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Nutrients, Volume 14, Issue 23 (December-1 2022) – 253 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Long COVID, a condition characterized by symptom and/or sign persistence following an acute COVID-19 episode, is associated with reduced physical performance and endothelial dysfunction. Supplementation of l-arginine may improve endothelial and muscle function by stimulating nitric oxide synthesis. A single-blind randomized, placebo-controlled trial was conducted in adults aged between 20 and 60 years with persistent fatigue attending a post-acute COVID-19 outpatient clinic. Participants were randomized 1:1 to receive twice-daily orally either a combination of 1.66 g l-arginine plus 500 mg liposomal vitamin C or a placebo for 28 days. The primary outcome was the distance walked on the 6 min walk test. Secondary outcomes were handgrip strength, flow-mediated dilation, and fatigue persistence. View this paper
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11 pages, 313 KiB  
Article
Effect of Inulin Intervention on Metabolic Control and Methylation of INS and IRS1 Genes in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
by Ollin Celeste Martínez-Ramírez, Azucena Salazar-Piña, Ximena Cerón-Ramírez, Julieta Rubio-Lightbourn, Fernando Torres-Romero, Leonora Casas-Avila and Clementina Castro-Hernández
Nutrients 2022, 14(23), 5195; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14235195 - 06 Dec 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2021
Abstract
Background and Aims: Currently, treatments are being sought to improve the control of type II diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and inulin has been shown to be effective in reducing glucose levels and other metabolic control parameters. These effects on metabolic control may be associated [...] Read more.
Background and Aims: Currently, treatments are being sought to improve the control of type II diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and inulin has been shown to be effective in reducing glucose levels and other metabolic control parameters. These effects on metabolic control may be associated with changes in the epigenetic modulation of genes of the insulin pathway. Therefore, our objective is to determine the effect of agave inulin in metabolic control parameters and in INS and IRS1 genes’ methylation in T2DM patients. Methods: This was a longitudinal experimental study with 67 Mexican participants who received an intervention of inulin agave (10 g daily) for 2 months. The methylation of the INS and IRS1 genes was determined by MSP. Results: For the INS gene, we found a significant decrease in the proportions of T2DM patients with methylated DNA after inulin intervention (p = 0.0001). In contrast, the difference in the proportions of the unmethylated IRS1 gene before and after the inulin intervention was not significant (p = 0.79). On the other hand, we observed changes in the number of T2DM patients’ recommended categories for metabolic control depending on the methylation of INS and IRS1 genes before and after treatment with inulin. Conclusion: For the first time, we report the modification in the methylation of two genes, INS and IRS1, of the insulin pathway and provide information on the possible relevant role of epigenetics as a key factor in positive changes in metabolic control parameters by inulin intake in T2DM patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrigenetics and Nutrigenomics)
24 pages, 17272 KiB  
Systematic Review
Prevalence of Malnutrition in Patients with Parkinson’s Disease: A Systematic Review
by Karolina Wioletta Kacprzyk, Magdalena Milewska, Alicja Zarnowska, Mariusz Panczyk, Gabriela Rokicka and Dorota Szostak-Wegierek
Nutrients 2022, 14(23), 5194; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14235194 - 06 Dec 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3162
Abstract
Objectives: This systematic review analyzed the prevalence of malnutrition in patients with Parkinson’s Disease. Study design: a systematic review. Method: Four databases—Cochrane, PubMed, Embase and Web of Science—were searched from October 2021 to June 2022 by two independent researchers. The inclusion criteria were [...] Read more.
Objectives: This systematic review analyzed the prevalence of malnutrition in patients with Parkinson’s Disease. Study design: a systematic review. Method: Four databases—Cochrane, PubMed, Embase and Web of Science—were searched from October 2021 to June 2022 by two independent researchers. The inclusion criteria were as follows: patients above 18 years old with confirmed Parkinson’s Disease, performed screening nutritional assessment, cohort studies, case-control studies, and cross-sectional studies. Patients without Parkinson’s Disease and with other parkinsonian syndromes were excluded. Results: 49 studies were included in this systematic review. Patients ranged in age from 20 to 96 years. There were 5613 subjects included. According to Mini Nutritional Assessment, 23.9% (n = 634) participants were at risk of malnutrition and 11.1% (n = 294) were malnourished. According to BMI score, most patients were either obese or overweight. Conclusions: the prevalence of malnutrition or risk of malnutrition in the study group was significant. Therefore, more specific and detailed studies on the prevalence of malnutrition in patients with Parkinson’s Disease are needed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Geriatric Nutrition)
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14 pages, 1278 KiB  
Article
The Impact of a Mediterranean-like Diet with Controlled Protein Intake on the Onco-Nephrological Scenario: Time for a New Perspective
by Arianna Bettiga, Francesco Fiorio, Francesca Liguori, Federico Di Marco, Giulia Quattrini, Riccardo Vago, Domenico Giannese, Andrea Salonia, Francesco Montorsi and Francesco Trevisani
Nutrients 2022, 14(23), 5193; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14235193 - 06 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2007
Abstract
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) represents a frequent comorbidity in cancer patients, especially for patients affected by urological cancers. Unfortunately, impaired kidney function may limit the choice of adequate oncological treatments for their potential nephrotoxicity or due to contraindications in case of a low [...] Read more.
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) represents a frequent comorbidity in cancer patients, especially for patients affected by urological cancers. Unfortunately, impaired kidney function may limit the choice of adequate oncological treatments for their potential nephrotoxicity or due to contraindications in case of a low glomerular filtration rate. For these patients, tailored nephrological and nutritional management is mandatory. The K-DIGO guidelines do not define whether the nutritional management of CKD could be useful also in CKD patients affected by urological cancer. In fact, in clinical practice, oncological patients often receive high-protein diets to avoid malnutrition. In our study, we investigated the nutritional and nephrological impact of a Mediterranean-like diet with a controlled protein intake (MCPD) on a cohort of 82 stage III-IV CKD patients. We compared two cohorts: one of 31 non-oncological CKD patients and the other of 51 oncological patients with CKD. The use of an MCPD had a favorable impact on both the oncological and non-oncological CKD patients with an amelioration in all the investigated parameters and with a better quality of life, with no cases of malnutrition or AKI. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Proteins and Amino Acids)
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14 pages, 2771 KiB  
Article
Improved Stability and In Vitro Anti-Arthritis Bioactivity of Curcumin–Casein Nanoparticles by Ultrasound-Driven Encapsulation
by Kexin Li, Yahui Zhang, Xueyan Hao, Dongchao Xie, Chongchong Wang, Haihua Zhang, Peng Jin and Qizhen Du
Nutrients 2022, 14(23), 5192; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14235192 - 06 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2379
Abstract
Curcumin possesses beneficial biological functions, namely anti-inflammation and anti-diabetic functions. However, due to its low solubility and crystallinity, its applications are limited. In this work, curcumin was encapsulated in casein micelles in order to form curcumin-casein nanoparticles by ultrasound treatment (5 min). The [...] Read more.
