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Atmosphere, Volume 13, Issue 1 (January 2022) – 148 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Atmospheric circulation patterns and their relationship with precipitation are effective in weather forecasting. All days during 1990–2019 were divided into 18 groups in the Middle East. Moisture flux divergence and performance index were investigated for every group. Significant differences in the pattern’s arrangement, moisture, and precipitation conditions in Iran were observed. There is a relationship between surface anticyclonic circulation on the Arabian Sea and the Arabian Peninsula and mid-level atmosphere trough in all precipitation patterns. South currents of anticyclonic circulation transfer moisture from southern water sources to Iran. View this paper
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Article
The Impact of Lead Patterns on Mean Profiles of Wind, Temperature, and Turbulent Fluxes in the Atmospheric Boundary Layer over Sea Ice
Atmosphere 2022, 13(1), 148; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos13010148 - 17 Jan 2022
Viewed by 970
Abstract
In the polar regions, the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) characteristics are strongly influenced by convection over leads, which are elongated channels in the sea ice covered ocean. The effects on the ABL depend on meteorological forcing and lead geometry. In non-convection-resolving models, in [...] Read more.
In the polar regions, the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) characteristics are strongly influenced by convection over leads, which are elongated channels in the sea ice covered ocean. The effects on the ABL depend on meteorological forcing and lead geometry. In non-convection-resolving models, in which several leads of potentially different characteristics might be present in a single grid cell, such surface characteristics and the corresponding ABL patterns are not resolved. Our main goal is to investigate potential implications for such models when these subgrid-scale patterns are not considered appropriately. We performed non-eddy-resolving microscale simulations over five different domains with leads of different widths separated by 100% sea ice. We also performed coarser-resolved simulations over a domain representing a few grid cells of a regional climate model, wherein leads were not resolved but accounted for via a fractional sea ice cover of 91% in each cell. Domain size and mean sea ice concentration were the same in all simulations. Differences in the domain-averaged ABL profiles and patterns of wind, temperature, and turbulent fluxes indicate a strong impact of both the leads and their geometry. Additional evaluations of different turbulence parameterizations show large effects by both gradient-independent heat transport and vertical entrainment. Full article
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Article
Possible Causes of the Occurrence of a Rare Antarctic Sudden Stratospheric Warming in 2019
Atmosphere 2022, 13(1), 147; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos13010147 - 17 Jan 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 850
Abstract
A minor Antarctic sudden stratospheric warming (SSW) with the strongest circulation changes since the first major SSW over the Antarctic was recorded in 2002 occurred in early September 2019. The diagnosis demonstrates two possible causes of this SSW. First, the tropical central Pacific [...] Read more.
A minor Antarctic sudden stratospheric warming (SSW) with the strongest circulation changes since the first major SSW over the Antarctic was recorded in 2002 occurred in early September 2019. The diagnosis demonstrates two possible causes of this SSW. First, the tropical central Pacific warming is identified, which enhanced the amplitude of tropospheric planetary wavenumber 1 (W1) in the extratropics on the seasonal time scale. Second, the impact of intraseasonal convection anomalies similar to previous studies is also suggested here. The enhanced deep convection over the South Pacific Convergence Zone (SPCZ) in late August–early September excited a Rossby wave train to deepen an anomalous ridge, which significantly and persistently strengthened the tropospheric W1. The central Pacific warming and intraseasonal convection anomalies jointly provided the conditions for the occurrence of the Antarctic SSW in 2019 on different time scales. On the other hand, the difference of the stratospheric state between the Antarctic SSWs in 2019 and 2002 may be an important reason why the 2019 event did not meet the major SSW criteria. The stratospheric state before the 2019 SSW event is somewhat not as ideal as that of the 2002 event. Vertical planetary waves are, hence, more difficult to enter into the polar stratosphere, making it more difficult to trigger major events. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Climatology)
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Article
Relation of Extreme Ionospheric Events with Geomagnetic and Meteorological Activity
Atmosphere 2022, 13(1), 146; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos13010146 - 17 Jan 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 548
Abstract
This paper studies extreme ionospheric events and their relations with geomagnetic and meteorological activity. With the long observation series at the Irkutsk (52° N, 104° E) and Kaliningrad (54° N, 20° E) ionosondes we obtained the datasets of ionospheric disturbances that were treated [...] Read more.
This paper studies extreme ionospheric events and their relations with geomagnetic and meteorological activity. With the long observation series at the Irkutsk (52° N, 104° E) and Kaliningrad (54° N, 20° E) ionosondes we obtained the datasets of ionospheric disturbances that were treated as relative deviations of the observed peak electron density values from their 27-day running median values. As the extreme disturbances, we considered cases when the disturbance was greater than 150%. As potential sources of extreme ionospheric disturbances, we considered sudden stratospheric warmings, geomagnetic storms by the criterion Dst ≤ −30 nT, and recurrent geomagnetic storms that did not necessarily satisfy the criterion Dst ≤ −30 nT. The morphological analysis showed that the extreme ionospheric disturbance was the nighttime phenomenon that occurs from late October to early March (mainly in December–January). Considering extreme ionospheric events as nights when disturbances were greater than 150%, we obtained 25 extreme ionospheric events (on average 1.8 events per year) from the 2003–2016 Irkutsk dataset and six extreme ionospheric events (on average 0.75 events per year) from the 2009–2016 Kaliningrad dataset. The year-by-year distribution of extreme events did not reveal a clear dependence on solar/geomagnetic activity in terms of yearly mean F10.7 and Ap values but showed a correlation between the number of events and the number of recurrent geomagnetic storms. The study of the relationship between extreme ionospheric events and manifestations of geomagnetic and meteorological activity revealed that about half of extreme ionospheric events may be related to geomagnetic storms by the criterion Dst ≤ −50 nT and/or sudden stratospheric warmings. Consideration of recurrent geomagnetic storms allowed us to find the sources of almost all extreme ionospheric events. Geomagnetic activity may be considered the main cause of extreme ionospheric events at Irkutsk (mainly associated with recurrent geomagnetic storms and partly with CME-storms); while the main cause of extreme ionospheric events at Kaliningrad is not clear (a comparable contribution of sudden stratospheric warmings and storms can be assumed). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dynamical and Chemical Processes of Atmosphere-Ionosphere Coupling)
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Article
Statistical Modeling of RPCA-FCM in Spatiotemporal Rainfall Patterns Recognition
Atmosphere 2022, 13(1), 145; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos13010145 - 16 Jan 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 634
Abstract
This study was conducted to identify the spatiotemporal torrential rainfall patterns of the East Coast of Peninsular Malaysia, as it is the region most affected by the torrential rainfall of the Northeast Monsoon season. Dimension reduction, such as the classical Principal Components Analysis [...] Read more.
