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Nutrients, Volume 14, Issue 24 (December-2 2022) – 208 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Plant-based diets (PBDs) are becoming increasingly popular. Thus far, the literature has focused on their association with lipid profiles, with less investigation of lipoprotein and inflammatory profiles. Because pro-atherogenic lipid, lipoprotein, and inflammatory processes may facilitate the development of atherosclerosis, understanding the relation between PBDs and these processes is important to inform risk mitigation strategies. Therefore, the objective of this paper was to review the literature on PBDs and lipid, lipoprotein, and inflammatory biomarkers of cardiovascular disease (CVD). View this paper
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Article
Maternal Gliadin Intake Reduces Oocyte Quality with Chromosomal Aberrations and Increases Embryonic Lethality through Oxidative Stress in a Caenorhabditis elegans Model
Nutrients 2022, 14(24), 5403; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14245403 - 19 Dec 2022
Viewed by 916
Abstract
Oocyte quality is essential for reproductive capacity, but it rapidly declines with age. In addition to aging, maternal nutrition is a major concern in maintaining oocyte quality. Gliadin, a major component of gluten, causes gluten toxicity, which has been reported in a variety [...] Read more.
Oocyte quality is essential for reproductive capacity, but it rapidly declines with age. In addition to aging, maternal nutrition is a major concern in maintaining oocyte quality. Gliadin, a major component of gluten, causes gluten toxicity, which has been reported in a variety of gluten-related disorders. The basis of gluten toxicity in reproduction is being understood using simple animal models such as Caenorhabditis elegans. In this study, we examined the effects of gliadin peptide (GP; amino acids 151–170) intake on oocyte quality control in C. elegans. We found that GP intake impaired oocyte quality through chromosomal aberrations and mitochondrial oxidative stress, which was suppressed by antioxidant treatment. The reduced oocyte quality by GP intake consequently increased embryonic lethality. Furthermore, the expression of oxidative stress-responding genes prdx-3 and gst-4 was significantly increased by GP intake. The increased DAF-16 activity by GP intake suggests that DAF-16 is a possible transactivator of these antioxidant genes. Taken together, GP intake reduced reproductive capacity in C. elegans by decreasing oocyte quality and increasing embryonic lethality through mitochondrial oxidative stress. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Supplements during Pregnancy)
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Article
Role of Zerumbone, a Phytochemical Sesquiterpenoid from Zingiber zerumbet Smith, in Maintaining Macrophage Polarization and Redox Homeostasis
Nutrients 2022, 14(24), 5402; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14245402 - 19 Dec 2022
Viewed by 872
Abstract
Macrophages and microglia are highly versatile cells that can be polarized into M1 and M2 phenotypes in response to diverse environmental stimuli, thus exhibiting different biological functions. In the central nervous system, activated resident macrophages and microglial cells trigger the production of proinflammatory [...] Read more.
Macrophages and microglia are highly versatile cells that can be polarized into M1 and M2 phenotypes in response to diverse environmental stimuli, thus exhibiting different biological functions. In the central nervous system, activated resident macrophages and microglial cells trigger the production of proinflammatory mediators that contribute to neurodegenerative diseases and psychiatric disorders. Therefore, modulating the activation of macrophages and microglia by optimizing the inflammatory environment is beneficial for disease management. Several naturally occurring compounds have been reported to have anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective properties. Zerumbone is a phytochemical sesquiterpenoid and also a cyclic ketone isolated from Zingiber zerumbet Smith. In this study, we found that zerumbone effectively reduced the expression of lipocalin-2 in macrophages and microglial cell lines. Lipocalin-2, also known as neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), has been characterized as an adipokine/cytokine implicated in inflammation. Moreover, supplement with zerumbone inhibited reactive oxygen species production. Phagocytic activity was decreased following the zerumbone supplement. In addition, the zerumbone supplement remarkably reduced the production of M1-polarization-associated chemokines CXC10 and CCL-2, as well as M1-polarization-associated cytokines interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1β, and tumor necrosis factor-α. Furthermore, the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 and the production of NO were attenuated in macrophages and microglial cells supplemented with zerumbone. Notably, we discovered that zerumbone effectively promoted the production of the endogenous antioxidants heme oxygenase-1, glutamate–cysteine ligase modifier subunit, glutamate–cysteine ligase catalytic subunit, and NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase-1 and remarkably enhanced IL-10, a marker of M2 macrophage polarization. Endogenous antioxidant production and M2 macrophage polarization were increased through activation of the AMPK/Akt and Akt/GSK3 signaling pathways. In summary, this study demonstrated the protective role of zerumbone in maintaining M1 and M2 polarization homeostasis by decreasing inflammatory responses and enhancing the production of endogenous antioxidants in both macrophages and microglia cells. This study suggests that zerumbone can be used as a potential therapeutic drug for the supplement of neuroinflammatory diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phytochemicals and Chronic Diseases Prevention)
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Article
Environmental Factors Determining Body Mass Index (BMI) within 9 Months of Therapy Post Bariatric Surgery—Sleeve Gastrectomy (SG)
Nutrients 2022, 14(24), 5401; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14245401 - 19 Dec 2022
Viewed by 5811
Abstract
Treatment of obesity should be multidirectional and include, in addition to bariatric surgery, changing the key factors of lifestyle and eating habits. The study aimed to assess the impact of bariatric surgery and dietary care on anthropometric measurements, blood pressure, changes in lifestyle, [...] Read more.
Treatment of obesity should be multidirectional and include, in addition to bariatric surgery, changing the key factors of lifestyle and eating habits. The study aimed to assess the impact of bariatric surgery and dietary care on anthropometric measurements, blood pressure, changes in lifestyle, and eating habits of patients within 9 months after the procedure, with the selection of environmental factors determining BMI variation. The study included 30 SG patients before surgery (month zero) and at 1, 3, 6, and 9 months after SG. Patients completed a questionnaire regarding age, sex, place of residence, education, professional activity, number of family members, financial situation, family history of obesity, previous forms of therapy, self-assessment of nutritional knowledge, receiving and following nutritional recommendations, eating habits, frequency of body weight control, leisure time. Body weight, height, waist and hip circumference, and systolic and diastolic pressure were measured, and BMI and WHR (Waist to Hip Ratio) were calculated. Within 9 months after the procedure, the patients’ body weight and BMI decreased on average by 26%. Post bariatric surgery, patients changed their eating habits. The influence of bariatric SG surgery and time after surgery was decisive for the normalization of BMI and explained the 33% variation in BMI up to 9 months after the procedure. Other factors important for the normalization of BMI after surgery were: male gender, older age of patients, family obesity (non-modifiable factors), as well as previous forms of therapy related to weight loss before surgery, shortening the intervals between meals and stopping eating at night (modifiable factors). The tested model explained 68% of the BMI variation after SG surgery for all assessed factors. Changes in lifestyle and eating habits in bariatric patients are crucial to maintaining the effect of bariatric surgery. Full article
Article
Dp-ucMGP as a Biomarker in Sarcopenia
Nutrients 2022, 14(24), 5400; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14245400 - 19 Dec 2022
Viewed by 748
Abstract
Sarcopenia is linked with an increased risk of falls, osteoporosis and mortality and is an increasing problem for healthcare systems. No satisfying biomarkers for sarcopenia diagnosis exist, connecting bone, fat and muscle. Matrix-GLA-protein (MGP) is an adipokine that regulates bone metabolism and is [...] Read more.