Curcumin possesses beneficial biological functions, namely anti-inflammation and anti-diabetic functions. However, due to its low solubility and crystallinity, its applications are limited. In this work, curcumin was encapsulated in casein micelles in order to form curcumin-casein nanoparticles by ultrasound treatment (5 min). The ultrasound treatment induced the entry of the hydrophobic groups to the inner micelles and the polar sulfydryl groups to the surface of the micelles in order to form compact curcumin-casein nanoparticles of an appropriate size (100–120 nm) for cellular endocytosis. The product exhibited excellent stability during 8 months of cold storage, 6 days at room temperature, and 2 days at body temperature. Advanced in vitro experiments demonstrated that curcumin-casein nanoparticles displayed significantly greater inhibitory activity against the proliferation and proinflammatory cytokines of human fibroblast-like synoviocyte-osteo arthritis (HFLS-OA) cells and HFLS-rheumatoid (RA) cells than native curcumin due to better cellular uptake as a result of the low crystallinity and the appropriate nano-size of the nano-form. The results provide a reference for the use of ultrasound treatment to encapsulate other drug molecules and curcumin-casein nanoparticles as potential treatment for arthritis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Phytochemicals and Human Health)
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12 pages, 1011 KiB  
Article
Longitudinal Association of Telomere Dynamics with Obesity and Metabolic Disorders in Young Children
by Simon Toupance, Sofia I. Karampatsou, Carlos Labat, Sofia-Maria Genitsaridi, Athanasia Tragomalou, Penio Kassari, George Soulis, Allyson Hollander, Evangelia Charmandari and Athanase Benetos
Nutrients 2022, 14(23), 5191; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14235191 - 06 Dec 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2023
Abstract
In adults, short leukocyte telomere length (LTL) is associated with metabolic disorders, such as obesity and diabetes mellitus type 2. These associations could stem from early life interactions between LTL and metabolic disorders. To test this hypothesis, we explored the associations between LTL [...] Read more.
In adults, short leukocyte telomere length (LTL) is associated with metabolic disorders, such as obesity and diabetes mellitus type 2. These associations could stem from early life interactions between LTL and metabolic disorders. To test this hypothesis, we explored the associations between LTL and metabolic parameters as well as their evolution over time in children with or without obesity at baseline. Seventy-three (n = 73) children attending our Outpatient Clinic for the Prevention and Management of Overweight and Obesity in Childhood and Adolescence, aged 2–10 years (mean ± SD: 7.6 ± 2.0 years), were followed for 2 to 4 years. Anthropometric, clinical, and biological (including LTL by Southern blot) measurements were performed annually. Baseline LTL correlated negatively with BMI (p = 0.02), fat percentage (p = 0.01), and blood glucose (p = 0.0007). These associations persisted after adjustments for age and sex. No associations were found between LTL attrition during the follow-up period and any of the metabolic parameters. In young children, obesity and metabolic disturbances were associated with shorter telomeres but were not associated with more pronounced LTL attrition. These results suggest that short telomeres contribute to the development of obesity and metabolic disorders very early in life, which can have a major impact on health. Full article
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21 pages, 8257 KiB  
Article
The Evidence That 25(OH)D3 and VK2 MK-7 Vitamins Influence the Proliferative Potential and Gene Expression Profiles of Multiple Myeloma Cells and the Development of Resistance to Bortezomib
by Karolina Łuczkowska, Piotr Kulig, Bartłomiej Baumert and Bogusław Machaliński
Nutrients 2022, 14(23), 5190; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14235190 - 06 Dec 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2583
Abstract
Multiple myeloma (MM) remains an incurable hematological malignancy. Bortezomib (BTZ) is a proteasome inhibitor widely used in MM therapy whose potent activity is often hampered by the development of resistance. The immune system is vital in the pathophysiology of BTZ resistance. Vitamins D [...] Read more.
Multiple myeloma (MM) remains an incurable hematological malignancy. Bortezomib (BTZ) is a proteasome inhibitor widely used in MM therapy whose potent activity is often hampered by the development of resistance. The immune system is vital in the pathophysiology of BTZ resistance. Vitamins D (VD) and K (VK) modulate the immune system; therefore, they are potentially beneficial in MM. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of BTZ therapy and VD and VK supplementation on the proliferation potential and gene expression profiles of MM cells in terms of the development of BTZ resistance. The U266 MM cell line was incubated three times with BTZ, VD and VK at different timepoints. Then, proliferation assays, RNA sequencing and bioinformatics analysis were performed. We showed BTZ resistance to be mediated by processes related to ATP metabolism and oxidative phosphorylation. The upregulation of genes from the SNORDs family suggests the involvement of epigenetic mechanisms. Supplementation with VD and VK reduced the proliferation of MM cells in both the non-BTZ-resistant and BTZ-resistant phenotypes. VD and VK, by restoring proper metabolism, may have overcome resistance to BTZ in vitro. This observation forms the basis for further clinical trials evaluating VD and VK as potential adjuvant therapies for MM patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrigenetics and Nutrigenomics)
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16 pages, 2857 KiB  
Article
Comprehensive Analysis of Seasonal and Geographical Variation in UVB Radiation Relevant for Vitamin D Production in Europe
by Tarinee Khanna, Rasha Shraim, Masa Zarkovic, Michiel van Weele, Jos van Geffen and Lina Zgaga
Nutrients 2022, 14(23), 5189; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14235189 - 06 Dec 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2443
Abstract
Dermal synthesis, following sun exposure, is the main source of vitamin D. This study characterizes ambient UVB radiation relevant for vitamin D production in Europe. A biological weighing function was applied to data from the Tropospheric Emissions Monitoring Internet Service (TEMIS) for 46 [...] Read more.
Dermal synthesis, following sun exposure, is the main source of vitamin D. This study characterizes ambient UVB radiation relevant for vitamin D production in Europe. A biological weighing function was applied to data from the Tropospheric Emissions Monitoring Internet Service (TEMIS) for 46 capital cities over an 18-year period (2004–2021) to isolate wavelengths relevant for vitamin D production (D-UVB). Cumulative and weighted D-UVB (CW-D-UVB) were calculated to approximate seasonal vitamin D accumulation and diminution. Monthly 25(OH)D concentration measurements were extracted from published reports. All data were analyzed by location and time. Despite a moderate latitudinal range (35–64° N), we observed large—up to five-fold—regional differences: the highest mean diurnal D-UVB dose of 5.57 kJ/m2 (SD = 3.55 kJ/m2) was observed in Nicosia (Cyprus) and the lowest in Reykjavik (Iceland, 1.16 ± 1.29 kJ/m2). Seasonal differences in diurnal D-UVB dose were even more pronounced, with a median 36-fold difference between annual peak and trough depending on a location (range: 10- to 525-fold). The mean duration of “vitamin D winter” was 126 days but varied widely (4 to 215 days). Monthly CW-D-UVB and 25(OH)D changes were very strongly correlated: the changes in 25(OH)D concentration increased by 12.6 nmol/L for every 100 kJ/m2 increment of CW-D-UVB in population-based studies (r2 = 0.79, p-value = 1.16 × 10−37). Understanding the differences in D-UVB radiation can help understand determinants of vitamin D status and guide region- and season-specific safe and effective sunlight exposure recommendations and vitamin D supplementation guidelines. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition and Public Health)
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11 pages, 606 KiB  
Article
Cohort Study of Maternal Gestational Weight Gain, Gestational Diabetes, and Childhood Asthma
by Orianne Dumas, Anna Chen Arroyo, Mohammad Kamal Faridi, Kaitlyn James, Sarah Hsu, Camille Powe and Carlos A. Camargo, Jr.
Nutrients 2022, 14(23), 5188; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14235188 - 06 Dec 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2421
Abstract
Data on the association of maternal gestational weight gain (GWG) and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) with childhood asthma are limited and inconsistent. We aimed to investigate these associations in a U.S. pre-birth cohort. Analyses included 16,351 mother–child pairs enrolled in the Massachusetts General [...] Read more.