This study was conducted to identify the spatiotemporal torrential rainfall patterns of the East Coast of Peninsular Malaysia, as it is the region most affected by the torrential rainfall of the Northeast Monsoon season. Dimension reduction, such as the classical Principal Components Analysis (PCA) coupled with the clustering approach, is often applied to reduce the dimension of the data while simultaneously performing cluster partitions. However, the classical PCA is highly insensitive to outliers, as it assigns equal weights to each set of observations. Hence, applying the classical PCA could affect the cluster partitions of the rainfall patterns. Furthermore, traditional clustering algorithms only allow each element to exclusively belong to one cluster, thus observations within overlapping clusters of the torrential rainfall datasets might not be captured effectively. In this study, a statistical model of torrential rainfall pattern recognition was proposed to alleviate these issues. Here, a Robust PCA (RPCA) based on Tukey’s biweight correlation was introduced and the optimum breakdown point to extract the number of components was identified. A breakdown point of 0.4 at 85% cumulative variance percentage efficiently extracted the number of components to avoid low-frequency variations or insignificant clusters on a spatial scale. Based on the extracted components, the rainfall patterns were further characterized based on cluster solutions attained using Fuzzy C-means clustering (FCM) to allow data elements to belong to more than one cluster, as the rainfall data structure permits this. Lastly, data generated using a Monte Carlo simulation were used to evaluate the performance of the proposed statistical modeling. It was found that the proposed RPCA-FCM performed better using RPCA-FCM compared to the classical PCA coupled with FCM in identifying the torrential rainfall patterns of Peninsular Malaysia’s East Coast. Full article
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Article
Assessment of Different CFD Modeling and Solving Approaches for a Supersonic Steam Ejector Simulation
Atmosphere 2022, 13(1), 144; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos13010144 - 16 Jan 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 609
Abstract
The effects of different modeling and solving approaches on the simulation of a steam ejector have been investigated with the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) technique. The four most frequently used and recommended turbulence models (standard k-ε, RNG k-ε [...] Read more.
The effects of different modeling and solving approaches on the simulation of a steam ejector have been investigated with the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) technique. The four most frequently used and recommended turbulence models (standard k-ε, RNG k-ε, realizable k-ε and SST k-ω), two near-wall treatments (standard wall function and enhanced wall treatment), two solvers (pressure- and density-based solvers) and two spatial discretization schemes ( the second-order upwind scheme and the quadratic upstream interpolation for convective kinematics (QUICK) of the convection term have been tested and compared for a supersonic steam ejector under the same conditions as experimental data. In total, more than 185 cases of 17 different modeling and solving approaches have been carried out in this work. The simulation results from the pressure-based solver (PBS) are slightly closer to the experimental data than those from the density-based solver (DBS) and are thus utilized in the subsequent simulations. When a high-density mesh with y+ < 1 is used, the SST k-ω model can obtain the best predictions of the maximum entrainment ratio (ER) and an adequate prediction of the critical back pressure (CBP), while the realizable k-ε model with the enhanced wall treatment can obtain the best prediction of the CBP and an adequate prediction of the ER. When the standard wall function is used with the three k-ε models, the realizable k-ε model can obtain the best predictions of the maximum ER, and the three k-ε models can gain the same CBP value. For a steam ejector with recirculation inside the diffuser, the realizable k-ε model or the enhanced wall treatment is recommended for adoption in the modeling approach. When the spatial discretization scheme of the convection term changes from a second-order upwind scheme to a QUICK scheme, the effect can be ignored for the maximum ER calculation, while only the CBP value from the standard k-ε model with the standard wall function is reduced by 2.13%. The calculation deviation of the ER between the two schemes increases with the back pressure at the unchoked flow region, especially when the standard k-ε model is adopted. The realizable k-ε model with the two wall treatments and the SST k-ω model is recommended, while the standard k-ε is more sensitive to the near-wall treatment and the spatial discretization scheme and is not recommended for an ejector simulation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Industrial Air Pollution Control in China)
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Article
Assessment of 13 Gridded Precipitation Datasets for Hydrological Modeling in a Mountainous Basin
Atmosphere 2022, 13(1), 143; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos13010143 - 16 Jan 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 923
Abstract
Precipitation measurement with high spatial and temporal resolution over highly elevated and complex terrain in the eastern part of Turkey is an essential task to manage the water structures in an optimum manner. The objective of this study is to evaluate the consistency [...] Read more.
Precipitation measurement with high spatial and temporal resolution over highly elevated and complex terrain in the eastern part of Turkey is an essential task to manage the water structures in an optimum manner. The objective of this study is to evaluate the consistency and hydrologic utility of 13 Gridded Precipitation Datasets (GPDs) (CPCv1, MSWEPv2.8, ERA5, CHIRPSv2.0, CHIRPv2.0, IMERGHHFv06, IMERGHHEv06, IMERGHHLv06, TMPA-3B42v7, TMPA-3B42RTv7, PERSIANN-CDR, PERSIANN-CCS, and PERSIANN) over a mountainous test basin (Karasu) at a daily time step. The Kling-Gupta Efficiency (KGE), including its three components (correlation, bias, and variability ratio), and the Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiency (NSE) are used for GPD evaluation. Moreover, the Hanssen-Kuiper (HK) score is considered to evaluate the detectability strength of selected GPDs for different precipitation events. Precipitation frequencies are evaluated considering the Probability Density Function (PDF). Daily precipitation data from 23 meteorological stations are provided as a reference for the period of 2015–2019. The TUW model is used for hydrological simulations regarding observed discharge located at the outlet of the basin. The model is calibrated in two ways, with observed precipitation only and by each GPD individually. Overall, CPCv1 shows the highest performance (median KGE; 0.46) over time and space. MSWEPv2.8 and CHIRPSv2.0 deliver the best performance among multi-source merging datasets, followed by CHIRPv2.0, whereas IMERGHHFv06, PERSIANN-CDR, and TMPA-3B42v7 show poor performance. IMERGHHLv06 is able to present the best performance (median KGE; 0.17) compared to other satellite-based GPDs (PERSIANN-CCS, PERSIANN, IMERGHHEv06, and TMPA-3B42RTv7). ERA5 performs well both in spatial and temporal validation compared to satellite-based GPDs, though it shows low performance in producing a streamflow simulation. Overall, all gridded precipitation datasets show better performance in generating streamflow when the model is calibrated by each GPD separately. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Atmospheric Sciences)
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Article
Assessment of the Factors Influencing Sulfur Dioxide Emissions in Shandong, China
Atmosphere 2022, 13(1), 142; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos13010142 - 16 Jan 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 589
Abstract
Sulfur dioxide (SO2) is a serious air pollutant emitted from different sources in many developing regions worldwide, where the contribution of different potential influencing factors remains unclear. Using Shandong, a typical industrial province in China as an example, we studied the [...] Read more.
