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Nutrients, Volume 15, Issue 1 (January-1 2023) – 252 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): The purpose of this systematic review was to evaluate the impact of saturated fatty acid chain lengths on the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD). The importance of replacement macronutrients is also discussed. PubMed, CINAHL, and Cochrane library were searched for relevant prospective cohort studies that measured SFA chain length via diet analysis through October of 2020. A second updated PubMed search was conducted from October 2020 to 7 August 2022. Five prospective cohort studies were added. All studies used food frequency questionnaires to assess dietary intake. For all five added studies, the main sources of saturated fat were palmitic and steric acid from meat and cheese. View this paper
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21 pages, 3648 KiB  
Article
Ex Vivo Evaluation of Glutamine Treatment in Sepsis and Trauma in a Human Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells Model
by Efrossini Briassouli, Marianna Tzanoudaki, Dimitris Goukos, Kostas Vardas, Panagiotis Briassoulis, Stavroula Ilia, Maria Kanariou, Christina Routsi, Serafim Nanas, George L. Daikos and George Briassoulis
Nutrients 2023, 15(1), 252; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15010252 - 03 Jan 2023
Viewed by 2671
Abstract
We aimed to assess the lipopolysaccharide (LPS), or heat shock (HS) induction, and glutamine-modulating effects on heat shock protein-90α (HSP90α) and cytokines in an ex vivo model using peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). The PBMCs of patients with septic shock, trauma-related systemic inflammatory [...] Read more.
We aimed to assess the lipopolysaccharide (LPS), or heat shock (HS) induction, and glutamine-modulating effects on heat shock protein-90α (HSP90α) and cytokines in an ex vivo model using peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). The PBMCs of patients with septic shock, trauma-related systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS), and healthy subjects were incubated with 1 μg/mL LPS at 43 °C (HS). Glutamine 10 mM was added 1 hour before or after induction or not at all. We measured mRNA HSP90α, monocyte (m) and lymphocyte (l) HSP90α proteins, interleukin (IL)-1b, -6, -8, -10, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) supernatant levels. Heat shock increased the HSP90α mRNA and mHSP90α in all groups (10-fold in sepsis, p < 0.001 and p = 0.047, respectively). LPS induced the mHSP90α and lHSP90α in healthy (p < 0.001) and mHSP90α in SIRS (p = 0.004) but not in sepsis. LPS induced the cytokines at 24 and 48 h in all groups, especially in trauma (p < 0.001); HS only induced the IL-8 in healthy (p = 0.003) and septic subjects (p = 0.05). Glutamine at 10 mM before or after stimulation did not alter any induction effect of LPS or HS on HSP90α mRNA and mHSP90α protein in sepsis. In SIRS, glutamine before LPS decreased the mHSP90α but increased it when given after HS (p = 0.018). Before or after LPS (p = 0.049) and before HS (p = 0.018), glutamine decreased the lHSP90α expression in sepsis but increased it in SIRS when given after HS (p = 0.003). Regarding cytokines, glutamine enhanced the LPS-induced MCP-1 at 48 h in healthy (p = 0.011), SIRS (p < 0.001), and sepsis (p = 0.006). In conclusion, glutamine at 10 mM, before or after LPS and HS, modulates mHSP90α and lHSP90α in sepsis and SIRS differently and unpredictably. Although it does not alter the stimulation effect on interleukins, glutamine enhances the LPS induction effect on supernatant MCP-1 in all groups. Future research should seek to elucidate better the impact of glutamine and temperature modulation on HSP90α and MCP-1 pathways in sepsis and trauma. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Critical Illness)
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17 pages, 12470 KiB  
Article
Ketogenic Diet Combined with Moderate Aerobic Exercise Training Ameliorates White Adipose Tissue Mass, Serum Biomarkers, and Hepatic Lipid Metabolism in High-Fat Diet-Induced Obese Mice
by Jiabao Yan, Cuiru Ren, Yunlong Dong, Jibran A. Wali, Hongjie Song, Ying Zhang, Hengrui Zhang, Guangning Kou, David Raubenheimer and Zhenwei Cui
Nutrients 2023, 15(1), 251; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15010251 - 03 Jan 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3314
Abstract
Obesity is a serious public health issue worldwide. Growing evidence demonstrates the efficacy of the ketogenic diet (KD) for weight loss, but there may be some adverse side effects such as dyslipidemia and hepatic steatosis. Aerobic exercise is a widely recognized approach for [...] Read more.