Data on the association of maternal gestational weight gain (GWG) and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) with childhood asthma are limited and inconsistent. We aimed to investigate these associations in a U.S. pre-birth cohort. Analyses included 16,351 mother–child pairs enrolled in the Massachusetts General Hospital Maternal-Child Cohort (1998–2010). Data were obtained by linking electronic health records for prenatal visits/delivery to determine BMI, GWG, and GDM (National Diabetes Data Group criteria) and to determine asthma incidence and allergies (atopic dermatitis or allergic rhinitis) for children. The associations of prenatal exposures with asthma were evaluated using logistic regression adjusted for maternal characteristics. A total of 2306 children (14%) developed asthma by age 5 years. Overall, no association was found between GWG and asthma. GDM was positively associated with offspring asthma (OR 1.46, 95% CI 1.14–1.88). Associations between GDM and asthma were observed only among mothers with early pregnancy BMI between 20 and 24.9 kg/m2 (OR 2.31, CI 1.46–3.65, p-interaction 0.02). We report novel findings on the impact of prenatal exposures on asthma, including increased risk among mothers with GDM, particularly those with a normal BMI. These findings support the strengthening of interventions targeted toward a healthier pregnancy, which may also be helpful for childhood asthma prevention. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutritional Epidemiology)
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13 pages, 292 KiB  
Article
Social Capital Promotes a Healthier Diet among Young Adults by Reducing Psychological Distress
by Brigita Mieziene, Arunas Emeljanovas, Dario Novak and Ichiro Kawachi
Nutrients 2022, 14(23), 5187; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14235187 - 06 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1885
Abstract
Studies have revealed the links between social capital and diet. However, the mediating role of psychological distress in this relationship has been understudied. This study aims to identify direct and indirect relationships between social capital and adherence to the Mediterranean diet among Lithuanian [...] Read more.
Studies have revealed the links between social capital and diet. However, the mediating role of psychological distress in this relationship has been understudied. This study aims to identify direct and indirect relationships between social capital and adherence to the Mediterranean diet among Lithuanian young adults and identify the mediating role of psychological distress in this relationship. Data were collected from 1336 young adults, aged 18–36 years; 40.5% were males. MEDAS was used to measure adherence to a healthy diet. Social capital was measured by eight separate items in terms of family support, social support, social cohesion, social trust, communication, collaboration, participation, and distant communication. Kessler’s six-item scale was used to assess psychological distress. Higher family support (β = 0.105), higher social participation (β = 0.294), and lower psychological distress (β = 0.073) directly predicted higher adherence to the Mediterranean diet. Social capital was indirectly related to adherence to the Mediterranean diet, with standardized effect sizes of 0.02–0.04, indicating small effect sizes. Thus, psychological distress mediates the relationship between social capital and a healthy diet. Given that social capital is related to psychological health and both directly and indirectly predicts healthy behavior in young adults, further longitudinal and experimental research is required to measure the effects of the intervention on incorporating, facilitating, encouraging, and implementing measures to strengthen the social connection between people and groups of people within the community, neighborhood, and organizations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition within and beyond Corona Virus)
18 pages, 1148 KiB  
Review
Interaction of Vitamin D with Peptide Hormones with Emphasis on Parathyroid Hormone, FGF23, and the Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System
by Nejla Latic and Reinhold G. Erben
Nutrients 2022, 14(23), 5186; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14235186 - 06 Dec 2022
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 3541
Abstract
The seminal discoveries that parathyroid hormone (PTH) and fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) are major endocrine regulators of vitamin D metabolism led to a significant improvement in our understanding of the pivotal roles of peptide hormones and small proteohormones in the crosstalk between [...] Read more.
The seminal discoveries that parathyroid hormone (PTH) and fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) are major endocrine regulators of vitamin D metabolism led to a significant improvement in our understanding of the pivotal roles of peptide hormones and small proteohormones in the crosstalk between different organs, regulating vitamin D metabolism. The interaction of vitamin D, FGF23 and PTH in the kidney is essential for maintaining mineral homeostasis. The proteohormone FGF23 is mainly secreted from osteoblasts and osteoclasts in the bone. FGF23 acts on proximal renal tubules to decrease production of the active form of vitamin D (1,25(OH)2D) by downregulating transcription of 1α-hydroxylase (CYP27B1), and by activating transcription of the key enzyme responsible for vitamin D degradation, 24-hydroxylase (CYP24A1). Conversely, the peptide hormone PTH stimulates 1,25(OH)2D renal production by upregulating the expression of 1α-hydroxylase and downregulating that of 24-hydroxylase. The circulating concentration of 1,25(OH)2D is a positive regulator of FGF23 secretion in the bone, and a negative regulator of PTH secretion from the parathyroid gland, forming feedback loops between kidney and bone, and between kidney and parathyroid gland, respectively. In recent years, it has become clear that vitamin D signaling has important functions beyond mineral metabolism. Observation of seasonal variations in blood pressure and the subsequent identification of vitamin D receptor (VDR) and 1α-hydroxylase in non-renal tissues such as cardiomyocytes, endothelial and smooth muscle cells, suggested that vitamin D may play a role in maintaining cardiovascular health. Indeed, observational studies in humans have found an association between vitamin D deficiency and hypertension, left ventricular hypertrophy and heart failure, and experimental studies provided strong evidence for a role of vitamin D signaling in the regulation of cardiovascular function. One of the proposed mechanisms of action of vitamin D is that it functions as a negative regulator of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS). This finding established a novel link between vitamin D and RAAS that was unexplored until then. During recent years, major progress has been made towards a more complete understanding of the mechanisms by which FGF23, PTH, and RAAS regulate vitamin D metabolism, especially at the genomic level. However, there are still major gaps in our knowledge that need to be filled by future research. The purpose of this review is to highlight our current understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the interaction between vitamin D, FGF23, PTH, and RAAS, and to discuss the role of these mechanisms in physiology and pathophysiology. Full article
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13 pages, 434 KiB  
Article
Comparison of Associations between MIND and Mediterranean Diet Scores with Patient-Reported Outcomes in Parkinson’s Disease
by Devon J. Fox, Sarah JaeHwa Park and Laurie K. Mischley
Nutrients 2022, 14(23), 5185; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14235185 - 06 Dec 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 4626
Abstract
The Mediterranean (MEDI) and Mediterranean-DASH Intervention for Neurodegenerative Delay (MIND) diets have been associated with a reduced risk of Parkinson’s disease (PD) diagnosis. However, studies evaluating whether these diets are associated with disease progression in those patients already diagnosed are lacking. The objective [...] Read more.
The Mediterranean (MEDI) and Mediterranean-DASH Intervention for Neurodegenerative Delay (MIND) diets have been associated with a reduced risk of Parkinson’s disease (PD) diagnosis. However, studies evaluating whether these diets are associated with disease progression in those patients already diagnosed are lacking. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether MIND and MEDI scores were associated with improved patient-reported outcomes. Additionally, we sought to explore which questions on the MIND and MEDI scales were more strongly correlated with PD symptom severity. Data were obtained from the ongoing Modifiable Variables in Parkinsonism study, using patient-reported outcomes in Parkinson’s disease (PRO-PD) as the primary measure for symptom severity, and MIND and MEDI scales for diet score. After adjusting for age, gender, income, and years since diagnosis, for each 1-point increase in the MIND and MEDI scores, PRO-PD scores were 52.9 points lower (95%CI: −66.4, −39.4; p < 0.001) and 25.6 points lower (95%CI: −37.2, −14.0; p < 0.001), respectively (N = 1205). This study suggests MIND and MEDI scores are associated with fewer patient-reported symptoms over time, with each MIND point being twice as strong as a MEDI point in reducing symptom severity. Future dietary intervention trials should consider the MIND diet as a therapeutic strategy for improving long-term PD outcomes. Full article
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11 pages, 1445 KiB  
Article
Higher Body Fat but Similar Phase Angle Values in Patients with the Classical Form of Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia in Comparison to a Control Group
by Núbia Maria de Oliveira, Raquel David Langer, Sofia Helena Valente Lemos-Marini, Daniel Minutti de Oliveira, Bruno Geloneze, Gil Guerra-Júnior and Ezequiel Moreira Gonçalves
Nutrients 2022, 14(23), 5184; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14235184 - 06 Dec 2022
Viewed by 1746
Abstract
This study aimed to compare phase angle (PhA) and bioelectrical impedance vector analysis (BIVA) values between adult patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia caused by 21-hydroxylase deficiency (CAH21OHD) and a control group. A total of 22 patients (15 women, 22.9 ± 3.7 years) were [...] Read more.