Sulfur dioxide (SO2) is a serious air pollutant emitted from different sources in many developing regions worldwide, where the contribution of different potential influencing factors remains unclear. Using Shandong, a typical industrial province in China as an example, we studied the spatial distribution of SO2 and used geographical detectors to explore its influencing factors. Based on the daily average concentration in Shandong Province from 2014 to 2019, we explored the influence of the diurnal temperature range, secondary production, precipitation, wind speed, soot emission, sunshine duration, and urbanization rate on the SO2 concentration. The results showed that the diurnal temperature range had the largest impact on SO2, with q values of 0.69, followed by secondary production (0.51), precipitation (0.46), and wind speed (0.42). There was no significant difference in the SO2 distribution between pairs of sunshine durations, soot emissions, and urbanization rates. The meteorological factors of precipitation, wind speed, and diurnal temperature range were sensitive to seasonal changes. There were nonlinear enhancement relationships among those meteorological factors to the SO2 pollution. There were obvious geographical differences in the human activity factors of soot emissions, secondary production, and urbanization rates. The amount of SO2 emissions should be adjusted in different seasons considering the varied effect of meteorological factors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Air Quality)
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Article
Effects of Air Pollutants on Summer Precipitation in Different Regions of Beijing
Atmosphere 2022, 13(1), 141; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos13010141 - 15 Jan 2022
Viewed by 611
Abstract
Many studies have shown that air pollutants have complex impacts on urban precipitation. Meteorological weather station and satellite Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) product data from the last 20 years, combined with simulation results from the Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with Chemistry [...] Read more.
Many studies have shown that air pollutants have complex impacts on urban precipitation. Meteorological weather station and satellite Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) product data from the last 20 years, combined with simulation results from the Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with Chemistry (WRF-Chem), this paper focuses on the effects of air pollutants on summer precipitation in different regions of Beijing. These results showed that air pollution intensity during the summer affected the precipitation contribution rate (PCR) of plains and mountainous regions in the Beijing area, especially in the plains. Over the past 20 years, plains PCR increased by ~10% when the AOD augmented by 0.15, whereas it decreased with lower pollution levels. In contrast, PCR in mountainous areas decreased with higher pollution levels and increased with lower pollution levels. Our analysis from model results indicated that aerosol increases reduce the effective particle size of cloud droplets and raindrops. Smaller cloud raindrops more readily transport to high air layers and participate in the generation of ice-phase substances in the clouds, increasing the total amount of cloud water in the air in a certain time, which ultimately enhanced precipitation intensity on the plains. The removal of pollutants caused by increased precipitation in the plains decreased rainfall levels in mountainous areas. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Air Quality)
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Review
Climate Change and Livestock Production: A Literature Review
Atmosphere 2022, 13(1), 140; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos13010140 - 15 Jan 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2714
Abstract
Globally, the climate is changing, and this has implications for livestock. Climate affects livestock growth rates, milk and egg production, reproductive performance, morbidity, and mortality, along with feed supply. Simultaneously, livestock is a climate change driver, generating 14.5% of total anthropogenic Greenhouse Gas [...] Read more.
Globally, the climate is changing, and this has implications for livestock. Climate affects livestock growth rates, milk and egg production, reproductive performance, morbidity, and mortality, along with feed supply. Simultaneously, livestock is a climate change driver, generating 14.5% of total anthropogenic Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions. Herein, we review the literature addressing climate change and livestock, covering impacts, emissions, adaptation possibilities, and mitigation strategies. While the existing literature principally focuses on ruminants, we extended the scope to include non-ruminants. We found that livestock are affected by climate change and do enhance climate change through emissions but that there are adaptation and mitigation actions that can limit the effects of climate change. We also suggest some research directions and especially find the need for work in developing country settings. In the context of climate change, adaptation measures are pivotal to sustaining the growing demand for livestock products, but often their relevance depends on local conditions. Furthermore, mitigation is key to limiting the future extent of climate change and there are a number of possible strategies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Climatology)
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Article
Studies of the Dispersed Composition of Atmospheric Aerosol and Its Relationship with Small Gas Impurities in the Near-Water Layer of Lake Baikal Based on the Results of Ship Measurements in the Summer of 2020
Atmosphere 2022, 13(1), 139; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos13010139 - 14 Jan 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 563
Abstract
The atmosphere over Lake Baikal covers a vast area (31,500 square meters) and has more significant differences in the composition and variability of gaseous and aerosol components in atmospheric air than in coastal continental areas and is still a poorly studied object. In [...] Read more.
The atmosphere over Lake Baikal covers a vast area (31,500 square meters) and has more significant differences in the composition and variability of gaseous and aerosol components in atmospheric air than in coastal continental areas and is still a poorly studied object. In recent years, the anthropogenic impact on the ecosystem of Lake Baikal has been increasing due to the development of industry in the region, the expansion of tourist infrastructure and recreational areas of the coastal zone of the lake. In addition, one of the significant sources of atmospheric pollution in the Baikal region is the emissions of smoke aerosol and trace gases from forest fires, the number of which is increasing in the region. This article presents the results of experimental studies of the dispersed composition of aerosols and gas impurities, such as ozone, sulfur dioxide, and nitrogen oxides during route ship measurements in the water area of Lake Baikal in the summer of 2020. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Aerosols)
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Article
Simulating the Effects of Land Surface Characteristics on Planetary Boundary Layer Parameters for a Modeled Landfalling Tropical Cyclone
Atmosphere 2022, 13(1), 138; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos13010138 - 14 Jan 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 625
Abstract
This study examined whether varying moisture availability and roughness length for the land surface under a simulated Tropical Cyclone (TC) could affect its production of precipitation. The TC moved over the heterogeneous land surface of the southeastern U.S. in the control simulation, while [...] Read more.
This study examined whether varying moisture availability and roughness length for the land surface under a simulated Tropical Cyclone (TC) could affect its production of precipitation. The TC moved over the heterogeneous land surface of the southeastern U.S. in the control simulation, while the other simulations featured homogeneous land surfaces that were wet rough, wet smooth, dry rough, and dry smooth. Results suggest that the near-surface atmosphere was modified by the changes to the land surface, where the wet cases have higher latent and lower sensible heat flux values, and rough cases exhibit higher values of friction velocity. The analysis of areal-averaged rain rates and the area receiving low and high rain rates shows that simulations having a moist land surface produce higher rain rates and larger areas of low rain rates in the TC’s inner core. The dry and rough land surfaces produced a higher coverage of high rain rates in the outer regions. Key differences among the simulations happened as the TC core moved over land, while the outer rainbands produced more rain when moving over the coastline. These findings support the assertion that the modifications of the land surface can influence precipitation production within a landfalling TC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Atmosphere Science)
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Article
Circulation and Climate Variability in the Czech Republic between 1961 and 2020: A Comparison of Changes for Two “Normal” Periods
Atmosphere 2022, 13(1), 137; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos13010137 - 14 Jan 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 863
Abstract
Thirty-year periods are treated in climatology as spans with relatively representative and stable climatic patterns, which can be used for calculating climate normals. Annual and seasonal series of circulation types were used to compare two 30-year sub-periods, 1961–1990 and 1991–2020, the second one [...] Read more.