Sarcopenia is linked with an increased risk of falls, osteoporosis and mortality and is an increasing problem for healthcare systems. No satisfying biomarkers for sarcopenia diagnosis exist, connecting bone, fat and muscle. Matrix-GLA-protein (MGP) is an adipokine that regulates bone metabolism and is associated with decreased muscle strength. Associations of dp-ucMGP were analyzed in the BioPersMed cohort (58 ± 9 years), including 1022 asymptomatic subjects at moderate cardiovascular risk. Serum measurements of dp-ucMGP in 760 persons were performed with the InaKtif MGP Kit with the IDS-iSYS Multi-Discipline Automated System. DXA data (792 persons) measured with the Lunar iDXA system and physical performance data (786 persons) were available. Dp-ucMGP plasma levels correlate with sarcopenia parameters like gait speed (ρ = −0.192, p < 0.001), appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ρ = 0.102, p = 0.005) and appendicular skeletal muscle mass index (ρ = 0.112, p = 0.001). They are lower in persons with sarcopenia (p < 0.001) and higher in persons with reduced physical performance (p = 0.019). Persons in the lowest dp-ucMGP quartile have the highest risk for reduced muscle mass, decreasing with each quartile, whereas persons in the highest quartile have the highest risk of reduced muscle strength. Dp-ucMGP might be a good biomarker candidate in sarcopenia characterization. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sports Nutrition)
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Editorial
Special Issue: Nutraceutical Approaches to Cardiovascular and Metabolic Diseases: Evidence and Opportunities
Nutrients 2022, 14(24), 5399; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14245399 - 19 Dec 2022
Viewed by 682
Abstract
The effective prevention and treatment of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases is a major task for health systems since these pathological conditions are still major causes of mortality, morbidity, and disability worldwide [...] Full article
Article
Combination Treatment of Withalongolide a Triacetate with Cisplatin Induces Apoptosis by Targeting Translational Initiation, Migration, and Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition in Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma
Nutrients 2022, 14(24), 5398; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14245398 - 19 Dec 2022
Viewed by 733
Abstract
Treatment regimens for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) typically include cisplatin and radiotherapy and are limited by toxicities. We have identified naturally derived withalongolide A triacetate (WGA-TA) from Physalis longifolia as a lead compound for targeting HNSCC. We hypothesized that combining [...] Read more.
Treatment regimens for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) typically include cisplatin and radiotherapy and are limited by toxicities. We have identified naturally derived withalongolide A triacetate (WGA-TA) from Physalis longifolia as a lead compound for targeting HNSCC. We hypothesized that combining WGA-TA with cisplatin may allow for lower, less toxic cisplatin doses. HNSCC cell lines were treated with WGA-TA and cisplatin. After treatment with the drugs, the cell viability was determined by MTS assay. The combination index was calculated using CompuSyn. The expression of proteins involved in the targeting of translational initiation complex, epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT), and apoptosis were measured by western blot. Invasion and migration were measured using the Boyden-chamber assay. Treatment of MDA-1986 and UMSCC-22B cell lines with either WGA-TA or cisplatin alone for 72 h resulted in a dose dependent decrease in cell viability. Cisplatin in combination with WGA-TA resulted in significant synergistic cell death starting from 1.25 μM cisplatin. Combination treatment with WGA-TA resulted in lower cisplatin dosing while maintaining the downregulation of translational initiation complex proteins, the induction of apoptosis, and the blockade of migration, invasion, and EMT transition. These results suggest that combining a low concentration of cisplatin with WGA-TA may provide a safer, more effective therapeutic option for HNSCC that warrants translational validation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition and Public Health)
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Article
The Effect of Breast Milk Microbiota on the Composition of Infant Gut Microbiota: A Cohort Study
Nutrients 2022, 14(24), 5397; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14245397 - 19 Dec 2022
Viewed by 930
Abstract
Evidence shows that breast milk microbiota and an infant’s gut microbiota are related. This study aimed to compare the effects of breast milk microbiota on the construction and colonization of gut microbiota in newborns. In this study, 23 healthy infants were selected and [...] Read more.
Evidence shows that breast milk microbiota and an infant’s gut microbiota are related. This study aimed to compare the effects of breast milk microbiota on the construction and colonization of gut microbiota in newborns. In this study, 23 healthy infants were selected and divided into a breastfeeding group (13) and a mixed feeding group (10) based on the feeding method within one month of age. Infant fecal and breast milk samples were collected on the day of birth (0 day) and 30 days after birth (30 days) for 16S rRNA second-generation sequencing and SCFA detection. The results showed that Firmicutes and Actinobacteriota on day 0 and Firmicutes and Proteobacteria on 30 d dominated breast milk gut microbiota. There were correlations between the breast milk microbiota and the infant gut microbiota in each group (p < 0.05). Additionally, breast milk microbiota correlated more significantly with infants’ SCFAs in the breastfeeding group than in the mixed feeding group. This study showed that breast milk microbiota partially influences the construction of infant gut microbiota, with some key strains having a crucial influence, such as Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium, and Enterobacter. However, the effect of breast milk microbiota on infant gut microbiota is not through direct strain transmission but has been indirectly influenced, which may be related to the cross-feeding effect mediated by SCFAs. Full article
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Review
Evaluation of Gluten Exclusion for the Improvement of Rheumatoid Arthritis in Adults
Nutrients 2022, 14(24), 5396; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14245396 - 19 Dec 2022
Viewed by 1098
Abstract
There is currently a growing anti-gluten trend which, except for individuals with coeliac disease and non-coeliac gluten sensitivity (NCGS) for whom its intake is contraindicated, results in gluten (the main protein in wheat and other cereals) being considered harmful to health and excluded [...] Read more.