This study aimed to compare phase angle (PhA) and bioelectrical impedance vector analysis (BIVA) values between adult patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia caused by 21-hydroxylase deficiency (CAH21OHD) and a control group. A total of 22 patients (15 women, 22.9 ± 3.7 years) were compared with 17 controls (11 women, 27.0 ± 2.5 years). Body composition was determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Bioelectrical impedance was used to calculate PhA, and BIVA was performed using specific software. Student’s t-test and analysis of covariance were used to compare groups. Hedges’ G and partial n2 were calculated for the effect estimates. Hotelling’s t2 test was used to compare the mean impedance vectors between the groups. The Mahalanobis test was used to determine the distance between confidence ellipses. Patients with CAH21OHD had a higher fat mass percentage than that of the control group (both sexes). There was no significant difference in PhA values between groups (CAH21OHD vs. control) in females (6.9° vs. 6.3°, p = 0.092) and males (8.2° vs. 8.1°, p = 0.849), after adjusting for covariates (age and height). BIVA analysis showed a significant difference in the mean impedance vectors between the female groups (T2 = 15.9, D = 1.58, p = 0.003) owing to the higher reactance/height (Δ = 8.5; p < 0.001) of the patients. The PhA did not significantly differ between the groups. Female patients had significantly higher reactance values. However, further studies are needed to determine the usefulness of bioimpedance parameters in evaluating the hydration status and cellular integrity of patients with CAH21OHD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Metabolism and Health)
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13 pages, 1112 KiB  
Article
Pretreatment Nutritional Status in Combination with Inflammation Affects Chemotherapy Interruption in Women with Ovarian, Fallopian Tube, and Peritoneal Cancer
by Naoko Nomoto, Shinichi Tate, Makoto Arai, Shinji Iizaka, Chisato Mori and Kenichi Sakurai
Nutrients 2022, 14(23), 5183; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14235183 - 06 Dec 2022
Viewed by 2014
Abstract
Background: Discontinuing chemotherapy worsens cancer prognosis. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between nutritional status at the start of chemotherapy and chemotherapy discontinuation in patients with ovarian, fallopian tube, and primary peritoneal cancer. Methods: This was a retrospective cohort study. One hundred [...] Read more.
Background: Discontinuing chemotherapy worsens cancer prognosis. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between nutritional status at the start of chemotherapy and chemotherapy discontinuation in patients with ovarian, fallopian tube, and primary peritoneal cancer. Methods: This was a retrospective cohort study. One hundred and forty-six patients to whom weekly paclitaxel and carboplatin were administered as postoperative chemotherapy were included. Six courses in 21-day cycles were defined as complete treatment. As nutritional indicators, body mass index, weight change rate, serum albumin, total lymphocyte count, prognostic nutritional index, and C-reactive protein-to-albumin ratio (CAR) were compared between complete and incomplete treatment groups. Patients were divided into two groups according to CAR. The number of chemotherapy cycles was compared between these two groups. A Cox proportional hazard model was used for covariate adjustment. Results: Several indicators differed between complete and incomplete treatment groups, and among the indicators, CAR had the highest discriminatory ability. The number of chemotherapy cycles was shorter in the high CAR group than in the low CAR group. A high CAR was associated with chemotherapy interruption even after adjusting for covariates. Conclusion: Based on CAR, nutritional status before chemotherapy is suggested to be associated with the risk of chemotherapy discontinuation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Clinical Nutrition)
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9 pages, 972 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of a Dietary Supplementation Combining Protein and a Pomegranate Extract in Older People: A Safety Study
by Valérie Dormal, Barbara Pachikian, Elena Debock, Marine Buchet, Sylvie Copine and Louise Deldicque
Nutrients 2022, 14(23), 5182; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14235182 - 06 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1932
Abstract
Malnutrition is a highly prevalent condition in older adults. It is associated with low muscle mass and function and increased occurrence of health problems. Maintaining an adequate nutritional status as well as a sufficient nutrient intake in older people is therefore essential to [...] Read more.
Malnutrition is a highly prevalent condition in older adults. It is associated with low muscle mass and function and increased occurrence of health problems. Maintaining an adequate nutritional status as well as a sufficient nutrient intake in older people is therefore essential to address this public health problem. For this purpose, protein supplementation is known to prevent the loss of muscle mass during aging, and the consumption of various pomegranate extracts induces numerous health benefits, mainly through their antioxidant properties. However, to our knowledge, no study has to date investigated the impact of their combination on the level of malnutrition in older people. The objective of this preliminary study was thus to evaluate the safety of a combination of protein and a pomegranate extract in healthy subjects aged 65 years or more during a 21-day supplementation period. Thirty older participants were randomly assigned to receive protein and a pomegranate extract (Test group) or protein and maltodextrin (Control group) during a 21-day intervention period. The primary outcomes were the safety and tolerability of the supplementation defined as the occurrence of adverse events, and additional secondary outcomes included physical examination and hematological and biochemical parameters. No serious adverse events were reported in any group. Changes in physical, hematological, and biochemical parameters between the initial screening and the end of the study were equivalent in both groups, except for glutamate-pyruvate transaminase (GPT) and prealbumin, for which a decrease was observed only in the Test group. Our initial findings support the safety of the combination of protein and a pomegranate extract in healthy elderly people. Future clinical trials on a larger sample and a longer period are needed to determine the efficacy of this combination. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition Interventions for Healthy Ageing)
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15 pages, 1771 KiB  
Article
Multi-Perspective Observation on the Prevalence of Food Allergy in the General Chinese Population: A Meta-Analysis
by Jian Wang, Wenfeng Liu, Chunyan Zhou, Fangfang Min, Yong Wu, Xin Li, Ping Tong and Hongbing Chen
Nutrients 2022, 14(23), 5181; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14235181 - 06 Dec 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2024
Abstract
Reliable estimates of the prevalence of food allergy (FA) among the general Chinese population have remained unclear. This meta-analysis aims to provide an accurate estimate of FA prevalence in China with comprehensive data. A systematic literature search was conducted in eight electronic databases, [...] Read more.
Reliable estimates of the prevalence of food allergy (FA) among the general Chinese population have remained unclear. This meta-analysis aims to provide an accurate estimate of FA prevalence in China with comprehensive data. A systematic literature search was conducted in eight electronic databases, i.e., China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Wanfang, Weipu, China Biology Medicine, Web of Science, PubMed, Cochrane, and Embase. A random-effects model was used to analyze the pooled prevalence of FA for four different assessment methods. A total of 46 eligible articles were included in the narrative synthesis, and 41 articles were ultimately included in the meta-analysis. Overall, the pooled prevalence of self-reported FA, self-reported physician-diagnosed FA, SPT (specific skin prick test)-positive FA, and OFC (open food challenge)-positive FA were 11.5% (95% CI: 9.8–13.5%), 5.3% (95% CI: 4.2–6.5%), 11.6% (95% CI: 9.6–14.1%), and 6.2% (95% CI: 4.4–8.7%), respectively. Subgroup analyses suggested that the prevalence of FA was affected by age, year of data collection, region, and sample size, but not by gender. This meta-analysis indicated that FA is common among Chinese people, with an increasing trend in prevalence during the past two decades. Given the high heterogenicity between these studies, a national survey with a large sample size based on standardized diagnosis is urgently needed to gain a more scientific understanding of the actual situation of food allergy in China. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Clinical Nutrition)
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15 pages, 999 KiB  
Article
Association of Food Intake with Sleep Durations in Adolescents from a Capital City in Northeastern Brazil
by Emanuellen Coelho da Silva, Juliana Ramos Carneiro, Poliana Cristina de Almeida Fonseca Viola, Susana Cararo Confortin and Antônio Augusto Moura da Silva
Nutrients 2022, 14(23), 5180; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14235180 - 05 Dec 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2630
Abstract
(1) Background: During adolescence, there are significant changes in food consumption, such as reducing the consumption of in natura or minimally processed foods and increasing the consumption of ultra-processed foods. Thus, eating habits can influence sleep duration and, consequently, affect the quality of [...] Read more.