Thirty-year periods are treated in climatology as spans with relatively representative and stable climatic patterns, which can be used for calculating climate normals. Annual and seasonal series of circulation types were used to compare two 30-year sub-periods, 1961–1990 and 1991–2020, the second one being strongly influenced by recent global warming. This analysis was conducted according to the objective classification of circulation types and the climatic characteristics of sunshine duration, temperature, humidity, precipitation, and wind speed as calculated for the territory of the Czech Republic during the 1961–2020 period. For both sub-periods, their statistical characteristics were calculated, and the statistical significance of differences between them was evaluated. There was a statistically significant increase in the annual frequencies of anticyclonic circulation types and a significant decrease in cyclonic circulation types during 1991–2020 compared with 1961–1990. Generally, in both 30-year periods, significant differences in means, variability, characteristics of distribution, density functions, and linear trends appear for all climatic variables analysed except precipitation. This indicates that the recent 30-year “normal” period of 1991–2020, known to be influenced more by recent climate change, is by its climatic characteristics unrepresentative of the stable climatic patterns of previous 30-year periods. Full article
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Article
Big Data Analytics for Long-Term Meteorological Observations at Hanford Site
Atmosphere 2022, 13(1), 136; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos13010136 - 14 Jan 2022
Viewed by 707
Abstract
A growing number of physical objects with embedded sensors with typically high volume and frequently updated data sets has accentuated the need to develop methodologies to extract useful information from big data for supporting decision making. This study applies a suite of data [...] Read more.
A growing number of physical objects with embedded sensors with typically high volume and frequently updated data sets has accentuated the need to develop methodologies to extract useful information from big data for supporting decision making. This study applies a suite of data analytics and core principles of data science to characterize near real-time meteorological data with a focus on extreme weather events. To highlight the applicability of this work and make it more accessible from a risk management perspective, a foundation for a software platform with an intuitive Graphical User Interface (GUI) was developed to access and analyze data from a decommissioned nuclear production complex operated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE, Richland, USA). Exploratory data analysis (EDA), involving classical non-parametric statistics, and machine learning (ML) techniques, were used to develop statistical summaries and learn characteristic features of key weather patterns and signatures. The new approach and GUI provide key insights into using big data and ML to assist site operation related to safety management strategies for extreme weather events. Specifically, this work offers a practical guide to analyzing long-term meteorological data and highlights the integration of ML and classical statistics to applied risk and decision science. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Machine Learning for Extreme Events)
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Article
Evaluating the Degradation of Natural Resources in the Mediterranean Environment Using the Water and Land Resources Degradation Index, the Case of Crete Island
Atmosphere 2022, 13(1), 135; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos13010135 - 14 Jan 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 765
Abstract
Natural resources degradation poses multiple challenges particularly to environmental and economic processes. It is usually difficult to identify the degree of degradation and the critical vulnerability values in the affected systems. Thus, among other tools, indices (composite indicators) may also describe these complex [...] Read more.
Natural resources degradation poses multiple challenges particularly to environmental and economic processes. It is usually difficult to identify the degree of degradation and the critical vulnerability values in the affected systems. Thus, among other tools, indices (composite indicators) may also describe these complex systems or phenomena. In this approach, the Water and Land Resources Degradation Index was applied to the fifth largest Mediterranean island, Crete, for the 1999–2014 period. The Water and Land Resources Degradation Index uses 11 water and soil resources related indicators: Aridity Index, Water Demand, Drought Impacts, Drought Resistance Water Resources Infrastructure, Land Use Intensity, Soil Parent Material, Plant Cover, Rainfall, Slope, and Soil Texture. The aim is to identify the sensitive areas to degradation due to anthropogenic interventions and natural processes, as well as their vulnerability status. The results for Crete Island indicate that prolonged water resources shortages due to low average precipitation values or high water demand (especially in the agricultural sector), may significantly affect Water and Land degradation processes. Hence, Water and Land Resources Degradation Index could serve as an extra tool to assist policymakers to improve their decisions to combat Natural Resources degradation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Agrometeorology)
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Article
Research on the Growth Mechanism of PM2.5 in Central and Eastern China during Autumn and Winter from 2013–2020
Atmosphere 2022, 13(1), 134; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos13010134 - 14 Jan 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 540
Abstract
Haze is a majorly disastrous type of weather in China, especially central and eastern of China. The development of haze is mainly caused by highly concentrated fine particles (PM2.5) on a regional scale. Here, we present the results from an autumn [...] Read more.
Haze is a majorly disastrous type of weather in China, especially central and eastern of China. The development of haze is mainly caused by highly concentrated fine particles (PM2.5) on a regional scale. Here, we present the results from an autumn and winter study conducted from 2013 to 2020 in seven highly polluted areas (27 representative stations) in central and eastern China to analyze the growth mechanism of PM2.5. At the same time, taking Beijing Station as an example, the characteristics of aerosol composition and particle size in the growth phase are analyzed. Taking into account the regional and inter-annual differences of fine particles (PM2.5) distribution, the local average PM2.5 growth value of the year is used as the boundary value for dividing slow, rapid, and explosive growth (only focuses on the hourly growth rate greater than 0). The average value of PM2.5 in the autumn and winter of each regional representative station shows a decreasing trend as a whole, especially after 2017, whereby the decreasing trend was significant. The distribution value of +ΔPM2.5 (PM2.5 hourly growth rate) in the north of the Huai River is lower than that in the south of the Huai River, and both of the +ΔPM2.5 after 2017 showed a significant decreasing trend. The average PM2.5 threshold before the explosive growth is 70.8 µg m−3, and the threshold that is extremely prone to explosive growth is 156 µg m−3 to 277 µg m−3 in north of the Huai River. For the area south of the Huai River, the threshold for PM2.5 explosive growth is relatively low, as a more stringent threshold also puts forward stricter requirements on atmospheric environmental governance. For example, in Beijing, the peak diameters gradually shift to larger sizes when the growth rate increases. The number concentration increasing mainly distributed in Aitken mode (AIM) and Accumulation mode (ACM) during explosive growth. Among the various components of submicron particulate matter (PM1), organic aerosol (OA), especially primary OA (POA), have become one of the most critical components for the PM2.5 explosive growth in Beijing. During the growth period, the contribution of secondary particulate matter (SPM) to the accumulated pollutants is significantly higher than that of primary particulate matter (PPM). However, the proportion of SPM gradually decreases when the growth rate increases. The contribution of the PPM can reach 48% in explosive growth. Compared to slow and rapid growth, explosive growth mainly occurs in the stable atmosphere of higher humidity, lower pressure, lower temperature, small winds, and low mixed layers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Air Pollution in China)
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Article
Triggering Mechanism of Extreme Wind over the Complex Mountain Area in Dali Region on the Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau, China
Atmosphere 2022, 13(1), 133; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos13010133 - 14 Jan 2022
Viewed by 436
Abstract
Wind disasters are responsible for significant physical destruction, injury, loss of life, and economic damage. This study examined the extreme wind triggering mechanism over a typical mountain area with complex terrain, i.e., Dali city in Yunnan Province on the Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau in China. [...] Read more.