Obesity is a serious public health issue worldwide. Growing evidence demonstrates the efficacy of the ketogenic diet (KD) for weight loss, but there may be some adverse side effects such as dyslipidemia and hepatic steatosis. Aerobic exercise is a widely recognized approach for improving these metabolic markers. Here we explored the combined impacts of KD and moderate aerobic exercise for an 8-week intervention on body weight and fat loss, serum biomarkers, and hepatic lipid metabolism in a mouse model of high-fat diet-induced obesity. Both KD and KD combined with exercise significantly reduced body weight and fat mass. No significant adverse effects of KD were observed in serum biomarkers or hepatic lipid storage, except for an increase in circulating triglyceride level. However, aerobic exercise lowered serum triglyceride levels, and further ameliorated serum parameters, and hepatic steatosis in KD-fed mice. Moreover, gene and protein expression analysis indicated that KD combined with exercise was associated with increased expression of lipolysis-related genes and protein levels, and reduced expression of lipogenic genes relative to KD without exercise. Overall, our findings for mice indicate that further work on humans might reveal that KD combined with moderate aerobic exercise could be a promising therapeutic strategy for obesity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Lipids)
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14 pages, 4754 KiB  
Article
Long-Term High-Fat Diet Consumption Induces Cognitive Decline Accompanied by Tau Hyper-Phosphorylation and Microglial Activation in Aging
by Zheng Liang, Xiaokang Gong, Runjia Ye, Yang Zhao, Jin Yu, Yanna Zhao and Jian Bao
Nutrients 2023, 15(1), 250; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15010250 - 03 Jan 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3134
Abstract
High-fat diet (HFD) intake is commonly related to a substantial risk of cognitive impairment for senior citizens over 65 years of age, which constitutes a profound global health burden with several economic and social consequences. It is critical to investigate the effects of [...] Read more.
High-fat diet (HFD) intake is commonly related to a substantial risk of cognitive impairment for senior citizens over 65 years of age, which constitutes a profound global health burden with several economic and social consequences. It is critical to investigate the effects of long-term HFD consumption on cognitive function and to inspect the potential underlying mechanisms. In the present study, 9-month-old male C57BL/6 mice were randomly assigned to either a normal diet (ND, 10 kcal% fat) or an HFD diet (60 kcal% fat) for 10 months. Then a series of behavioral tests, and histological and biochemistry examinations of the hippocampus and cortex proceeded. We found that long-term HFD-fed aged mice exhibited cognitive function decline in the object place recognition test (OPR). Compared with the ND group, the HFD-fed mice showed Tau hyperphosphorylation at ps214 in the hippocampus and at ps422 and ps396 in the cortex, which was accompanied by GSK-3β activation. The higher activated phenotype of microglia in the brain of the HFD group was typically evidenced by an increased average area of the cell body and reduced complexity of microglial processes. Immunoblotting showed that long-term HFD intake augmented the levels of inflammatory cytokines IL-6 in the hippocampus. These findings indicate that long-term HFD intake deteriorates cognitive dysfunctions, accompanied by Tau hyperphosphorylation, microglial activation, and inflammatory cytokine expression, and that the modifiable lifestyle factor contributes to the cognitive decline of senior citizens. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Impact of Nutrition on Brain Metabolism and Disease)
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16 pages, 3753 KiB  
Article
Effects of Resveratrol on Muscle Inflammation, Energy Utilisation, and Exercise Performance in an Eccentric Contraction Exercise Mouse Model
by Liang-Yu Su, Wen-Ching Huang, Nai-Wen Kan, Te-Hsuan Tung, Linh Ba Phuong Huynh and Shih-Yi Huang
Nutrients 2023, 15(1), 249; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15010249 - 03 Jan 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3256
Abstract
Eccentric contraction can easily cause muscle damage and an inflammatory response, which reduces the efficiency of muscle contraction. Resveratrol causes anti-inflammatory effects in muscles, accelerates muscle repair, and promotes exercise performance after contusion recovery. However, whether resveratrol provides the same benefits for sports [...] Read more.