(1) Background: During adolescence, there are significant changes in food consumption, such as reducing the consumption of in natura or minimally processed foods and increasing the consumption of ultra-processed foods. Thus, eating habits can influence sleep duration and, consequently, affect the quality of life of young people. This study thus aims to estimate the association of consumption of in natura or minimally processed, processed, and ultra-processed foods with sleep durations in adolescents. (2) Methods: This is a cross-sectional study including 964 adolescents (18 to 19 years old) from the 1997 to 1998 birth cohort in São Luís, Maranhão. Food consumption was assessed using the food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and stratified based on the NOVA classification. Sleep duration was verified using accelerometry in hours. The analysis of the association between the consumption of in natura or minimally processed, processedand ultra-processed foods with sleep durations in adolescents used crude and adjusted linear regression (by gender, age, skin color, education, economic class, work, consumption of alcohol, smoking, screen time, physical activity, use of illicit drugs, anxiety, depressive symptoms, and lean and fat mass). A directed acyclic graph (DAG) was used to determine the minimum set of adjustment factors. (3) Results: Of the 964 individuals evaluated, 52.0% were female. The mean sleep duration was 6 h (± 0.95). In the crude and adjusted analyses, no association was observed between food consumption according to the degree of processing and adolescent sleep durations. (4) Conclusion: There was no association between the consumption of in natura or minimally processed, processed, and ultra-processed foods with sleep durations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Intake and Health throughout the Life Cycle)
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17 pages, 3022 KiB  
Article
Dietary Inflammatory Nutrients and Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma Risk: A Case-Control Study
by Shanshan Li, Joshua Ye, Zheng Lin, Zhifeng Lin, Xuwei Tang, Wenqing Rao and Zhijian Hu
Nutrients 2022, 14(23), 5179; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14235179 - 05 Dec 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1924
Abstract
We conducted a case-control study (532 cases and 532 control) in Chinese adults to investigate the independent and interactive effects of dietary nutrients (pro- or anti-inflammation) on Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma (ESCC) risk. Dietary data were collected using a food questionnaire survey that [...] Read more.
We conducted a case-control study (532 cases and 532 control) in Chinese adults to investigate the independent and interactive effects of dietary nutrients (pro- or anti-inflammation) on Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma (ESCC) risk. Dietary data were collected using a food questionnaire survey that included 171 items. Two algorithms, the Least Absolute Shrinkage and Selector Operation (LASSO) and Bayesian Kernel Machine Regression (BKMR) were employed to select indicators and evaluate the interactive effect of nutrients’ mixture on ESCC risk. Thirteen nutrients were selected, including three pro-inflammatory nutrients (protein, fat and carbohydrate) and ten anti-inflammatory nutrients (fiber, Vitamin A, riboflavin, niacin, Vitamin C, Fe, Se, MUFA, n-3 PUFA and n-6 PUFA). Single-exposure effects of fat, carbohydrate and fiber significantly contributed to ESCC risk. The pro-inflammatory nutrients’ submodel discovered that the combined effect was statistically associated with increased ESCC risk. In addition, a higher fat level was significantly associated with ESCC risk. On the contrary, for fiber and riboflavin, the anti-inflammatory nutrients’ submodel delineated a significant negative effect on the risk of ESCC. Our result implies that dietary nutrients and their inflammatory traits significantly impacted ESCC occurrence. Additional studies are warranted to verify our findings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition and Public Health)
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12 pages, 791 KiB  
Article
Self-Reported Dietary Management Behaviors and Dietary Intake among Chinese Adults with Diabetes: A Population-Based Study
by Yixu Liu, Dongmei Yu, Jiayou Luo, Shuya Cai, Ping Ye, Zhenzhen Yao, Miyang Luo and Liyun Zhao
Nutrients 2022, 14(23), 5178; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14235178 - 05 Dec 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2073
Abstract
Few studies have analyzed the implementation of dietary management in Chinese adults with diabetes. Thus, we assessed and compared dietary intake and diet quality between diabetic patients with and without dietary management behaviors (DPDM vs. NDPDM), and evaluated the adherence to dietary guidelines [...] Read more.
Few studies have analyzed the implementation of dietary management in Chinese adults with diabetes. Thus, we assessed and compared dietary intake and diet quality between diabetic patients with and without dietary management behaviors (DPDM vs. NDPDM), and evaluated the adherence to dietary guidelines in both groups of patients. The data were obtained from the 2002, 2010–2013, and 2015 China National Nutrition Survey. A total of 69,583, 67,177, and 96,631 subjects participated in the 2002, 2010–2013, and 2015 survey rounds, respectively. The dietary intake data were measured using 3-day 24 h dietary recalls and weighed records of household condiments. The China Healthy Diet Index (CHDI) was used to evaluate diet quality. The study included 6229 patients with diabetes, of which 78% had dietary management behaviors. The diabetic patients with dietary management behaviors showed higher percentages of energy from high-quality carbohydrates, animal protein, saturated fatty acids, and unsaturated fatty acids and lower percentages from low-quality carbohydrates and plant protein than NDPDM. The diabetic patients with dietary management behaviors also had lower intakes of cereals and tubers and higher intakes of vegetables than NDPDM. The total CHDI score of DPDM was higher than NDPDM (56.3 ± 12.7 vs. 54.1 ± 12.3). The proportion of DPDM meeting the recommended intake for different food items ranged from 3.3% to 42.8% and from 3.0% to 39.2% in NDPDM. The diabetic patients with dietary management behaviors showed better adherence to dietary guidelines and higher diet quality scores than NDPDM, while the overall adherence was poor in both groups of patients. Our findings suggested that measures are needed to promote and refine dietary management behaviors, which can help to improve disease management in diabetic patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition and Diabetes)
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16 pages, 1128 KiB  
Article
New Validated Short Questionnaire for the Evaluation of the Adherence of Mediterranean Diet and Nutritional Sustainability in All Adult Population Groups
by Stefania Ruggeri, Pasquale Buonocore and Tiziana Amoriello
Nutrients 2022, 14(23), 5177; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14235177 - 05 Dec 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3985
Abstract
High adherence to a Mediterranean diet (MD) is favourable for its sustainability and beneficial effects on health. The available questionnaires, according to the MD dietary pattern, include the assessment of moderate alcohol consumption; but some groups, such as young adults and pre-conceptional and [...] Read more.
High adherence to a Mediterranean diet (MD) is favourable for its sustainability and beneficial effects on health. The available questionnaires, according to the MD dietary pattern, include the assessment of moderate alcohol consumption; but some groups, such as young adults and pre-conceptional and pregnant women, are not allowed to consume it. The aim of this study was to validate a new short questionnaire (MedQ-Sus) excluding alcohol consumption, to measure the adherence to the MD and to evaluate the nutritional adherence to a sustainable diet. The Harvard validated questionnaire was used for the validation study. A total of 316 subjects (20 to 70 YOA) completed both questionnaires. A high Spearman correlation coefficient (rho = 0.69; p < 0.01) was found between the MedQ-Sus and Harvard scores; a statistically significant positive correlation was found for all eight food groups. The MedQ-Sus had a significant discriminative capacity between adherence and non-adherence to the MD (optimal cut-off point = 9.5, sensitivity 0.86, specificity = 0.65). A very high nutritional adherence to a sustainable diet was found in the subjects for olive oil (97%), dairy food (90%), fresh vegetables (89%), fish and fish products (73), fresh fruit (56%), and cereals and cereals products (42%). A very low adherence was found for legumes (22%) and meat and meat products (9%). The results showed MedQ-Sus is a valid and quick assessment instrument for the evaluation of the adherence to the MD in all population groups, and could also be useful to evaluate the nutritional sustainability of the diet. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition and Public Health)
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22 pages, 2831 KiB  
Article
A Non-Randomized Trial Investigating the Impact of Brown Rice Consumption on Gut Microbiota, Attention, and Short-Term Working Memory in Thai School-Aged Children
by Lucsame Gruneck, Lisa K. Marriott, Eleni Gentekaki, Kongkiat Kespechara, Thomas J. Sharpton, Justin Denny, Jackilen Shannon and Siam Popluechai
Nutrients 2022, 14(23), 5176; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14235176 - 05 Dec 2022
Viewed by 2566
Abstract
While dietary fiber has been shown to influence the composition of gut microbiota and cognitive function in adults, much less is known about the fiber-microbiome-cognition association in children. We profiled gut microbiota using quantitative PCR (qPCR) and evaluated cognitive function using the Corsi [...] Read more.
