous materials (CM) within the principal slip zone (PSZ) of the Longmenshan fault (China), we demonstrated that the formation of graphite, resulted from strain and frictional heating, could be evidence of past seismic slip. [...] Read more.
In recent works on the determination of graphitization of carbonaceous materials (CM) within the principal slip zone (PSZ) of the Longmenshan fault (China), we demonstrated that the formation of graphite, resulted from strain and frictional heating, could be evidence of past seismic slip. Here we utilize Raman Spectroscopy of CM (RSCM) on the CM-bearing gouges in the fault zone of the Longmenshan fault belt, at the borehole depth of 760 m (FZ760) from the Wenchuan earthquake Fault Scientific Drilling project-1 (WFSD-1), to quantitatively characterize CM and further retrieve ancient fault deformation information in the active fault. RSCM shows that graphitization of CM is intense in the fault core with respect to the damage zone, with the graphitized carbon resembling those observed on experimentally formed graphite that was frictionally generated. Importantly, compared to the recognized active fault zone of the Longmenshan fault, the RSCM of measured CM-rich gouge shows a higher degree of graphitization, likely derived from high-temperature-perturbation faulting events. It implies that FZ760 accommodated numerous single-event displacement and/or at higher normal stresses and/or in the absence of pore fluid and/or along a more localized slip surface(s). Because graphite is a well-known lubricant, we surmise that the presence of the higher degree graphitized CM within FZ760 will reduce the fault strength and inefficiently accumulate tectonic stress during the seismic cycle at the current depth, and further infer a plausible mechanism for fault propagation at the borehole depth of 590 m during the Mw 7.9 Wenchuan earthquake. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mineralogy of Natural Graphite)
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Open AccessArticle Two-Stage SART Process: A Feasible Alternative for Gold Cyanidation Plants with High Zinc and Copper Contents
Minerals 2018, 8(9), 392; https://doi.org/10.3390/min8090392
Received: 2 August 2018 / Revised: 3 September 2018 / Accepted: 5 September 2018 / Published: 7 September 2018
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Abstract
The SART (sulfidization, acidification, recycling, and thickening) process (SP) has been successfully implemented in gold cyanidation plants to address issues associated with high cyanide-soluble copper content ores. However, this process could produce a relatively low grade precipitate, decreasing the sale price when gold [...] Read more.
The SART (sulfidization, acidification, recycling, and thickening) process (SP) has been successfully implemented in gold cyanidation plants to address issues associated with high cyanide-soluble copper content ores. However, this process could produce a relatively low grade precipitate, decreasing the sale price when gold plants have high zinc and copper content in their solutions. A potential option in this case would be the use of a two-stage SART process (TSSP) to produce separate zinc and copper precipitates. The additional equipment involved with this process would increase the capital cost, thereby generating concerns about the optimal range of metal contents that could justify this option. This study presents a methodology to quantify the feasible range of Cu/Zn concentrations that would justify a two-stage SART process. The study is based on a thermodynamic model and a simple economic evaluation. Results show the TSSP is preferred when the Cu/Zn ratio ranges between 0.2 and 1.5 with copper concentration higher than 500 mg/L. The TSSP appears to be a viable option to consider for gold plants having concentrations of copper and zinc higher than 200 mg/L for both metals. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Interpretation of Hydrophobization Behavior of Dodecylamine on Muscovite and Talc Surface through Dynamic Wettability and AFM Analysis
Minerals 2018, 8(9), 391; https://doi.org/10.3390/min8090391
Received: 31 July 2018 / Revised: 2 September 2018 / Accepted: 4 September 2018 / Published: 6 September 2018
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Abstract
In this study, a new approach, “dynamic wettability”, and atomic force microscopy (AFM) imaging analysis techniques were successfully used to characterize the hydrophobization mechanism of the collector dodecylamine (DDA) on muscovite and talc surfaces. The attachment of bubbles to the minerals was studied [...] Read more.
In this study, a new approach, “dynamic wettability”, and atomic force microscopy (AFM) imaging analysis techniques were successfully used to characterize the hydrophobization mechanism of the collector dodecylamine (DDA) on muscovite and talc surfaces. The attachment of bubbles to the minerals was studied through the dynamic contact angle to gain a detailed understanding of the hydrophobization mechanism of DDA on a muscovite and talc surface. AFM imaging and interaction forces were performed to explain the DDA adsorption mechanism on both minerals. Finally, flotation tests were performed to verify the effectiveness of these techniques. After treatments with DDA, the contact angles became much larger compared to initial angles, particularly for muscovite, and the attachment of bubbles on the talc surface was much easier than muscovite due to its natural hydrophobicity. From AFM imaging, both the muscovite and talc showed a similar tendency; the higher the DDA concentration, the more the adsorbed amount. However, the adsorbed amount of DDA on talc surface was obviously more than that on muscovite. As far as interaction forces are concerned, the maximum attractions occurred at certain different concentrations respectively for muscovite and talc and agreed well with the AFM-imaging results. Moreover, results obtained from flotation tests were promising and quite in agreement with the phenomenon of these techniques. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Evaluation of Magnetic Separation Efficiency on a Cassiterite-Bearing Skarn Ore by Means of Integrative SEM-Based Image and XRF–XRD Data Analysis
Minerals 2018, 8(9), 390; https://doi.org/10.3390/min8090390
Received: 8 June 2018 / Revised: 28 August 2018 / Accepted: 31 August 2018 / Published: 6 September 2018
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Abstract
Image analysis data obtained from scanning electron microscopy provided data for a detailed evaluation of the separation efficiency for various processes involving the beneficiation of particulate materials. A dry magnetic separation by a drum type magnetic separator served as a case study to [...] Read more.