Wind disasters are responsible for significant physical destruction, injury, loss of life, and economic damage. This study examined the extreme wind triggering mechanism over a typical mountain area with complex terrain, i.e., Dali city in Yunnan Province on the Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau in China. Using the observation data, we first optimized the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model configuration and parametrization schemes for better simulating the wind in this area using a 1-month simulation. Then, the triggering mechanism of extreme wind was investigated by performing a series of sensitive experiments based on a typical extreme wind case. The results indicate that terrain uplift is critical for triggering the local 8–9-scale (the wind velocity between 17.2 and 24.4 m/s) extreme winds over high topography regions. When a large-scale atmospheric circulation is passing, accompanied with regional terrain lifting, the instantaneous wind velocity can reach 9- to 10-scale (the mean wind velocity between 20.8 and 28.4 m/s), causing broken power lines. These results suggest that it is essential to avoid sites where these factors can affect the operation of power transmission lines, or to establish warning systems in the existing systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Meteorology)
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Article
A Comparison Study of EDR Estimates from the NLR and NCAR Algorithms
Atmosphere 2022, 13(1), 132; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos13010132 - 14 Jan 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 560
Abstract
A comparison was made of two eddy dissipation rate (EDR) estimates based on flight data recorded by commercial flights. The EDR estimates from real-time data using the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Algorithm were compared with the EDR estimates derived using the [...] Read more.
A comparison was made of two eddy dissipation rate (EDR) estimates based on flight data recorded by commercial flights. The EDR estimates from real-time data using the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Algorithm were compared with the EDR estimates derived using the Netherlands Aerospace Centre (NLR) Algorithm using quick assess recorder (QAR) data. The estimates were found to be in good agreement in general, although subtle differences were found. The agreement between the two algorithms was better when the flight was above 10,000 ft. The EDR estimates from the two algorithms were also compared with the vertical acceleration experienced by the aircraft. Both EDR estimates showed good correlation with the vertical acceleration and would effectively capture the turbulence subjectively experienced by pilots. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Low Level Windshear and Turbulence for Aviation Safety)
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Article
Precipitation Variability and Probabilities of Extreme Events in the Eastern Mediterranean Region (Latakia Governorate-Syria as a Case Study)
Atmosphere 2022, 13(1), 131; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos13010131 - 14 Jan 2022
Viewed by 598
Abstract
This study aimed at analysis of the general-index change for the mean annual and seasonal precipitation in six stations in Latakia Governorate (Syria). The data of precipitation were collected for 40 consecutive years (1970–2010) in order to figure out the extent of the [...] Read more.
This study aimed at analysis of the general-index change for the mean annual and seasonal precipitation in six stations in Latakia Governorate (Syria). The data of precipitation were collected for 40 consecutive years (1970–2010) in order to figure out the extent of the changes and variability in precipitation rates and the impact of this change on changes in the potential density that might cause extremely high or low precipitation rates according to Gumbel distribution of the extreme precipitation rates. Results revealed a decrease of the annual precipitation rates in all stations, the reduction in precipitation ranged from 46 to 210 mm during the whole period of the study. Spring, however, recorded the highest and statistically significant reduction, which reached 46–210 mm, while winter precipitation increased by 21–82 mm. Spring also has witnessed a decrease of about 3–9% of the total annual precipitation as compared to winter precipitation which increased by 5–8% of the total. The potential density of extremely high winter precipitation rates increased in all stations as indicated from Gumbel distribution in winter, and a greater increase took place in the probabilities of occurrence of the extremely low spring precipitation rates. This shows significant probability of occurrence of drought during spring season. By contrast, probabilities of winter precipitation rates increased more, thus winter is relatively more humid than before and spring is relatively drier than before. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Student-Led Research in Atmospheric Science)
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Article
Relationships between the Southwest Monsoon Surge and the Heavy Rainfall Associated with Landfalling Super Typhoon Rammasun
Atmosphere 2022, 13(1), 130; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos13010130 - 14 Jan 2022
Viewed by 591
Abstract
Based on the China Meteorological Administration (CMA) best-track data, the ERA5 reanalysis, and the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) precipitation data, this paper analyzes the reasons for the heavy rainfall event of Super Typhoon Rammasun in 2014, and the results are as follows: (1) [...] Read more.
Based on the China Meteorological Administration (CMA) best-track data, the ERA5 reanalysis, and the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) precipitation data, this paper analyzes the reasons for the heavy rainfall event of Super Typhoon Rammasun in 2014, and the results are as follows: (1) Rammasun was blocked by the western Pacific subtropical high (WPSH), the continental high, and the mid-latitude westerly trough. Such a stable circulation pattern maintained the vortex circulation of Rammasun. (2) During the period of landfall, the southwest summer monsoon surge was reinforced due to the dramatic increase of the zonal wind and the cross-equatorial flow near 108° E. The results of the dynamic monsoon surge index (DMSI) and boundary water vapor budget (BWVB) show that the monsoon surge kept providing abundant water vapor for Rammasun, which led to the enhanced rainfall. (3) The East Asian monsoon manifested an obvious low-frequency oscillation with a main period of 20–40 days in the summer of 2014, which propagated northward significantly. When the low-frequency oscillation reached the extremely active phase, the monsoon surge hit the maximum and influenced the circulation of Rammasun. Meanwhile, the convergence and water vapor flux associated with the low-frequency oscillation significantly contributed to the heavy rainfall. Full article
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Article
Effects of Rainfall on the Characteristics of Soil Greenhouse Gas Emissions in the Wetland of Qinghai Lake
Atmosphere 2022, 13(1), 129; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos13010129 - 13 Jan 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 574
Abstract
Niaodao, a lakeside wetland, was used as the focus of this study to investigate the effect of rainfall changes on the greenhouse gas fluxes of wetland ecosystems. Wetland plots with different moisture characteristics (+25%, −25%, +75%, and −75% rainfall treatments and the control [...] Read more.