There is currently a growing anti-gluten trend which, except for individuals with coeliac disease and non-coeliac gluten sensitivity (NCGS) for whom its intake is contraindicated, results in gluten (the main protein in wheat and other cereals) being considered harmful to health and excluded from diets, largely due to information distributed through social networks. However, in many cases the recommendation to exclude gluten from the diet goes beyond personal choice and is promoted by health professionals. This choice and/or recommendation is especially important to individuals with chronic inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA), for which this exclusion is justified to reduce the symptoms of the disease. The aim of this literature review is to assess whether there is scientific evidence to justify the elimination of gluten in patients with RA, neither coeliac nor with NCGS, to improve their symptoms and quality of life. The results of the search on gluten and RA carried out in the Embase database and the extraction of data from 16 articles included in the review are presented. No scientific evidence was found to recommend the exclusion of gluten in patients with RA. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition and Public Health)
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Article
Association between Serum Zinc and Toll-like-Receptor- Related Innate Immunity and Infectious Diseases in Well-Nourished Children with a Low Prevalence of Zinc Deficiency: A Prospective Cohort Study
Nutrients 2022, 14(24), 5395; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14245395 - 19 Dec 2022
Viewed by 717
Abstract
Existing reports focus on zinc-associated immunity and infection in malnourished children; however, whether zinc also plays an important role in the immune homeostasis of the non-zinc-deficient population remained unknown. This study aimed to investigate the association between zinc status and toll-like receptor (TLR)-related [...] Read more.
Existing reports focus on zinc-associated immunity and infection in malnourished children; however, whether zinc also plays an important role in the immune homeostasis of the non-zinc-deficient population remained unknown. This study aimed to investigate the association between zinc status and toll-like receptor (TLR)-related innate immunity and infectious outcome in well-nourished children. A total of 961 blood samples were collected from 1 through 5 years of age. Serum zinc was analyzed, and mononuclear cells isolated to assess TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-10 production by ELISA after stimulation with TLR ligands. Childhood infections were analyzed as binary outcomes with logistic regression. The prevalence of zinc deficiency was 1.4–9.6% throughout the first 5 years. There was significant association between zinc and TLR-stimulated cytokine responses. Higher serum zinc was associated with decreased risk of ever having pneumonia (aOR: 0.94; 95% CI: 0.90, 0.99) at 3 years, and enterocolitis (aOR: 0.96; 95% CI: 0.93, 0.99) at 5 years. Serum zinc was lower in children who have had pneumonia before 3 years of age (72.6 ± 9 vs. 81.9 ± 13 μg/dL), and enterocolitis before 5 years (89.3 ± 12 vs. 95.5 ± 13 μg/dL). We emphasize the importance of maintaining optimal serum zinc in the young population. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feeding Practice and Infant and Young Child Health)
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Article
Naringenin and Quercetin Exert Contradictory Cytoprotective and Cytotoxic Effects on Tamoxifen-Induced Apoptosis in HepG2 Cells
Nutrients 2022, 14(24), 5394; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14245394 - 19 Dec 2022
Viewed by 678
Abstract
Tamoxifen is commonly used to treat estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer and hepatocellular carcinoma. Phytoconstituents are considered candidates for chemopreventive drugs in cancer treatment. However, it remains unknown what would happen if tamoxifen and phytoconstituents were administrated simultaneously. We aimed to observe the synergistic [...] Read more.
Tamoxifen is commonly used to treat estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer and hepatocellular carcinoma. Phytoconstituents are considered candidates for chemopreventive drugs in cancer treatment. However, it remains unknown what would happen if tamoxifen and phytoconstituents were administrated simultaneously. We aimed to observe the synergistic antitumor effects of tamoxifen and naringenin/quercetin on human hepatic carcinoma and to explore the potential underlying molecular mechanisms. The HepG2 cell line was used as an in vitro model. Cell proliferation, invasion, migration, cycle progression and apoptosis were investigated along with reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) repression. The signaling pathways involved were identified using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis. As the results show, tamoxifen in combination with higher concentrations of naringenin or quercetin significantly inhibited cell growth compared to either agent alone. These antiproliferative effects were accompanied by the inhibition of cell migration and invasion but the stimulation of cell apoptosis and loss of ΔΨm, which depended on the ROS-regulated p53 signaling cascades. Conversely, lower concentrations of naringenin and quercetin inhibited the tamoxifen-induced cell antiproliferative effects by regulating cell migration, invasion, cycle and apoptosis. Taken together, our findings revealed that phytoconstituents exerted contradictory cytoprotective and cytotoxic effects induced by tamoxifen in human hepatic cancer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Phytochemicals and Human Health)
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Article
Association of Vasopressors Dose Trajectories with Enteral Nutrition Tolerance in Patients with Shock: A Prospective Observational Study
Nutrients 2022, 14(24), 5393; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14245393 - 19 Dec 2022
Viewed by 748
Abstract
(1) Background: Studies on the long-term patterns of using vasopressors in patients with shock and their correlations with the risk of feeding intolerance (FI) are limited. This study aimed to characterize the norepinephrine equivalent dose (NEQ) trajectories and explore its correlations with FI [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Studies on the long-term patterns of using vasopressors in patients with shock and their correlations with the risk of feeding intolerance (FI) are limited. This study aimed to characterize the norepinephrine equivalent dose (NEQ) trajectories and explore its correlations with FI in patients with shock. (2) Methods: This study prospectively enrolled patients with shock, who received vasopressors from August 2020 to June 2022. The Growth Mixed Model (GMM) was used to traverse longitudinal NEQ data at six-hour intervals and identify the latent trajectories of NEQ use in these patients. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to examine the correlations of NEQ trajectories with FI. (3) Results: This study included a total of 210 patients with shock recruited from August 2020 to June 2022. Four trajectories of NEQ dose were identified and characterized by low-dose stable NEQ (L-NEQ, n = 98), moderate-dose stable NEQ (M-NEQ, n = 74), high-dose stable NEQ (H-NEQ, n = 21), and rapidly rising NEQ (R-NEQ, n = 17), with NEQ doses of 0.2, 0.4, 0.4, and 0.5 µg/kg/min at enteral nutrition (EN) initiation, respectively. The incidences of FI were 37.76%, 67.57%, 80.95%, and 76.47% in the L-NEQ, M-NEQ, H-NEQ, and R-NEQ groups, respectively (p < 0.001). As compared to the L-NEQ group, the risk of FI occurrence increased in the M-NEQ, H-NEQ, and R-NEQ groups (all p < 0.05). (4) Conclusions: The risk of FI was significantly associated with NEQ trajectories. It might be appropriate to initiate EN when the NEQ dose is stabilized below 0.2 µg/kg/min in patients with shock. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Clinical Nutrition)
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Article
Effects of Bifidobacterium with the Ability of 2′-Fucosyllactose Utilization on Intestinal Microecology of Mice
Nutrients 2022, 14(24), 5392; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14245392 - 19 Dec 2022
Viewed by 675
Abstract
In breast milk, 2′-Fucosyllactose (2′FL) is the most abundant breast milk oligosaccharide and can selectively promote the proliferation of bifidobacteria. This study aimed to explore the effect of ifidobacterial with different utilization capacities of 2′FL on the intestinal microecology of mice. Furthermore, the [...] Read more.