While dietary fiber has been shown to influence the composition of gut microbiota and cognitive function in adults, much less is known about the fiber-microbiome-cognition association in children. We profiled gut microbiota using quantitative PCR (qPCR) and evaluated cognitive function using the Corsi block-tapping test (CBT) and the psychomotor vigilance test (PVT) before, during, and after the dietary intervention of 127 school-aged children in northern Thailand. While we found that Sinlek rice (SLR) consumption did not significantly alter the abundance of gut microbiota or the cognitive performance of school-aged children, we did find age to be associated with variations in both the gut microbiota profiles and cognitive outcomes. Gammaproteobacteria was significantly lower in the control and SLR groups during the middle time points of both phases (Weeks 4 and 61), and its abundance was associated with age. Cognitive performance using CBT and PVT were also found to be age-sensitive, as older children outperformed younger children on both of these cognitive assessments. Finally, a multiple factor analysis (MFA) revealed that age and cognitive performance best explain individual variation in this study. Collectively, these findings further describe the influence of host variables on the microbial profiles and cognitive outcomes of school-aged children consuming Sinlek rice in Thailand. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Pediatric Nutrition)
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13 pages, 2354 KiB  
Review
Health Effects of Infant Formula Supplemented with Probiotics or Synbiotics in Infants and Toddlers: Systematic Review with Network Meta-Analysis
by Flavia Indrio, Pedro Gutierrez Castrellon, Yvan Vandenplas, Ener Cagri Dinleyici, Ruggiero Francavilla, Massimo Pettoello Mantovani, Assunta Grillo, Isadora Beghetti, Luigi Corvaglia and Arianna Aceti
Nutrients 2022, 14(23), 5175; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14235175 - 05 Dec 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 4027
Abstract
Supplementation of infant and follow-up formula with probiotics or synbiotics has become a common practice. In 2011 and 2017, the evidence regarding the impact of these interventions was analysed systematically. Recently new evidence was published. To evaluate through a systematic review with network [...] Read more.
Supplementation of infant and follow-up formula with probiotics or synbiotics has become a common practice. In 2011 and 2017, the evidence regarding the impact of these interventions was analysed systematically. Recently new evidence was published. To evaluate through a systematic review with network meta-analysis the evidence on the impact of infant formula supplemented with probiotics or synbiotics for healthy infants and 36-month-old toddlers. RCTs published between 1999–2019 for infant formulas supplemented with probiotics alone or synbiotics in healthy infants and toddlers were identified. Data analysis included clinical (gastrointestinal symptoms, risk reduction of infectious diseases, use of antibiotics, weight/height gain and frequency of adverse events) and non-clinical outcomes (changes in faecal microbiota and immune parameters). A random effect model was used. Hedges’ standard mean difference (SMD) and risk ratio (RR) were calculated. Rank analysis was performed to evaluate the superiority of each intervention. Twenty-six randomised controlled trials with 35 direct comparisons involving 1957 children receiving probiotic-supplemented formula and 1898 receiving control formula were reviewed. The mean duration of intervention was 5.6 ± 2.84 months. Certain strains demonstrated a reduction in episodes of colic, number of days with fever and use of antibiotics; however, there was considerable heterogeneity which reduced the level of certainty of effect. No significant effects were observed on weight, height or changes in faecal proportions of Bifidobacteria, Lactobacillus, Bacteroides or Clostridia. Although there is some evidence that may support a potential benefit of probiotic or synbiotic supplementation of infant formulas, variation in the quality of existing trials and the heterogeneity of the data preclude the establishment of robust recommendations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feeding in Preterm Infants)
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15 pages, 1312 KiB  
Article
The Effect of BMI on Blood Lipids and Dyslipidemia in Lactating Women
by Lianlong Yu, Xiaohui Xu, Wei Yu, Liyong Chen, Shixiu Zhang, Yanmo Li, Meina Tian, Changqing Liu, Xiaoyan Luo and Yiya Liu
Nutrients 2022, 14(23), 5174; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14235174 - 05 Dec 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2125
Abstract
Background: This study aimed to explore the correlation between body mass index (BMI) and dyslipidemia and the optimal cut-off point for BMI to distinguish the risk of dyslipidemia in lactating women. Methods: A total of 2295 lactating women subjects were included in this [...] Read more.
Background: This study aimed to explore the correlation between body mass index (BMI) and dyslipidemia and the optimal cut-off point for BMI to distinguish the risk of dyslipidemia in lactating women. Methods: A total of 2295 lactating women subjects were included in this study, all within 2 years postpartum. All samples were from “China Children and Lactating Mothers Nutritional Health Surveillance (2016–2017)”. BMI, blood lipids, demographic information, lifestyle habits, and other serum indicators were obtained in this survey. Generalized linear model, logistic regression, restricted cubic spline (RCS) and ROC curve analysis were used to evaluate the relationship among BMI, blood lipids, and dyslipidemia. Results: BMI in lactating women was positively correlated with total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), but negatively correlated with high-density lipoproteincholesterol (HDL-C) (p < 0.05). Higher BMI in lactating women was associated with higher ORs of dyslipidemia (hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia, high-LDL-cholesterolemia, low HDL-cholesterolemia) (p < 0.05). These associations were stable across age groups, breastfeeding child age (months), parity, physical activity level, fasting plasma glucose (FPG), and hemoglobin. These factors did not interact with this relationship (p > 0.05). The optimal cut-off point for BMI was 24.85 kg/m2 determined by using ROC analysis, which can distinguish the risk of dyslipidemia. Conclusions: BMI was positively correlated with risk of dyslipidemia. Maintaining an ideal weight may prevent dyslipidemia in lactating women, and BMI is recommended to be controlled below 24.85 kg/m2. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Intake and Health throughout the Life Cycle)
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14 pages, 3213 KiB  
Article
Anti-Obesity Effects of Multi-Strain Probiotics in Mice with High-Carbohydrate Diet-Induced Obesity and the Underlying Molecular Mechanisms
by Hye Rim Kim, Eunsol Seo, Seyeon Oh, MinYeong Seo, Kyunghee Byun and Byung-Yong Kim
Nutrients 2022, 14(23), 5173; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14235173 - 05 Dec 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2347
Abstract
Overconsumption of highly refined carbohydrates contributes significantly to the current obesity pandemics. Probiotic administration protects against weight gain in animals fed a high-fat diet (HFD). Nonetheless, the anti-obesity effects of probiotics in a high-carbohydrate diet (HCD)-induced obesity models are not well elucidated. Herein, [...] Read more.