Image analysis data obtained from scanning electron microscopy provided data for a detailed evaluation of the separation efficiency for various processes involving the beneficiation of particulate materials. A dry magnetic separation by a drum type magnetic separator served as a case study to visualize effects of processing of a skarn ore with a high content of cassiterite as ore mineral (~4 wt%). For this material, iron oxides and silicates are the main gangue mineral groups. Based on the obtained data, partition curves were generated with the help of local regression. From the partition curves, the separation efficiency was evaluated and the relevant particle properties deduced. A detailed analysis of the bias of the quantitative mineralogical data is presented. This bias was monitored and further analyzed in detail. Thorough analysis of feed and products of magnetic separation enabled identification of the most important factors that control losses of cassiterite to the magnetic product, namely the association with iron oxides and particle sizes below ~40 µm. The introduced methodology is a general approach applicable for the optimization of different separation processes and is not limited to the presented case study. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Induration Process of MgO Flux Pellet
Minerals 2018, 8(9), 389; https://doi.org/10.3390/min8090389
Received: 16 July 2018 / Revised: 12 August 2018 / Accepted: 4 September 2018 / Published: 5 September 2018
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Abstract
The induration process of oxidized pellet, containing the oxidation of magnetite phase (Fe3O4) and the sintering of oxidized magnetite phase (hematite–Fe2O3), is significant to obtain sufficient pellet strength. The current study focuses on the induration [...] Read more.
The induration process of oxidized pellet, containing the oxidation of magnetite phase (Fe3O4) and the sintering of oxidized magnetite phase (hematite–Fe2O3), is significant to obtain sufficient pellet strength. The current study focuses on the induration mechanisms of MgO flux pellet in terms of the oxidation process of Fe3O4 and densification process of the pellet. It is found that MgO dosage negatively affects the oxidation of Fe3O4 into Fe2O3. The number of recrystallized grain of Fe2O3 in the MgO flux pellet is less than that in the Non-MgO flux pellet. Additionally, an unreacted core model was applied to consider and clarify the oxidation of Fe3O4. According to the verification experiments, the experimental data and calculated results fit well. Therefore, the unreacted core model can describe the oxidation of Fe3O4 in the pellet induration process. Moreover, based on the development of pore parameters during the pellet induration process, a new index, the so-called oxide densification index (ODI) was defined to profoundly specify the densification degree of the pellet. The results show that the ODI of the MgO flux pellet maintains at a lower level compared with that of the Non-MgO flux pellet. It illustrates that MgO can substantially restrain the pellet densification process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Mineral Processing and Metallurgy)
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Open AccessArticle Ore-Forming Processes at the Xiajinbao Gold Deposit in Eastern Hebei Province: Constraints from EPMA and LA-ICPMS Analysis
Minerals 2018, 8(9), 388; https://doi.org/10.3390/min8090388
Received: 21 June 2018 / Revised: 2 September 2018 / Accepted: 3 September 2018 / Published: 5 September 2018
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Abstract
The Xiajinbao gold deposit is located at the northern margin of the North China Craton. Hydrothermal pyrites belonging to three stages were identified: Py1; Py2; and Py3. Geochemical study of these pyrites was conducted using electron probe microanalysis and laser ablation inductively coupled [...] Read more.
The Xiajinbao gold deposit is located at the northern margin of the North China Craton. Hydrothermal pyrites belonging to three stages were identified: Py1; Py2; and Py3. Geochemical study of these pyrites was conducted using electron probe microanalysis and laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry to investigate the distributions of minor and trace elements, constrain pyrite genesis, and to obtain an improved understanding of the ore-forming processes. Py1 and Py2 contain high concentrations of Au and are interpreted to have been deposited from fluids from a dominantly magmatic source. Py3 grains have the lowest Co/Ni ratios. All generations of pyrite were deposited by mixing of meteoric waters with magmatic-hydrothermal fluids. Boiling of early ore-forming fluids led to the precipitation of Py1 and gold. Decreasing fO2 in the ore-forming system resulted in the formation of Py2 and gold. Fluid mixing was the dominant controlling factor for the precipitation of Py3 together with small amounts of gold. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Mineral Geochemistry and Geochronology)
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Open AccessArticle Halloysite Nanotubes as an Effective and Recyclable Adsorbent for Removal of Low-Concentration Antibiotics Ciprofloxacin
Minerals 2018, 8(9), 387; https://doi.org/10.3390/min8090387
Received: 7 August 2018 / Revised: 26 August 2018 / Accepted: 31 August 2018 / Published: 5 September 2018
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Abstract
In this work, halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) without modification were used as an efficient adsorbent to explore its natural adsorption capability, which showed excellent adsorption ability for low-concentration ciprofloxacin (CIP). The physicochemical properties of HNTs before and after adsorption were investigated by several characterization [...] Read more.
In this work, halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) without modification were used as an efficient adsorbent to explore its natural adsorption capability, which showed excellent adsorption ability for low-concentration ciprofloxacin (CIP). The physicochemical properties of HNTs before and after adsorption were investigated by several characterization techniques, including scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), N2 adsorption–desorption analysis, X-ray diffractometer (XRD), and zeta potential analysis. The influences of temperature, initial CIP concentration, adsorbent dosage, and pH value on CIP adsorption performance were also studied. The kinetics analysis revealed that CIP adsorption on HNTs was a kind of monolayer adsorption process and followed a pseudo-second-order rate equation. The zeta potential result indicated that electrostatic interaction between HNTs and CIP molecules was possibly responsible for the adsorption performance. Moreover, HNTs showed no apparent loss in CIP adsorption capability after five cycles, exhibiting potential applications in wastewater treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mineral Materials)
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