In breast milk, 2′-Fucosyllactose (2′FL) is the most abundant breast milk oligosaccharide and can selectively promote the proliferation of bifidobacteria. This study aimed to explore the effect of ifidobacterial with different utilization capacities of 2′FL on the intestinal microecology of mice. Furthermore, the effects of ifidobacterial with different 2′FL utilization capabilities on mice gut microbiota under the competitive pressure of 2′FL as a carbon source were explored. Compared with the control group, 2′FL, Bifidobacterium (B.) bifidum M130R01M51 + 2′FL, B. longum subsp. Longum CCFM752, and CCFM752 + 2′FL treatments significantly decreased the food intake. Moreover, the water intake, body weight, and fecal water content in all groups showed no significant difference compared with the control group. The combination of B. longum subsp. longum CCFM752 and 2′FL can significantly increase the levels of pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory factors. B. bifidum M130R01M51 and mixed strains combined with 2′FL significantly increased the contents of acetic acid and isobutyric acid. The results showed that B. bifidum M130R01M51, B. breve FHuNCS6M1, B. longum subsp. longum CCFM752, and B. longum subsp. infantis SDZC2M4 combined with 2′FL significantly increased the species richness of the gut microbiota. Moreover, B. longum subsp. longum CCFM752 and B. longum subsp. infantis SDZC2M4 significantly increased the abundance of Faecalibaculum and Bifidobacterium, respectively. In conclusion, exploring the impact on intestinal microecology can provide theoretical guidance for the development of personalized prebiotics for different bifidobacteria, which has the potential to improve the ecological imbalance of infant gut microbiota. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Diet–Microbiome Interactions on Chronic Diseases)
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Article
The Difference in the Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome According to Meeting Guidelines for Aerobic Physical Activity and Muscle-Strengthening Exercise: A Cross-Sectional Study Performed Using the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2014–2019
Nutrients 2022, 14(24), 5391; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14245391 - 19 Dec 2022
Viewed by 793
Abstract
Physical activity and muscle strengthening are essential for preventing and managing metabolic syndrome. This study was conducted to investigate the relationship between the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and meeting the guidelines for aerobic physical activity (APA), muscle strengthening exercise (MSE), and combined exercise. [...] Read more.
Physical activity and muscle strengthening are essential for preventing and managing metabolic syndrome. This study was conducted to investigate the relationship between the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and meeting the guidelines for aerobic physical activity (APA), muscle strengthening exercise (MSE), and combined exercise. We used data from 22,467 Koreans aged 40 years or older, who participated in in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2014–2019. We used the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPAQ) to measure physical activity and surveyed frequency of MSE through a questionnaire. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the American heart association and the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. Compared with none exercise group, odds ratios of APA, MSE, and combined exercise group (CEG) on metabolic syndrome prevalence were 0.85 (95% confidence interval (CI), 0.74–0.98), 0.81 (95% CI, 0.67–0.99), and 0.65 (95% CI, 0.54–0.78) among men, respectively. Among women, ORs of APA, MSE, and CEG were 0.83 (95% CI, 0.73–0.93), 0.73 (95% CI, 0.58–0.91), and 0.74 (95% CI, 0.58–0.93), respectively. This study showed that meeting guidelines for APA and MSE was associated with lower prevalence of metabolic syndrome. Furthermore, subjects who met both APA and MSE had the lowest metabolic syndrome prevalence. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition and Public Health)
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Article
Chebulic Acid Prevents Hypoxia Insult via Nrf2/ARE Pathway in Ischemic Stroke
Nutrients 2022, 14(24), 5390; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14245390 - 19 Dec 2022
Viewed by 788
Abstract
Excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) production contributes to brain ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury through many mechanisms including inflammation, apoptosis, and cellular necrosis. Chebulic acid (CA) isolated from Terminalia chebula has been found to have various biological effects, such as antioxidants. In this study, we [...] Read more.
Excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) production contributes to brain ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury through many mechanisms including inflammation, apoptosis, and cellular necrosis. Chebulic acid (CA) isolated from Terminalia chebula has been found to have various biological effects, such as antioxidants. In this study, we investigated the mechanism of the anti-hypoxic neuroprotective effect of CA in vitro and in vivo. The results showed that CA could protect against oxygen-glucose deprivation/reoxygenation (OGD/R) induced neurotoxicity in SH-SY5Y cells, as evidenced by the enhancement of cell viability and improvement of total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD) in SH-SY5Y cells. CA also attenuated OGD/R-induced elevations of malondialdehyde (MDA) and ROS in SH-SY5Y cells. Nuclear factor-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is one of the key regulators of endogenous antioxidant defense. CA acted as antioxidants indirectly by upregulating antioxidant-responsive-element (ARE) and Nrf2 nuclear translocation to relieve OGD/R-induced oxidative damage. Furthermore, the results showed that CA treatment resulted in a significant decrease in ischemic infarct volume and improved performance in the motor ability of mice 24 h after stroke. This study provides a new niche targeting drug to oppose ischemic stroke and reveals the promising potential of CA for the control of ischemic stroke in humans. Full article
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Examining the Composition of the Oral Microbiota as a Tool to Identify Responders to Dietary Changes
Nutrients 2022, 14(24), 5389; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14245389 - 19 Dec 2022
Viewed by 722
Abstract
Background: The role of diet and nutrition in the prevention of oral diseases has recently gained increasing attention. Understanding the influence of diet on oral microbiota is essential for developing meaningful prevention approaches to oral diseases, and the identification of typical and atypical [...] Read more.