Overconsumption of highly refined carbohydrates contributes significantly to the current obesity pandemics. Probiotic administration protects against weight gain in animals fed a high-fat diet (HFD). Nonetheless, the anti-obesity effects of probiotics in a high-carbohydrate diet (HCD)-induced obesity models are not well elucidated. Herein, C57BL/6N male mice were fed an HCD (70% kcal carbohydrate) for 12 weeks and were orally treated with multi-strain probiotics (MSPs) at 1010 CFU or saline every day for 6 weeks. MSPs contained Lactobacillus acidophilus DSM 24936, Lactiplantibacillus plantarum DSM 24937, and Limosilactobacillus reuteri DSM 25175. MSPs treatment not only ameliorated weight gain but also modulated the body fat composition altered by HCD. The MSPs also attenuated the expression of adipogenesis- and lipogenesis-related genes in HCD-fed mice. In addition, MSPs promoted the expression of lipolysis- and fatty acid oxidation-promoting factors in HCD-fed mice. Furthermore, MSPs modulated the expression of thermogenesis-related genes and the serum levels of obesity-related hormones altered by HCD. Treatment with MSPs positively reversed the Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio, which is associated with a risk of obesity. Hence, this study explores the multifaceted anti-obesity mechanisms of MSPs and highlights their potential to be used as effective weight-management products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Prebiotics and Probiotics)
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15 pages, 770 KiB  
Article
Interaction of Depression and Unhealthy Diets on the Risk of Cardiovascular Diseases and All-Cause Mortality in the Chinese Population: A PURE Cohort Substudy
by Xinyue Lang, Zhiguang Liu, Shofiqul Islam, Guoliang Han, Sumathy Rangarajan, Lap Ah Tse, Maha Mushtaha, Junying Wang, Lihua Hu, Deren Qiang, Yingxuan Zhu, Salim Yusuf, Yang Lin, Bo Hu and on behalf of the PURE-China Investigators
Nutrients 2022, 14(23), 5172; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14235172 - 05 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2112
Abstract
This study aimed to identify the interaction of depression and diets on cardiovascular diseases (CVD) incident and death in China and key subpopulations. We included 40,925 participants from the Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology (PURE)-China cohort which recruited participants aged 35–70 years from 45 [...] Read more.
This study aimed to identify the interaction of depression and diets on cardiovascular diseases (CVD) incident and death in China and key subpopulations. We included 40,925 participants from the Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology (PURE)-China cohort which recruited participants aged 35–70 years from 45 urban and 70 rural communities. Depression was measured by the adapted Short-Form (CIDI-SF). The unhealthy diet was considered when the score of Alternative Healthy Eating Index was below the lowest tertile. The primary outcome was a composite outcome of incident CVD and all-cause mortality. Cox frailty models were used to examine the associations. During a median follow-up of 11.9 years (IQR: 9.6–12.6 years), depression significantly increased the risk of the composite outcome (HR = 2.00; 95% CI, 1.16–3.27), major CVD (HR = 1.82; 95% CI, 1.48–2.23), and all-cause mortality (HR = 2.21; 95% CI, 1.51–3.24) for the unhealthy diet group, but not for the healthy diet group. The interaction between depression and diet for the composite outcome was statistically significant (RERI = 1.19; 95% CI, 0.66–1.72; AP = 0.42, 95% CI, 0.27–0.61; SI = 3.30, 95% CI, 1.42–7.66; multiplicative-scale = 1.74 95% CI, 1.27–2.39), even in the subgroup and sensitivity analyses. In addition, the intake of vegetable and polyunsaturated fatty acids contributed most to the interaction of diets and depression. Depressive participants should focus on healthy diets, especially vegetables and polyunsaturated fatty acids, to avoid premature death and CVD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition and Public Health)
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19 pages, 1221 KiB  
Review
Targeting mTOR Signaling by Dietary Polyphenols in Obesity Prevention
by Yunyun Cao, Shuai Han, Han Lu, Yi Luo, Tianyi Guo, Qi Wu and Feijun Luo
Nutrients 2022, 14(23), 5171; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14235171 - 05 Dec 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 3721
Abstract
Dietary polyphenols can be utilized to treat obesity and chronic disorders linked to it. Dietary polyphenols can inhibit pre-adipocyte proliferation, adipocyte differentiation, and triglyceride accumulation; meanwhile, polyphenols can also stimulate lipolysis and fatty acid β-oxidation, but the molecular mechanisms of anti-obesity are still [...] Read more.
Dietary polyphenols can be utilized to treat obesity and chronic disorders linked to it. Dietary polyphenols can inhibit pre-adipocyte proliferation, adipocyte differentiation, and triglyceride accumulation; meanwhile, polyphenols can also stimulate lipolysis and fatty acid β-oxidation, but the molecular mechanisms of anti-obesity are still unclear. The mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a protein kinase that regulates cell growth, survival, metabolism, and immunity. mTOR signaling is also thought to play a key role in the development of metabolic diseases such as obesity. Recent studies showed that dietary polyphenols could target mTOR to reduce obesity. In this review, we systematically summarized the research progress of polyphenols in preventing obesity through the mTOR signaling pathway. Mechanistically, polyphenols can target multiple signaling pathways and gut microbiota to regulate the mTOR signaling pathway to exert anti-obesity effects. The main mechanisms include: modulating lipid metabolism, adipogenesis, inflammation, etc. Dietary polyphenols exerting an anti-obesity effect by targeting mTOR signaling will broaden our understanding of the anti-obesity mechanisms of polyphenols and provide valuable insights for researchers in this novel field. Full article
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13 pages, 2091 KiB  
Article
Preparation, Characterization, Wound Healing, and Cytotoxicity Assay of PEGylated Nanophytosomes Loaded with 6-Gingerol
by Ali Al-Samydai, Moath Al Qaraleh, Walhan Alshaer, Lidia K. Al-Halaseh, Reem Issa, Fatima Alshaikh, Aseel Abu-Rumman, Hayat Al-Ali and Emad A. S. Al-Dujaili
Nutrients 2022, 14(23), 5170; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14235170 - 05 Dec 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2400
Abstract
Background: Nutrients are widely used for treating illnesses in traditional medicine. Ginger has long been used in folk medicine to treat motion sickness and other minor health disorders. Chronic non-healing wounds might elicit an inflammation response and cancerous mutation. Few clinical studies have [...] Read more.
Background: Nutrients are widely used for treating illnesses in traditional medicine. Ginger has long been used in folk medicine to treat motion sickness and other minor health disorders. Chronic non-healing wounds might elicit an inflammation response and cancerous mutation. Few clinical studies have investigated 6-gingerol’s wound-healing activity due to its poor pharmacokinetic properties. However, nanotechnology can deliver 6-gingerol while possibly enhancing these properties. Our study aimed to develop a nanophytosome system loaded with 6-gingerol molecules to investigate the delivery system’s influence on wound healing and anti-cancer activities. Methods: We adopted the thin-film hydration method to synthesize nanophytosomes. We used lipids in a ratio of 70:25:5 for DOPC(dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine): cholesterol: DSPE/PEG2000, respectively. We loaded the 6-gingerol molecules in a concentration of 1.67 mg/mL and achieved size reduction via the extrusion technique. We determined cytotoxicity using lung, breast, and pancreatic cancer cell lines. We performed gene expression of inflammation markers and cytokines according to international protocols. Results: The synthesized nanophytosome particle sizes were 150.16 ± 1.65, the total charge was −13.36 ± 1.266, and the polydispersity index was 0.060 ± 0.050. Transmission electron microscopy determined the synthesized particles’ spherical shape and uniform size. The encapsulation efficiency was 34.54% ± 0.035. Our biological tests showed that 6-gingerol nanophytosomes displayed selective antiproliferative activity, considerable downregulation of inflammatory markers and cytokines, and an enhanced wound-healing process. Conclusions: Our results confirm the anti-cancer activity of PEGylated nanophytosome 6-gingerol, with superior activity exhibited in accelerating wound healing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Dietary Bioactives in Health and Disease)
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12 pages, 291 KiB  
Article
Dietary Intake and Physical Activity of Thai Children and Adolescents with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus
by Sriwan Thongpaeng, Preeyarat Sorncharoen, Lukana Preechasuk and Jeerunda Santiprabhob
Nutrients 2022, 14(23), 5169; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14235169 - 05 Dec 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2154
Abstract
Appropriate dietary intake and physical activity (PA) are essential for glycemic control and optimal growth in youth with type 1 diabetes (T1D). Thus, this study aimed to compare dietary intake and PA between youth with T1D and healthy controls. One hundred Thai youth [...] Read more.