Niaodao, a lakeside wetland, was used as the focus of this study to investigate the effect of rainfall changes on the greenhouse gas fluxes of wetland ecosystems. Wetland plots with different moisture characteristics (+25%, −25%, +75%, and −75% rainfall treatments and the control treatment (CK)) were constructed to observe in situ field greenhouse gas emissions at 11:00 and 15:00 (when the daily mean values were similar) in the growing season from May to August 2020 by static chamber–gas chromatography and to investigate the responses of wetland greenhouse gases to different rainfall treatments. The results showed the following: (1) The carbon dioxide (CO2) flux ranged from −49.409 to 374.548 mg·m−2·h−1. The mean CO2 emission flux was greater at 11:00 than at 15:00, and the +25% and +75% treatments exhibited substantially higher CO2 emissions. In addition, the CO2 flux showed a small peak at the beginning of the growing season when the temperature first started to rise. All treatments showed the effect of the CO2 source, and their effects were significantly different. (2) The methane (CH4) flux ranged from −213.839 to 330.976 µg·m−2·h−1 and exhibited an absorption state at 11:00 and an emission state at 15:00. The CH4 emission flux in August (the peak growing season) differed greatly between treatments and was significantly negatively correlated with the rainfall amount (p < 0.05). (3) The nitrous oxide (N2O) flux ranged from −10.457 to 16.878 µg·m−2·h−1 and exhibited a weak source effect throughout the growing season, but it was not significantly correlated with soil moisture; it was, however, negatively correlated with soil temperature. (4) The different treatments resulted in significant differences in soil physical and chemical properties (electrical conductivity, pH, total soil carbon, and total soil nitrogen). The rainfall enhancement treatments significantly improved soil physical and chemical properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Climatology)
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Article
Substance Flow Analysis of Zinc in Two Preheater–Precalciner Cement Plants and the Associated Atmospheric Emissions
Atmosphere 2022, 13(1), 128; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos13010128 - 13 Jan 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1060
Abstract
Atmospheric emission of heavy metals from different anthropogenic sources is a great concern to human beings due to their toxicities. In order to disclose the emission levels and the distribution patterns of zinc (Zn) in the modern cement industry with respect to its [...] Read more.
Atmospheric emission of heavy metals from different anthropogenic sources is a great concern to human beings due to their toxicities. In order to disclose the emission levels and the distribution patterns of zinc (Zn) in the modern cement industry with respect to its low boiling point (~900 °C) comparing to the high-temperature (1450 °C) clinker production process, solid samples representing the input and output flow of Zn during the entire production process in two preheater–precalciner cement plants (CPs) were collected and analyzed. For the first time, it was found that the behaviour of Zn inside different precalciner CPs was similar despite a huge difference in the Zn inputs to the CPs; namely, almost all the Zn input was output in clinker, which was then mixed with different additives and retarder to make cement products. The high-temperature clinkerisation process would incorporate Zn into the aluminosilicate of clinker. As a result, there was no enrichment of Zn during clinker production and the atmospheric emission factor was relatively low at 0.002%, or 1.28–9.39 mg Zn·t−1 clinker. Our result for the atmospheric Zn emissions from CPs was much lower than most previous reports, implying the CPs were not a crucial Zn emission source. However, the higher load of Zn in some raw/alternative materials—like nonferrous smelting slag with a Zn content of ~2%—could greatly increase the content of Zn in clinker and cement products. Therefore, further investigation on the environmental stability of Zn in such Zn-laden cement and concrete should be carried out. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Atmospheric Metal Pollution Vol.2)
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Article
Combining vLAPS and Nudging Data Assimilation
Atmosphere 2022, 13(1), 127; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos13010127 - 13 Jan 2022
Viewed by 458
Abstract
The combination of techniques that incorporate observational data may improve numerical weather prediction forecasts; thus, in this study, the methodology and potential value of one such combination were investigated. A series of experiments on a single case day was used to explore a [...] Read more.
The combination of techniques that incorporate observational data may improve numerical weather prediction forecasts; thus, in this study, the methodology and potential value of one such combination were investigated. A series of experiments on a single case day was used to explore a 3DVAR-based technique (the variational version of the Local Analysis and Prediction System; vLAPS) in combination with Newtonian relaxation (observation and analysis nudging) for simulating moist convection in the Advanced Research version of the Weather Research and Forecasting model. Experiments were carried out with various combinations of vLAPS and nudging for a series of forecast start times. A limited subjective analysis of reflectivity suggested all experiments generally performed similarly in reproducing the overall convective structures. Objective verification indicated that applying vLAPS analyses without nudging performs best during the 0–2 h forecast in terms of placement of moist convection but worst in the 3–5 h forecast and quickly develops the most substantial overforecast bias. The analyses used for analysis nudging were at much finer temporal and spatial scales than usually used in pre-forecast analysis nudging, and the results suggest that further research is needed on how to best apply analysis nudging of analyses at these scales. Full article
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Article
The Use of Composite GOES-R Satellite Imagery to Evaluate a TC Intensity and Vortex Structure Forecast by an FV3GFS-Based Hurricane Forecast Model
Atmosphere 2022, 13(1), 126; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos13010126 - 13 Jan 2022
Viewed by 763
Abstract
The HAFS model is an effort under the NGGPS and UFS initiatives to create the next generation of hurricane prediction and analysis system based on FV3-GFS. It has been validated extensively using traditional verification indicators such as tracker error and biases, intensity error [...] Read more.
The HAFS model is an effort under the NGGPS and UFS initiatives to create the next generation of hurricane prediction and analysis system based on FV3-GFS. It has been validated extensively using traditional verification indicators such as tracker error and biases, intensity error and biases, and the radii of gale, damaging and hurricane strength winds. While satellite images have been used to verify hurricane model forecasts, they have not been used on HAFS. The community radiative transfer model CRTM is used to generate model synthetic satellite images from HAFS model forecast state variables. The 24 forecast snapshots in the mature stage of hurricane Dorian in 2019 are used to generate a composite model synthetic GOES-R infrared brightness image. The composite synthetic image is compared to the corresponding composite image generated from the observed GOES-R data, to evaluate the model forecast TC vortex intensity, size, and asymmetric structure. Results show that the HAFS forecast TC Dorian agrees reasonably well with the observation, but the forecast intensity is weaker, its overall vortex size smaller, and the radii of its eye and maximum winds larger than the observed. The evaluation results can be used to further improve the model. While these results are consistent with those obtained by traditional verification methods, evaluations based on composite satellite images provide an additional benefit with richer information because they have near-real-times spatially and temporally continuous high-resolution data with global coverage. Composite satellite infrared images could be used routinely to supplement traditional verification methods in the HAFS and other hurricane model evaluations. Note since this study only evaluated one hurricane, the above conclusions are only applicable to the model behavior of the mature stage of hurricane Dorian in 2019, and caution is needed to extend these conclusions to expect model biases in predicting other TCs. Nevertheless, the consistency between the evaluation using composite satellite images and the traditional metrics, of hurricane Dorian, shows that this method has the potential to be applied to other storms in future studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tropical Cyclones: Observation and Prediction)
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Article
Relationships between Vertical Temperature Gradients and PM10 Concentrations during Selected Weather Conditions in Upper Silesia (Southern Poland)
Atmosphere 2022, 13(1), 125; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos13010125 - 13 Jan 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 518
Abstract
This paper studies surface air temperature inversions and their impact on air pollution under the background of meteorological conditions in southern Poland. The relationship of temperature gradients and air quality classes with weather conditions in the most urbanized and polluted part of Poland [...] Read more.