Background: The role of diet and nutrition in the prevention of oral diseases has recently gained increasing attention. Understanding the influence of diet on oral microbiota is essential for developing meaningful prevention approaches to oral diseases, and the identification of typical and atypical responders may contribute to this. Methods: We used data from an experimental clinical study in which 11 participants were exposed to different dietary regimens in five consecutive phases. To analyse the influence of additional nutritional components, we examined changes in bacterial concentrations measured by culture techniques compared to a run-in phase. A measure of correspondence between the mean and individual patterns of the bacterial composition is introduced. Results: The distance measures introduced showed clear differences between the subjects. In our data, two typical and three atypical responders appear to have been identified. Conclusions: The proposed method is suitable to identify typical and atypical responders, even in small datasets. We recommend routinely performing such analyses. Full article
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Article
Nutritional Impact and Eating Pattern Changes in Schizophrenic Spectrum Disorders after Health Education Program on Symbiotic Dietary Modulation Offered by Specialised Psychiatric Nursing–Two-Arm Randomised Clinical Trial
Nutrients 2022, 14(24), 5388; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14245388 - 19 Dec 2022
Viewed by 1055
Abstract
Background: The traditional therapeutic approach has perceived the role of nutrition as a minor intervention in psychiatry. The microbiota–gut–brain axis theory evidences the influence of dietary and nutritional patterns on mental health. Aims: To evidence the impact of dietary advice on increasing symbiotic [...] Read more.
Background: The traditional therapeutic approach has perceived the role of nutrition as a minor intervention in psychiatry. The microbiota–gut–brain axis theory evidences the influence of dietary and nutritional patterns on mental health. Aims: To evidence the impact of dietary advice on increasing symbiotic intake on nutritional status and dietary habits in individuals with schizophrenia spectrum disorders. Methods: Randomised clinical trial (two-arm, double-blind, balanced-block, six-month intervention) in 50 individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia spectrum disorders. The control group received conventional dietary advice on an individual basis. A personal nutritional education programme was established in the intervention group (IG) to increase prebiotic and probiotic intake through dietary advice (dairy and fermented foods, green leafy vegetables, high-fibre fruit, whole grains, etc.). Data on nutritional status and dietary habits were collected (baseline and six months). The degree of dietary adherence to the recommended patterns was recorded weekly. Anthropometric parameters were also analysed monthly. Results: Finally, 44 subjects completed the follow-up. All participants exceeded the dietary reference intakes. The overall and intra-group analysis showed a statistically significant (p < 0.05) reduction in macro and micronutrient intakes with a closer approximation to the recommended dietary intakes, except for polyunsaturated fatty acids, oligosaccharides, polysaccharides and dietary fibre. After six months of intervention, statistical differences (p < 0.001) were found in all variables of the anthropometric profile in the IG, as well as an increase in the consumption of foods with a high symbiotic content (at baseline and six months). Likewise, a reduction in eggs, meat, fish, sugars and ultra-processed foods was evident, leading to significant intra-group differences (p < 0.05). Conclusions: Implementing conventional nutritional education strategies and specific nutritional advice with a symbiotic effect improves the dietary-nutritional profile in patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders. Furthermore, it highlights the nutritional impact on mental health, stating itself as adjuvant therapy for physical health and lifestyle improvement. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Clinical Nutrition for Prevention and Treatment of Chronic Diseases)
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Article
Flavor Wheel Construction and Sensory Profile Description of Human Milk
Nutrients 2022, 14(24), 5387; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14245387 - 19 Dec 2022
Viewed by 754
Abstract
To explore the flavor characteristics of human milk, we constructed a three-tiered human milk flavor wheel based on 53 sensory descriptors belonging to different sensory categories. Fifteen sensory descriptors were selected using M-value and multivariate statistical methods, and the corresponding references were set [...] Read more.
To explore the flavor characteristics of human milk, we constructed a three-tiered human milk flavor wheel based on 53 sensory descriptors belonging to different sensory categories. Fifteen sensory descriptors were selected using M-value and multivariate statistical methods, and the corresponding references were set up to realize qualitative and quantitative sensory evaluation of the human milk samples. To ensure the accuracy and reliability of the sensory evaluation, the performance of the sensory panelists was also tested. The sensory profile analysis indicated that the established sensory descriptors could properly reflect the general sensory properties of the human milk and could also be used to distinguish different samples. Further investigation exposed that the fat content might be an important factor that influence the sensory properties of human milk. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the flavor wheel of human milk. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Metabolism in the First 1,000 Days of Life)
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Article
Nutrient Content and Compliance with Sodium Standards in Elementary School Meals in the United States Pre- and Post-COVID-19
Nutrients 2022, 14(24), 5386; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14245386 - 19 Dec 2022
Viewed by 1408
Abstract
Various federal policies have weakened school meal nutrition standards in the United States since the passage of the Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act in 2010, including temporary school meal nutrition waivers to promote post-COVID-19 pandemic recovery. This study used school menu and nutrient data [...] Read more.
Various federal policies have weakened school meal nutrition standards in the United States since the passage of the Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act in 2010, including temporary school meal nutrition waivers to promote post-COVID-19 pandemic recovery. This study used school menu and nutrient data from a nationally representative sample of 128 elementary school districts to examine differences in nutrients (average calories, total fat, saturated fat, sodium, total sugar, and fiber) and alignment with United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) sodium targets in 2019 (pre-pandemic) and in 2022 (post-pandemic). Data were analyzed using analysis of variance accounting for repeated measures within school districts, adjusting for geographic region and urbanicity. Small differences in the nutrient content for both breakfast and lunch were observed between 2019 and 2022. Most weeks met USDA sodium Target 1 for breakfast (≥95% of weeks) and Target 1 (≥96% of weeks) and Target 1A for lunch (≥92% of weeks) in both 2019 and 2022, although compliance decreased slightly when condiments were included. Additionally, meals provided on average 57 g of total sugar. Overall, many meals are already in alignment with lower sodium targets. Simple strategies, such as offering lower sodium condiments, can further reduce sodium in school meals. The total sugar levels observed highlight that the USDA should consider limits on added sugars in school meals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue School Meals and Children’s Dietary Behaviour)
Article
Association between Free Sugars Intake and Risk of Metabolic Syndrome in Chinese Adults: Results from the China Health and Nutrition Survey, 2000–2018
Nutrients 2022, 14(24), 5385; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14245385 - 19 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 916
Abstract
The association of free sugars intake with metabolic syndrome (MetS) is controversial. This study aimed to examine the association between free sugars intake and risk of MetS in Chinese adults. The data were from seven waves of the China Health and Nutrition Survey [...] Read more.