Eccentric contraction can easily cause muscle damage and an inflammatory response, which reduces the efficiency of muscle contraction. Resveratrol causes anti-inflammatory effects in muscles, accelerates muscle repair, and promotes exercise performance after contusion recovery. However, whether resveratrol provides the same benefits for sports injuries caused by eccentric contraction is unknown. Thus, we explored the effects of resveratrol on inflammation and energy metabolism. In this study, mice were divided into four groups: a control group, an exercise group (EX), an exercise with low-dose resveratrol group (EX + RES25), and an exercise with high-dose resveratrol group (EX + RES150). The results of an exhaustion test showed that the time before exhaustion of the EX + RES150 group was greater than that of the EX group. Tumour necrosis factor-α (Tnfα) mRNA expression was lower in the EX + RES150 group than in the EX group. The energy utilisation of the EX + RES150 group was greater than that of the EX + RES25 group in different muscles. High-dose resveratrol intervention decreased Tnfα mRNA expression and enhanced the mRNA expressions of sirtuin 1, glucose transporter 4, AMP-activated protein kinase α1, and AMP-activated protein kinase α2 in muscles. These results revealed that high-dose resveratrol supplementation can reduce inflammation and oxidation and improve energy utilisation during short-duration high-intensity exercise. Full article
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14 pages, 5224 KiB  
Article
Effects of Initial Combinations of Gemigliptin Plus Metformin Compared with Glimepiride Plus Metformin on Gut Microbiota and Glucose Regulation in Obese Patients with Type 2 Diabetes: The INTESTINE Study
by Soo Lim, Minji Sohn, Jose C. Florez, Michael A. Nauck and Jiyoung Ahn
Nutrients 2023, 15(1), 248; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15010248 - 03 Jan 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 4599
Abstract
The efficacy and safety of medications can be affected by alterations in gut microbiota in human beings. Among antidiabetic medications, incretin-based therapy such as dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitors might affect gut microbiomes, which are related to glucose metabolism. This was a randomized, controlled, [...] Read more.
The efficacy and safety of medications can be affected by alterations in gut microbiota in human beings. Among antidiabetic medications, incretin-based therapy such as dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitors might affect gut microbiomes, which are related to glucose metabolism. This was a randomized, controlled, active-competitor study that aimed to compare the effects of combinations of gemigliptin–metformin vs. glimepiride–metformin as initial therapies on gut microbiota and glucose homeostasis in drug-naïve patients with type 2 diabetes. Seventy drug-naïve patients with type 2 diabetes (mean age, 52.2 years) with a glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) level ≥7.5% were assigned to either gemigliptin–metformin or glimepiride–metformin combination therapies for 24 weeks. Changes in gut microbiota, biomarkers linked to glucose regulation, body composition, and amino acid blood levels were investigated. Although both treatments decreased the HbA1c levels significantly, the gemigliptin–metformin group achieved HbA1c ≤ 7.0% without hypoglycemia or weight gain more effectively than did the glimepiride–metformin group (59% vs. 24%; p < 0.05). At the phylum level, the Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio tended to decrease after gemigliptin–metformin therapy (p = 0.065), with a notable depletion of taxa belonging to Firmicutes, including Lactobacillus, Ruminococcus torques, and Streptococcus (all p < 0.05). However, regardless of the treatment modality, a distinct difference in the overall gut microbiome composition was noted between patients who reached the HbA1c target goal and those who did not (p < 0.001). Treatment with gemigliptin–metformin resulted in a higher achievement of the glycemic target without hypoglycemia or weight gain, better than with glimepiride–metformin; these improvements might be related to beneficial changes in gut microbiota. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Endocrinology and Metabolic Diseases in Human Health)
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14 pages, 458 KiB  
Article
Oh So Sweet: A Comparative Investigation of Retail Market Composition of Sweetened and Flavoured Beverages in Singapore and Australia
by Kim Anastasiou, Paige G. Brooker, Xenia Cleanthous, Rebecca Tan, Benjamin P. C. Smith and Malcolm Riley
Nutrients 2023, 15(1), 247; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15010247 - 03 Jan 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2609
Abstract
The consumption of sugar and non-nutritive sweeteners has been associated with poor health outcomes. The aim of this paper was to provide a comparison of the range of sweetened or flavoured beverages between two high-income countries in the Asia-Pacific region: Australia and Singapore. [...] Read more.