Appropriate dietary intake and physical activity (PA) are essential for glycemic control and optimal growth in youth with type 1 diabetes (T1D). Thus, this study aimed to compare dietary intake and PA between youth with T1D and healthy controls. One hundred Thai youth with T1D and 100 age-matched healthy participants were recruited. A 3-day food record was completed and converted into nutrient intake data. PA data were collected via interview. Participants with T1D had a significantly higher mean ± SD carbohydrate (50.8 ± 6.8% vs. 46.2 ± 7.5%, p < 0.01), lower fat (32.4 ± 5.9% vs. 35.9 ± 6.4%, p < 0.01), and lower protein (16.8 ± 2.6% vs. 17.9 ± 3.5%, p = 0.01) intake compared to controls. Fifty percent of T1D participants and 41% of control participants consumed saturated fat more than recommendations (p = 0.20). Participants with T1D had a higher median (IQR) calcium intake compared to controls (474 (297–700) vs. 328 (167–447) mg/day, p < 0.01). Both groups consumed less fiber and more sodium compared to recommendations. Both groups had inadequate PA. Participants with T1D had significantly less PA compared to controls (25 (13–48) vs. 34 (14–77) minutes/day, p = 0.04). In addition to the need for counseling that promotes consumption of more dietary fiber and calcium and less saturated fat and sodium, the benefits of performing regular exercise need to be emphasized among youth with T1D. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition Managing in Pediatric Diabetes: Aspects and Challenges)
17 pages, 1632 KiB  
Article
Exploring the Chemical Space of Kawakawa Leaf (Piper excelsum)
by Ramya Jayaprakash, Farha Ramzan, Jennifer L. Miles-Chan, Meika Foster, Richard F. Mithen and Chris Pook
Nutrients 2022, 14(23), 5168; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14235168 - 05 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 4800
Abstract
The chemical profiles of kawakawa (Piper excelsum) leaves were analysed through targeted and non-targeted LC-MS/MS. The phytochemical profile was obtained for both aqueous extracts representative of kawakawa tea and methanolic extracts. Sixty-four compounds were identified from eight leaf sources including phenylpropanoids, [...] Read more.
The chemical profiles of kawakawa (Piper excelsum) leaves were analysed through targeted and non-targeted LC-MS/MS. The phytochemical profile was obtained for both aqueous extracts representative of kawakawa tea and methanolic extracts. Sixty-four compounds were identified from eight leaf sources including phenylpropanoids, lignans, flavonoids, alkaloids and amides. Eight of these compounds were absolutely quantified. The chemical content varied significantly by leaf source, with two commercially available sources of dried kawakawa leaves being relatively high in phenylpropanoids and flavonoids compared with field-collected fresh samples that were richer in amides, alkaloids and lignans. The concentrations of pharmacologically active metabolites ingested from the traditional consumption of kawakawa leaf as an aqueous infusion, or from novel use as a seasoning, are well below documented toxicity thresholds. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Phytochemicals and Human Health)
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15 pages, 455 KiB  
Article
Associations between Hunger and Psychological Outcomes: A Large-Scale Ecological Momentary Assessment Study
by Romain de Rivaz, Joel Swendsen, Sylvie Berthoz, Mathilde Husky, Kathleen Merikangas and Pedro Marques-Vidal
Nutrients 2022, 14(23), 5167; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14235167 - 05 Dec 2022
Viewed by 2058
Abstract
Studies assessing the association between hunger and psychological states have been conducted in laboratory settings, or limited to persons with eating disorders. In this study, 748 community-dwelling adults (56.4% women, 60.0 ± 9.3 years) completed the Ecological Momentary Assessment four times a day [...] Read more.
Studies assessing the association between hunger and psychological states have been conducted in laboratory settings, or limited to persons with eating disorders. In this study, 748 community-dwelling adults (56.4% women, 60.0 ± 9.3 years) completed the Ecological Momentary Assessment four times a day (08:00, 12:00, 16:00 and 20:00) for seven days. At each assessment, respondents indicated their current hunger level, food intake, and psychological states (sad, anxious, active, lively, distracted, anhedonic, angry, slow thinking and restless). Time-lagged associations assessing the effect of hunger on subsequent psychological states 4 h later and vice-versa were assessed. Hunger intensity increased subsequent active feeling (coefficient and 95% confidence interval: 0.029 (0.007; 0.051)) and lively feeling (0.019 (0.004; 0.034)) and decreased later slow thinking (−0.016 (−0.029; −0.003)). Previous eating increased later activity (0.116 (0.025; 0.208)). Feeling active (0.050 (0.036; 0.064)), lively (0.045 (0.023; 0.067)) and restless (0.040 (0.018; 0.063)) increased later hunger intensity, while distraction (−0.039 (−0.058; −0.019)) and slow thinking (−0.057 (−0.080; −0.034)) decreased it. No association was found between hunger, food intake and negative psychological states (sadness, anxiety and anger). Conclusions: Positive psychological states and hunger influence each other, while no association was found between hunger and negative psychological states. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition in Brain, Cognitive and Psychological Health)
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16 pages, 2017 KiB  
Article
Mid-Arm Muscle Circumference or Body Weight-Standardized Hand Grip Strength in the GLIM Superiorly Predicts Survival in Chinese Colorectal Cancer Patients
by Tiantian Wu, Hongxia Xu, Yuanlin Zou, Jiuwei Cui, Kedi Xu, Mingming Zhou, Pengxia Guo, Haoqing Cheng, Hanping Shi, Chunhua Song and The Investigation on Nutrition Status and its Clinical Outcome of Common Cancers (INSCOC) Group
Nutrients 2022, 14(23), 5166; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14235166 - 05 Dec 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2611
Abstract
Our objective was to identify the optimal method to assess reduced muscle mass (RMM) using the Global Leadership Initiative on Malnutrition (GLIM) approach and investigate the roles of the GLIM approach in nutrition assessment and survival prediction in colorectal cancer (CRC) patients. During [...] Read more.
Our objective was to identify the optimal method to assess reduced muscle mass (RMM) using the Global Leadership Initiative on Malnutrition (GLIM) approach and investigate the roles of the GLIM approach in nutrition assessment and survival prediction in colorectal cancer (CRC) patients. During a median follow-up period of 4.2 (4.0, 4.4) years, a development cohort of 3612 CRC patients with a mean age of 64.09 ± 12.45 years was observed, as well as an external validation cohort of 875 CRC patients. Kaplan–Meier curves and multivariate Cox regression were adopted to analyze the association between GLIM-diagnosed malnutrition and the overall survival (OS) of CRC patients. A nomogram predicting individualized survival was constructed based on independent prognostic predictors. The concordance index, calibration curve, and decision curve were applied to appraise the discrimination, accuracy, and clinical efficacy of the nomogram, respectively. Patients diagnosed with severe malnutrition based on either the mid-arm muscle circumference (MAMC) or body weight-standardized hand grip strength (HGS/W) method had the highest mortality hazard ratio (HR, 1.51; 95% CI, 1.34–1.70; p < 0.001). GLIM-defined malnutrition was diagnosed in 47.6% of patients. Severe malnutrition was an independent mortality risk factor for OS (HR, 1.25; 95% CI, 1.10–1.42; p < 0.001). The GLIM nomogram showed good performance in predicting the survival of CRC patients and was clinically beneficial. Our findings support the effectiveness of GLIM in diagnosing malnutrition and predicting OS in CRC patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Nutrition in Cancer and Neurodegenerative Diseases)
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