The association of free sugars intake with metabolic syndrome (MetS) is controversial. This study aimed to examine the association between free sugars intake and risk of MetS in Chinese adults. The data were from seven waves of the China Health and Nutrition Survey (2000–2018), a longitudinal and open prospective cohort study. Dietary intake was calculated based on the data collected by consecutive 3-day 24-h dietary recalls combined with household weighing for foods or condiments. Cox proportion hazard regressions and restricted cubic spline (RCS) were performed to explore the associations between free sugars intake and the risk of MetS. The present study selected 12,048 adults aged 18 years and above. During a median (IQR) follow-up of 9.0 (7.0, 15.0) years with 131,844.0 person-years, 3970 (32.95%) MetS occurred. After adjusting for all potential confounders, compared to adults with free sugars intake of <5 g/day group, adults with free sugars intake of 5–20 g/day were associated with a higher risk of MetS (HR, 1.094; 95% CI, 1.009–1.186). No significant association was observed between free sugars intake of >20 g/day and the risk of MetS (HR, 1.011; 95% CI, 0.800–1.277). There is an urgent need to pay attention to the intake of free sugars and comprehensive measures such as the improvements in the processing of sugary foods, and sugar composition should be included on food nutrition labels to control intake of free sugars in China. Full article
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Article
Caffeine Intake throughout Pregnancy, and Factors Associated with Non-Compliance with Recommendations: A Cohort Study
Nutrients 2022, 14(24), 5384; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14245384 - 18 Dec 2022
Viewed by 988
Abstract
Maternal caffeine consumption is associated with adverse gestational outcomes. The aim of this study was to assess the intake of caffeine and factors associated with the non-adherence to caffeine intake recommendations in a cohort of 463 women before (T0) and in each trimester [...] Read more.
Maternal caffeine consumption is associated with adverse gestational outcomes. The aim of this study was to assess the intake of caffeine and factors associated with the non-adherence to caffeine intake recommendations in a cohort of 463 women before (T0) and in each trimester of gestation (T1, T2, and T3), by using validated questionnaires. Caffeine intake (median (mg/day), IQR) was 100.0 (181.1) at T0, 9.42 (66.2) at T1, 12.5 (65.6) at T2, and 14.0 (61.1) at T3 (p < 0.001). Non-compliance prevalence (intake > 200 mg/day) was 6.2% at T1, 4.2% at T2, and 2.7% at T3. Not being an active smoker at T1 (OR = 0.17; 95% CI 0.05–0.59) and T2 (OR = 0.22; 95% CI 0.09–0.52), adherence to the Mediterranean Diet at T1 (OR = 0.50; 95% CI 0.28–0.88) and T2 (OR = 0.39; 95% CI 0.15–1.02), and moderate physical activity at T1 (OR = 0.50; 95% CI 0.28–0.88) were inversely associated with caffeine consumption. Although caffeine intake may be considered low, intake prevalence increases throughout pregnancy. Although the main source of caffeine during pregnancy is coffee, attention must be also paid to the increasingly intake of chocolate, of which the effect during pregnancy is controversial. Smoking, non-adherence to a good quality diet, and light physical activity are associated with a higher caffeine intake and a lower compliance with caffeine intake recommendations. Perinatal dietary and lifestyle educational policies are needed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Bioactives, Gut Microbiota and Human Health)
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Article
p-Hydroxybenzoic Acid Ameliorates Colitis by Improving the Mucosal Barrier in a Gut Microbiota-Dependent Manner
Nutrients 2022, 14(24), 5383; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14245383 - 18 Dec 2022
Viewed by 776
Abstract
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic intestinal inflammatory disease characterized by intestinal inflammatory cell infiltration and intestinal mucosal damage. The mechanism by which diet contributes to the pathogenesis of IBD remains largely unknown. In this study, we explored the therapeutic effect of [...] Read more.
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic intestinal inflammatory disease characterized by intestinal inflammatory cell infiltration and intestinal mucosal damage. The mechanism by which diet contributes to the pathogenesis of IBD remains largely unknown. In this study, we explored the therapeutic effect of p-hydroxybenzoic acid (HA), a phenolic acid mainly derived from dietary polyphenols in the gut, on DSS-induced colitis. HA intervention effectively relieved the dextran sulfate sodium salt (DSS)-induced colitis, reduced inflammation, and enhanced mucosal barrier function, as evidenced by an increment of goblet cell numbers and MUC2. These effects were largely dependent on the gut microbiota (GM), as antibiotics treatment substantially attenuated the improvement of colitis by HA. On the other hand, transplantation of GM from colitis mice treated with HA significantly reduced the colitis induced by DSS. Our study demonstrates that HA ameliorates DSS-induced colitis by improving the mucosal barrier in a GM-dependent manner. This study provides new dietary choices for the prevention and treatment of IBD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition and Metabolism)
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Article
Rice Germ Ameliorated Chronic Unpredictable Mild Stress-Induced Depressive-like Behavior by Reducing Neuroinflammation
Nutrients 2022, 14(24), 5382; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14245382 - 18 Dec 2022
Viewed by 748
Abstract
Stress-induced neuroinflammation is widely regarded as one of the primary causes of depression. Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-enriched foods relieve stress and reduce inflammatory reactions. This study aimed to evaluate whether rice germ with 30% GABA (RG) reduced neuroinflammation in mice exposed to chronic unpredictable [...] Read more.
Stress-induced neuroinflammation is widely regarded as one of the primary causes of depression. Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-enriched foods relieve stress and reduce inflammatory reactions. This study aimed to evaluate whether rice germ with 30% GABA (RG) reduced neuroinflammation in mice exposed to chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS). CUMS mice were administered 40, 90, and 140 mg/kg of RG. CUMS increased serum and hypothalamic pro-inflammatory cytokine (TNF-α and IL-6) levels, which were decreased by RG. In the hypothalamus, CUMS elevated M1-type microglia markers of CD86 and NF-κB, whereas RG lowered these levels. The expression levels of NLRP3 inflammasome complex (NLRP3, apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a caspase recruitment domain, and caspase-1), IL-1β, and IL-18 were increased in the hypothalamus of CUMS mice and decreased by RG. RG attenuated depressive-like behaviors in CUMS mice, as measured by the forced swim test and tail suspension test. In conclusion, RG decreased hypothalamic inflammation-related signals, such as TNF-α, IL-6, M1 polarization, NF-κB, NLRP3 inflammasome complex, caspase-1, IL-1β, and IL-18, to diminish depressive-like behavior. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition and Public Health)
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Article
The Influence of Nutrition and Physical Activity on Exercise Performance after Mild COVID-19 Infection in Endurance Athletes-CESAR Study
Nutrients 2022, 14(24), 5381; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14245381 - 18 Dec 2022
Viewed by 1305
Abstract
COVID-19 and imposed restrictions are linked with numerous health consequences, especially among endurance athletes (EA). Unfavorable changes in physical activity and nutrition may affect later sports and competition performance. The aims of this study were: (1) to assess the impact of COVID-19 infection [...] Read more.