The consumption of sugar and non-nutritive sweeteners has been associated with poor health outcomes. The aim of this paper was to provide a comparison of the range of sweetened or flavoured beverages between two high-income countries in the Asia-Pacific region: Australia and Singapore. Following the FoodTrackTM methodology, nutrition, labelling, and price data were collected from major Australian and Singaporean supermarket chains and convenience stores. The nutrient profiles of products were tested for differences using Kruskal–Wallis and Mann–Whitney U tests. The greatest number of products collected in Australia were from the ‘carbonated beverages’ category (n = 215, 40%), and in Singapore the greatest number of products were from the ‘tea and coffee ready-to-drink’ category (n = 182, 35%). There were more calorically sweetened beverages in Singapore compared with Australia (n = 462/517 vs. n = 374/531, p < 0.001). For calorically sweetened products, the median energy of Singaporean products was significantly higher than Australian products (134 kJ vs. 120 kJ per 100 mL, p = 0.009). In Australia, 52% of sweetened or flavoured beverages displayed a front-of-pack nutrient signposting logo, compared with 34% of sweetened or flavoured beverages in Singapore. These findings also indicate that the consumption of just one serving of calorically sweetened carbonated beverages or energy drinks would exceed the WHO maximum daily free sugar recommendations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition and Public Health)
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15 pages, 4949 KiB  
Article
Red Rice Bran Extract Alleviates High-Fat Diet-Induced Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and Dyslipidemia in Mice
by Narongsuk Munkong, Surasawadee Somnuk, Nattanida Jantarach, Kingkarnonk Ruxsanawet, Piyawan Nuntaboon, Vaiphot Kanjoo and Bhornprom Yoysungnoen
Nutrients 2023, 15(1), 246; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15010246 - 03 Jan 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 4299
Abstract
Red rice bran extract (RRBE) is rich in phytonutrients and has been shown to have anti-diabetic, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant properties. However, its anti-hepatic steatosis and anti-dyslipidemic properties have not been thoroughly investigated. This study examined the aforementioned properties of RRBE, the underlying mechanism [...] Read more.
Red rice bran extract (RRBE) is rich in phytonutrients and has been shown to have anti-diabetic, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant properties. However, its anti-hepatic steatosis and anti-dyslipidemic properties have not been thoroughly investigated. This study examined the aforementioned properties of RRBE, the underlying mechanism by which it alleviated non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice, and its major bioactive constituents. The mice were divided into four groups based on their diet: (1) low-fat diet (LFD), (2) LFD with high-dose RRBE (1 g/kg/day), (3) HFD, and (4) HFD with three different doses of RRBE (0.25, 0.5, and 1 g/kg/day). The administration of RRBE, especially at medium and high doses, significantly mitigated HFD-induced hepatosteatosis and concomitantly improved the serum lipid profile. Further, RRBE modified the level of expression of lipid metabolism-related genes (adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL), cluster of differentiation 36 (CD36), lipoprotein lipase (LPL), liver X receptor alpha (LXRα), sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c), SREBP-2, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGCR), and carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1A (CPT1A)) in hepatic or adipose tissues and improved the expression of hepatic high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) cmetabolism-related genes (hepatic lipase (HL) and apolipoprotein A-ǀ (ApoA-ǀ)). RRBE also attenuated markers of liver injury, inflammation, and oxidative stress, accompanied by a modulated expression of inflammatory (nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS)), pro-oxidant (p47phox), and apoptotic (B-cell lymphoma protein 2 (Bcl-2)-associated X and Bcl-2) genes in the liver. High-performance liquid chromatography analyses indicated the presence of protocatechuic acid, γ-oryzanol, vitamin E, and coenzyme Q10 in RRBE. Our data indicate that RRBE alleviates HFD-induced hepatosteatosis, dyslipidemia, and their pathologic complications in part by regulating the expression of key genes involved in lipid metabolism, inflammation, oxidative stress, and apoptosis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition and Obesity)
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16 pages, 8123 KiB  
Article
Perinatal Fat-Diets Increased Angiotensin II-Mediated Ca2+ through PKC-L-Type Calcium Channel Axis in Resistance Arteries via Agtr1a-Prkcb Gene Methylation
by Qiutong Zheng, Yun He, Lingjun Li, Can Rui, Na Li, Yumeng Zhang, Yang Ye, Ze Zhang, Xiaojun Yang, Jiaqi Tang and Zhice Xu
Nutrients 2023, 15(1), 245; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15010245 - 03 Jan 2023
Viewed by 1888
Abstract
Perinatal malnutrition affects vascular functions, and calcium is important in vascular regulations. It is unknown whether and how perinatal maternal high-fat diets (MHF)-mediated vascular dysfunction occurs via the angiotensin-PKC-L-type-calcium-channels (LTCC) axis. This study determined angiotensin II (AII) roles in the PKC-LTCC axis in [...] Read more.