This paper studies surface air temperature inversions and their impact on air pollution under the background of meteorological conditions in southern Poland. The relationship of temperature gradients and air quality classes with weather conditions in the most urbanized and polluted part of Poland as represented by the Upper Silesia region (USR) within the administrative boundaries of the Górnośląsko-Zagłębiowska Metropolis (GZM) is presented. Based on probability analysis this study hierarchized the role of the selected weather elements in the development of surface-based temperature inversion (SBI) and air quality (AQ). The thresholds of weather elements for a rapid increase in the probability of oppressive air pollution episodes were distinguished. Although most SBI occurred in summer winter SBIs were of great importance. In that season a bad air quality occurred during >70% of strong inversions and >50% of moderate inversions. Air temperature more strongly triggered AQ than SBI development. Wind speed was critical for SBI and significant for AQ development. A low cloudiness favored SBI occurrence altered air quality in winter and spring during SBI and favored very bad AQ5 (>180 µg/m3) occurrence. The probability of high air pollution enhanced by SBI rapidly increased in winter when the air temperature dropped below −6 °C the wind speed decreased below 1.5 m/s and the sky was cloudless. Changes in the relative humidity did not induce rapid changes in the occurrence of bad AQ events during SBI Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Air Quality in Poland)
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Article
In-Depth Analysis of Physicochemical Properties of Particulate Matter (PM10, PM2.5 and PM1) and Its Characterization through FTIR, XRD and SEM–EDX Techniques in the Foothills of the Hindu Kush Region of Northern Pakistan
Atmosphere 2022, 13(1), 124; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos13010124 - 13 Jan 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 836
Abstract
The current study investigates the variation and physicochemical properties of ambient particulate matter (PM) in the very important location which lies in the foothills of the Hindu Kush ranges in northern Pakistan. This work investigates the mass concentration, mineral content, elemental composition and [...] Read more.
The current study investigates the variation and physicochemical properties of ambient particulate matter (PM) in the very important location which lies in the foothills of the Hindu Kush ranges in northern Pakistan. This work investigates the mass concentration, mineral content, elemental composition and morphology of PM in three size fractions, i.e., PM1, PM2.5 and PM10, during the year of 2019. The collected samples were characterized by microscopic and spectroscopic techniques like Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled with energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy. During the study period, the average temperature, relative humidity, rainfall and wind speed were found to be 17.9 °C, 65.83%, 73.75 mm and 0.23 m/s, respectively. The results showed that the 24 h average mass concentration of PM10, PM2.5 and PM1 were 64 µgm−3, 43.9 µgm−3 and 22.4 µgm−3, respectively. The 24 h concentration of both PM10 and PM2.5 were 1.42 and 2.92 times greater, respectively, than the WHO limits. This study confirms the presence of minerals such as wollastonite, ammonium sulphate, wustite, illite, kaolinite, augite, crocidolite, calcite, calcium aluminosilicate, hematite, copper sulphate, dolomite, quartz, vaterite, calcium iron oxide, muscovite, gypsum and vermiculite. On the basis of FESEM-EDX analysis, 14 elements (O, C, Al, Si, Mg, Na, K, Ca, Fe, N, Mo, B, S and Cl) and six groups of PM (carbonaceous (45%), sulfate (13%), bioaerosols (8%), aluminosilicates (19%), quartz (10%) and nitrate (3%)) were identified. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Aerosols)
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Article
Air Pollution Role as Risk Factor of Cardioinhibitory Carotid Hypersensitivity
Atmosphere 2022, 13(1), 123; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos13010123 - 12 Jan 2022
Viewed by 484
Abstract
Little is known about the impact of air pollution on neuroautonomic system. The authors have investigated possible influence of air pollution and outdoor temperature on the carotid sinus hypersensitivity (CSH), as main cause of neurally mediated syncope in forty-years-old subjects and older. Pollutants’ [...] Read more.
Little is known about the impact of air pollution on neuroautonomic system. The authors have investigated possible influence of air pollution and outdoor temperature on the carotid sinus hypersensitivity (CSH), as main cause of neurally mediated syncope in forty-years-old subjects and older. Pollutants’ concentrations and outdoor temperature of days in which 179 subjects with recurrent syncope underwent carotid sinus massage (CSM) were analyzed. Before this manoeuvre, cardiovascular control by short period heart and blood pressure spectral duration of segment between the end of P and R ECG-waves (PeR) were registred; RR variability on the same short period ECG recordings and their spectral coherence were also analyzed. CSH was found in 57 patients (28 with cardioinhibitory response and 29 subjects showed vasodepressor reaction), while 122 subjects had a normal response. CSM performed during high ozone concentrations was associated with slightly higher risk of cardioinhibitory response (odd ratio 1.012, 95% CI 1.001–1.023, p < 0.05), but neither this or other polluting agent nor outdoor temperature seemed to influence autonomic control in basal resting condition. Thus, ozone seemed to influence response to the CSM in CSH patients and it is probably able to facilitate a cardioinhibitory response, perhaps through an increase of nerve acetylcholine release. P→PR coherence could be useful in predicting a sinus cardioinhibitory hypersensitivity in those cases when CSM is contraindicated. Full article
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Article
Rapid Diagnosis of Nitrogen Nutrition Status in Summer Maize over Its Life Cycle by a Multi-Index Synergy Model Using Ground Hyperspectral and UAV Multispectral Sensor Data
Atmosphere 2022, 13(1), 122; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos13010122 - 12 Jan 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 642
Abstract
Global climate change and the spread of COVID-19 have caused widespread concerns about food security. The development of smart agriculture could contribute to food security; moreover, the targeted and accurate management of crop nitrogen is a topic of concern in the field of [...] Read more.