COVID-19 and imposed restrictions are linked with numerous health consequences, especially among endurance athletes (EA). Unfavorable changes in physical activity and nutrition may affect later sports and competition performance. The aims of this study were: (1) to assess the impact of COVID-19 infection and pandemic restrictions on the nutrition and physical activity of EAs and (2) to compare them with the results of cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET). In total, 49 EAs (nmale = 43, nfemale = 6, mean age = 39.9 ± 7.8 year., height = 178.4 ± 6.8 cm, weight = 76.3 ± 10.4 kg; BMI = 24.0 ± 2.6 kg·m−2) underwent pre- and post-COVID-19 CPET and fulfilled the dietary and physical activity survey. COVID-19 infection significantly deteriorated CPET performance. There was a reduction in oxygen uptake and in heart rate post-COVID-19 (both p < 0.001). Consuming processed meat and replacing meat with plant-based protein affected blood lactate concentration (p = 0.035). Fat-free mass was linked with consuming unsaturated fatty acids (p = 0.031). Adding salt to meals influenced maximal speed/power (p = 0.024) and breathing frequency (p = 0.033). Dietary and Fitness Practitioners and Medical Professionals should be aware of possible COVID-19 infection and pandemic consequences among EA. The results of this study are a helpful guideline to properly adjust the treatment, nutrition, and training of EA. Full article
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Article
The Role of Food Literacy in Managing Nutritional Precarity in the Migrant Experience: Dietary Lifestyles of Cambodia Migrants in Thailand
Nutrients 2022, 14(24), 5380; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14245380 - 18 Dec 2022
Viewed by 1336
Abstract
The paper explores the dietary lifestyles of young Cambodian migrants in Thailand to illuminate the role of food literacy in determining nutritional outcomes and well-being, including during crises, such as the COVID-19 pandemic. In this context, food literacy is defined as food skills [...] Read more.
The paper explores the dietary lifestyles of young Cambodian migrants in Thailand to illuminate the role of food literacy in determining nutritional outcomes and well-being, including during crises, such as the COVID-19 pandemic. In this context, food literacy is defined as food skills and abilities to plan, select, and prepare to achieve adequate consumption under new or adverse social and culinary contexts of the migrant experience. In this paper, we consider both how nutritional precarity arises in the migrant experience, and to what extent food literacy can mitigate it under various conditions. The research approach involves a combination of qualitative and quantitative approaches that were adjusted to address the limited mobility for social science research during the COVID-19 pandemic in Thailand. Data collection was conducted through hybrid (online and in-person) ethnography, focus group discussions, food literacy questionnaires, and key informant interviews, often facilitated through internet messaging clients. The findings indicate that, while generally high food literacy may facilitate the transition to the foreign food systems found in migration destinations, optimizing nutrition and well-being requires reinforcement by context-specific food literacy, such as openness to foreign flavors and recipes. Contextual food literacy most directly leads to positive social and health outcomes while simultaneously expanding universal food literacy in the long-term. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition and Public Health)
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Article
Salvia plebeia R. Br. Water Extract Ameliorates Hepatic Steatosis in a Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Model by Regulating the AMPK Pathway
Nutrients 2022, 14(24), 5379; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14245379 - 18 Dec 2022
Viewed by 965
Abstract
Salvia plebeia R. Br. (SP), grown from autumn to spring, is used as a medicinal herb from roots to leaves. This herb exhibits antioxidant activities and various physiological effect, including anti-asthma, immune-promoting, anti-obesity, and anti-cholesterol effects. However, the effectiveness of SP against non-alcoholic [...] Read more.
Salvia plebeia R. Br. (SP), grown from autumn to spring, is used as a medicinal herb from roots to leaves. This herb exhibits antioxidant activities and various physiological effect, including anti-asthma, immune-promoting, anti-obesity, and anti-cholesterol effects. However, the effectiveness of SP against non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and the associated mechanism have not been elucidated. In this study, alleviation of NAFLD by SP was confirmed in a mouse model of hepatic steatosis induced by a high-fat diet and in HepG2 cells administered free fatty acids (FFA). In the experimental model, intrahepatic lipid accumulation was investigated using the AdipoRedTM assay, Oil Red O staining, biomarker analysis, and hematoxylin and eosin staining. Furthermore, glucose tolerance was examined based on the fasting glucose levels and oral glucose tolerance. The molecular mechanisms related to hepatic steatosis were determined based on marker mRNA levels. Blood FFAs were found to flow into the liver via the action of fatty acid translocase, cluster of differentiation 36, and fatty acid transporter proteins 2 and 5. Salvia plebeia R. Br. water extract (SPW) suppressed the FFAs inflow by regulating the expression of the above-mentioned proteins. Notably, modulating the expression of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and liver X receptor, which are involved in the regulation of lipid metabolism, stimulated peroxisome proliferator activated receptor α in the nucleus to induce the expression genes involved in β-oxidation and increase β-oxidation in the mitochondria. AMPK modulation also increased the expression of sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c, which activated lipid synthesis enzymes. As a consequence of these events, triglyceride synthesis was reduced and lipid accumulation in hepatocytes was alleviated. Overall, our findings suggested that SPW could ameliorate NAFLD by inhibiting hepatic steatosis through AMPK modulation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Phytochemicals and Human Health)
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Review
The Influence of the Differentiation of Genes Encoding Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors and Their Coactivators on Nutrient and Energy Metabolism
Nutrients 2022, 14(24), 5378; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14245378 - 18 Dec 2022
Viewed by 909
Abstract
Genetic components may play an important role in the regulation of nutrient and energy metabolism. In the presence of specific genetic variants, metabolic dysregulation may occur, especially in relation to the processes of digestion, assimilation, and the physiological utilization of nutrients supplied to [...] Read more.