Global climate change and the spread of COVID-19 have caused widespread concerns about food security. The development of smart agriculture could contribute to food security; moreover, the targeted and accurate management of crop nitrogen is a topic of concern in the field of smart agriculture. Unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) spectroscopy has demonstrated versatility in the rapid and non-destructive estimation of nitrogen in summer maize. Previous studies focused on the entire growth season or early stages of summer maize; however, systematic studies on the diagnosis of nitrogen that consider the entire life cycle are few. This study aimed to: (1) construct a practical diagnostic model of the nitrogen life cycle of summer maize based on ground hyperspectral data and UAV multispectral sensor data and (2) evaluate this model and express a change in the trend of nitrogen nutrient status at a spatiotemporal scale. Here, a comprehensive data set consisting of a time series of crop biomass, nitrogen concentration, hyperspectral reflectance, and UAV multispectral reflectance from field experiments conducted during the growing seasons of 2017–2019 with summer maize cultivars grown under five different nitrogen fertilization levels in Beijing, China, were considered. The results demonstrated that the entire life cycle of summer maize was divided into four stages, viz., V6 (mean leaf area index (LAI) = 0.67), V10 (mean LAI = 1.94), V12 (mean LAI = 3.61), and VT-R6 (mean LAI = 3.94), respectively; moreover, the multi-index synergy model demonstrated high accuracy and good stability. The best spectral indexes of these four stages were GBNDVI, TCARI, NRI, and MSAVI2, respectively. The thresholds of the spectral index of nitrogen sufficiency in the V6, V10, V12, VT, R1, R2, and R3–R6 stages were 0.83–0.44, −0.22 to −5.23, 0.42–0.35, 0.69–0.87, 0.60–0.75, 0.49–0.61, and 0.42–0.53, respectively. The simulated nitrogen concentration at the various growth stages of summer maize was consistent with the actual spatial distribution. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biosphere/Hydrosphere/Land–Atmosphere Interactions)
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Review
Reduction of NOx Emission from the Cement Industry in South Korea: A Review
Atmosphere 2022, 13(1), 121; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos13010121 - 12 Jan 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 892
Abstract
As climates change around the world, concern regarding environmental pollutants emitted into the atmosphere is increasing. The cement industry consistently produces more than 4000 million metric tons of cement per year. However, the problem of air pollutants being emitted from the calcination process [...] Read more.
As climates change around the world, concern regarding environmental pollutants emitted into the atmosphere is increasing. The cement industry consistently produces more than 4000 million metric tons of cement per year. However, the problem of air pollutants being emitted from the calcination process is becoming more critical because their amount increases proportionally with cement production. Each country has established regulatory standards for pollutant emission. Accordingly, the cement industry is equipped with facilities to reduce air pollutants, one of which is the NOx removal process. NOx reduction processes under combustion conditions are modified to minimize NOx generation, and the generated NOx is removed through post-treatment. In terms of NOx removal efficiency, the post-treatment process effectively changes the combustion conditions during calcination. Selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) processes are post-treatment environmental facilities for NOx reduction. Accordingly, considering the stringent NOx emission standards in the cement industry, SNCR is essential, and SCR is selectively applied. Therefore, this paper introduces nitrogen oxide among air pollutants emitted from the South Korean cement industry and summarizes the technologies adapted to mitigate the emission of NOx by cement companies in South Korea. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Air Quality and Public Health Effects in Korea)
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Article
Spatio-Temporal Characteristics and Variation Pattern of the Atmospheric Particulate Matter Concentration: A Case Study of the Beijing–Tianjin–Hebei Region, China
Atmosphere 2022, 13(1), 120; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos13010120 - 12 Jan 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 667
Abstract
Based on measurement data from air quality monitoring stations, the spatio-temporal characteristics of the concentrations of particles with aerodynamic equivalent diameters smaller than 2.5 and 10 μm (PM2.5 and PM10, respectively) in the Beijing–Tianjin–Hebei (BTH) region from 2015 to 2018 [...] Read more.
Based on measurement data from air quality monitoring stations, the spatio-temporal characteristics of the concentrations of particles with aerodynamic equivalent diameters smaller than 2.5 and 10 μm (PM2.5 and PM10, respectively) in the Beijing–Tianjin–Hebei (BTH) region from 2015 to 2018 were analysed at yearly, seasonal, monthly, daily and hourly scales. The results indicated that (1) from 2015 to 2018, the annual average values of PM2.5 and PM10 concentrations and the PM2.5/PM10 ratio in the study area decreased each year; (2) the particulate matter (PM) concentration in winter was significantly higher than that in summer, and the PM2.5/PM10 ratio was highest in winter and lowest in spring; (3) the PM2.5 and PM10 concentrations exhibited a pattern of double peaks and valleys throughout the day, reaching peak values at night and in the morning and valleys in the morning and afternoon; and (4) with the use of an improved sine function to simulate the change trend of the monthly mean PM concentration, the fitting R2 values for PM2.5 and PM10 in the whole study area were 0.74 and 0.58, respectively. Moreover, the high-value duration was shorter, the low-value duration was longer, and the concentration decrease rate was slower than the increase rate. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Air Quality Management)
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Article
Can Industrial Restructuring Improve Urban Air Quality?—A Quasi-Experiment in Beijing during the COVID-19 Pandemic
Atmosphere 2022, 13(1), 119; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos13010119 - 12 Jan 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 628
Abstract
The conflict between economic growth and environmental pollution has become a considerable bottleneck to future development throughout the world. The industrial structure may become the possible key factor in resolving the contradiction. Using the daily data of air quality from January to April [...] Read more.
The conflict between economic growth and environmental pollution has become a considerable bottleneck to future development throughout the world. The industrial structure may become the possible key factor in resolving the contradiction. Using the daily data of air quality from January to April in 2019 and 2020, we used the DID model to identify the effects of industrial structure on air quality by taking the COVID-19 pandemic as a quasi-experiment. The results show that, first, the impact of profit of the secondary industry on air quality is ten times higher than that of the tertiary industry. Therefore, the secondary industry is the main factor causing air pollution. Second, the effect of the reduction in the secondary industry on the improvement of air quality is better than that of the tertiary industry in Beijing. Therefore, the implementation of Beijing’s non-capital function relief policy is timely and reasonable, and the adjustment of the industrial structure is effective in the improvement of air quality. Third, PM2.5, NO2, and CO are affected by the secondary and tertiary industries, where PM2.5 is affected most seriously by the second industry. Therefore, the transformation from the secondary industry to the tertiary industry can not only solve the problem of unemployment but also relieve the haze. Fourth, the result of O3 is in opposition to other pollutants. The probable reason is that the decrease of PM2.5 would lead to an increase in the O3 concentration. Therefore, it is difficult to reduce O3 concentrationby production limitation and it is urgent to formulate scientific methods to deal with O3 pollution. Fifth, the air quality in the surrounding areas can also influence Beijing. As Hebei is a key area to undertake Beijing’s industry, the deterioration of its air quality would also bring pressure to Beijing’s atmospheric environment. Therefore, in the process of industrial adjustment, the selection of appropriate regions for undertaking industries is very essential, which is worth our further discussion. Full article
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