Genetic components may play an important role in the regulation of nutrient and energy metabolism. In the presence of specific genetic variants, metabolic dysregulation may occur, especially in relation to the processes of digestion, assimilation, and the physiological utilization of nutrients supplied to the body, as well as the regulation of various metabolic pathways and the balance of metabolic changes, which may consequently affect the effectiveness of applied reduction diets and weight loss after training. There are many well-documented studies showing that the presence of certain polymorphic variants in some genes can be associated with specific changes in nutrient and energy metabolism, and consequently, with more or less desirable effects of applied caloric reduction and/or exercise intervention. This systematic review focused on the role of genes encoding peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) and their coactivators in nutrient and energy metabolism. The literature review prepared showed that there is a link between the presence of specific alleles described at different polymorphic points in PPAR genes and various human body characteristics that are crucial for the efficacy of nutritional and/or exercise interventions. Genetic analysis can be a valuable element that complements the work of a dietitian or trainer, allowing for the planning of a personalized diet or training that makes the best use of the innate metabolic characteristics of the person who is the subject of their interventions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Alternative Diets, Supplementation Strategies and Sports Nutrition)
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Article
The TriMet_DB: A Manually Curated Database of the Metabolic Proteins of Triticum aestivum
Nutrients 2022, 14(24), 5377; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14245377 - 18 Dec 2022
Viewed by 761
Abstract
Mass-spectrometry-based wheat proteomics is challenging because the current interpretation of mass spectrometry data relies on public databases that are not exhaustive (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot) or contain many redundant and poor or un-annotated entries (UniProtKB/TrEMBL). Here, we report the development of a manually curated database of [...] Read more.
Mass-spectrometry-based wheat proteomics is challenging because the current interpretation of mass spectrometry data relies on public databases that are not exhaustive (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot) or contain many redundant and poor or un-annotated entries (UniProtKB/TrEMBL). Here, we report the development of a manually curated database of the metabolic proteins of Triticum aestivum (hexaploid wheat), named TriMet_DB (Triticum aestivum Metabolic Proteins DataBase). The manually curated TriMet_DB was generated in FASTA format so that it can be read directly by programs used to interpret the mass spectrometry data. Furthermore, the complete list of entries included in the TriMet_DB is reported in a freely available resource, which includes for each protein the description, the gene code, the protein family, and the allergen name (if any). To evaluate its performance, the TriMet_DB was used to interpret the MS data acquired on the metabolic protein fraction extracted from the cultivar MEC of Triticum aestivum. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD037709. Full article
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Commentary
Nutrition, Food and Diet in Health and Longevity: We Eat What We Are
Nutrients 2022, 14(24), 5376; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14245376 - 18 Dec 2022
Viewed by 1728
Abstract
Nutrition generally refers to the macro- and micro-nutrients essential for survival, but we do not simply eat nutrition. Instead, we eat animal- and plant-based foods without always being conscious of its nutritional value. Furthermore, various cultural factors influence and shape our taste, preferences, [...] Read more.
Nutrition generally refers to the macro- and micro-nutrients essential for survival, but we do not simply eat nutrition. Instead, we eat animal- and plant-based foods without always being conscious of its nutritional value. Furthermore, various cultural factors influence and shape our taste, preferences, taboos and practices towards preparing and consuming food as a meal and diet. Biogerontological understanding of ageing has identified food as one of the three foundational pillars of health and survival. Here we address the issues of nutrition, food and diet by analyzing the biological importance of macro- and micro-nutrients including hormetins, discussing the health claims for various types of food, and by reviewing the general principles of healthy dietary patterns, including meal timing, caloric restriction, and intermittent fasting. We also present our views about the need for refining our approaches and strategies for future research on nutrition, food and diet by incorporating the molecular, physiological, cultural and personal aspects of this crucial pillar of health, healthy ageing and longevity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Aging - Featured Perspectives on Health and Metabolism)
Article
Physical Fitness, Nutrition and Quality of Life in German Medical Students
Nutrients 2022, 14(24), 5375; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14245375 - 17 Dec 2022
Viewed by 765
Abstract
Background: Medical students are exposed to high cognitive demands as well as to a high learning effort, which as a consequence can lead to a limited quality of life (Qol) with reduced physical performance and unhealthy eating behaviors. The aim of this retrospective [...] Read more.
Background: Medical students are exposed to high cognitive demands as well as to a high learning effort, which as a consequence can lead to a limited quality of life (Qol) with reduced physical performance and unhealthy eating behaviors. The aim of this retrospective analysis was to evaluate the abovementioned factors and their relationship to each other. Methods: We included 380 medical students (167 men, 213 women, age 22.2 ± 3.9 yrs) who participated in the sports medicine elective subject. Qol was measured with the SF-36 questionnaire, and endurance capacity was measured by using an incremental running test. Daily dietary intake was measured using a 7-day diary protocol. Depending on sex and the maximum speed achieved, students were divided into three performance groups. Results: Men achieved higher maximal speed, heart rate, and lactate. Carbohydrates and fat intake did not meet recommendations in either group. Dietary fibre intake differed significantly between the performance groups in men and women, with the better groups having higher intakes. Conclusions: Our data do not suggest increased risk or health-damaging behaviors in medical students compared with the general population. Irrespective of this, incentives should be set to enable a healthy life even during complex studies with a high learning effort. Full article
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Review
Protective Role of Natural Compounds under Radiation-Induced Injury
Nutrients 2022, 14(24), 5374; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14245374 - 17 Dec 2022
Viewed by 1091
Abstract
In recent years, evidence has shown the potential therapeutic effects of different natural compounds for the prevention and treatment of radiotherapy-induced mucositis (RIOM). RIOM represents one of the most frequent side effects associated with anti-neoplastic treatments affecting patients’ quality of life and treatment [...] Read more.
In recent years, evidence has shown the potential therapeutic effects of different natural compounds for the prevention and treatment of radiotherapy-induced mucositis (RIOM). RIOM represents one of the most frequent side effects associated with anti-neoplastic treatments affecting patients’ quality of life and treatment response due to radiation therapy discontinuation. The innate radio-protective ability of natural products obtained from plants is in part due to the numerous antioxidants possessed as a part of their normal secondary metabolic processes. However, oxygen presence is a key point for radiation efficacy on cancer cells. The aim of this review is to describe the most recent evidence on radiation-induced injury and the emerging protective role of natural compounds in preventing and treating this specific damage without compromising treatment efficacy. Full article
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