Perinatal malnutrition affects vascular functions, and calcium is important in vascular regulations. It is unknown whether and how perinatal maternal high-fat diets (MHF)-mediated vascular dysfunction occurs via the angiotensin-PKC-L-type-calcium-channels (LTCC) axis. This study determined angiotensin II (AII) roles in the PKC-LTCC axis in controlling calcium influx in the arteries of offspring after perinatal MHF. Mesenteric arteries (MA) and smooth muscle cells (SMCs) from 5-month-old offspring rats were studied using physiological, ion channel, molecular, and epigenetic analysis. Pressor responses to AII were significantly increased in the free-moving MHF offspring rats. In cell experiments, MA-SMC proliferation was enhanced, and associated with thicker vascular wall in the obese offspring. Imaging analysis showed increase of fluorescence Ca2+ intensity in the SMCs of the MHF group. Angiotensin II receptor (AT1R)-mediated PKC-LTCC axis in vasoconstrictions was altered by perinatal MHF via reduced DNA methylation at specific CpG sites of Agtr1a and Prkcb gene promoters at the transcription level. Accordingly, mRNA and protein expression of AT1R and PKCβ in the offspring MA were increased, contributing to enhanced Ca2+ currents and vascular tone. The results showed that DNA methylation resulted in perinatal MHF-induced vascular disorders via altered AT1-PKC-LTCC pathway in resistance arteries of the offspring, providing new insights into the pathogenesis and early prevention/treatments for hypertension in developmental origins. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Effect of Nutritional Aspect on Obesity and Hypertension)
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17 pages, 12044 KiB  
Article
Differential Orbitofrontal Cortex Responses to Chocolate Images While Performing an Approach–Avoidance Task in the MRI Environment
by Anja Lender, Janina Wirtz, Martin Kronbichler, Sercan Kahveci, Simone Kühn and Jens Blechert
Nutrients 2023, 15(1), 244; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15010244 - 03 Jan 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2049
Abstract
Background: Chocolate is one of the most frequently craved foods, and it often challenges self-regulation. These cravings may be underpinned by a neural facilitation of approach behavior toward chocolate. This preregistered study investigated the behavioral and neural correlates of such a bias using [...] Read more.
Background: Chocolate is one of the most frequently craved foods, and it often challenges self-regulation. These cravings may be underpinned by a neural facilitation of approach behavior toward chocolate. This preregistered study investigated the behavioral and neural correlates of such a bias using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and reaction times (RTs). Methods: A total of n = 30 frequent chocolate eaters performed a relevant-feature approach–avoidance task (AAT) in the MRI scanner using buttons to enlarge (approach) or to shrink (avoid) pictures of chocolate and inedible control objects. We tested (a) whether implicit RT-based approach biases could be measured in a supine position in the scanner, (b) whether those biases were associated with activity in reward-related brain regions such as the insula, amygdala, striatum, and orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), and (c) whether individual RT-based bias-scores correlated with measures of chocolate craving. Results: Behaviorally, we found a highly reliable approach bias toward chocolate, defined by faster RTs in the compatible conditions (approach chocolate, avoid objects) compared to the incompatible conditions (avoid chocolate, approach objects). Neurally, this compatibility effect involved activity in the left medial OFC, a neural response that was positively correlated with individual approach bias scores. Conclusions: This study shows that the relevant feature AAT can be implemented in an fMRI setting in a supine position using buttons. An approach bias toward chocolate seems related to medial OFC activation that might serve to devalue chocolate when it has to be avoided. Our demonstration of neural and behavioral approach biases for chocolate underscores the need for stimulus-specific cognitive trainings to support healthy consumption and successful self-regulation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition and Public Health)
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12 pages, 378 KiB  
Article
Diet in Early Life Is Related to Child Mental Health and Personality at 8 Years: Findings from the Norwegian Mother, Father and Child Cohort Study (MoBa)
by Kristine Vejrup, Elisabet R. Hillesund, Neha Agnihotri, Christine Helle and Nina C. Øverby
Nutrients 2023, 15(1), 243; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15010243 - 03 Jan 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 6990
Abstract
There is rising concern about population mental health. Personality and mental health traits manifest early. Sufficient nutrition is fundamental to early development. However, little is known about early life dietary impact on later mental health. The aim of this study was to investigate [...] Read more.
There is rising concern about population mental health. Personality and mental health traits manifest early. Sufficient nutrition is fundamental to early development. However, little is known about early life dietary impact on later mental health. The aim of this study was to investigate associations of exposure to a healthy and sustainable antenatal and early childhood diet with personality traits and symptoms of depression and anxiety measured at 8 years of age. This study is based on the Norwegian Mother, Father and Child Cohort Study (MoBa) and uses data from the Medical Birth Registry of Norway (MBRN) including 40,566 participants. Mental health measures and personality traits were assessed at 8 years. Dietary data from pregnancy, child age 6 and 18 months and 3 and 7 years were used. With few exceptions, inverse associations were observed between healthier diet at all time points and depression and anxiety symptom scores at age 8. We found positive associations between diet scores at almost all time points and extraversion, benevolence, conscientiousness and imagination. Inverse associations were observed between diet scores and neuroticism. Combined, these findings underpin a probable impact of both maternal pregnancy diet and early childhood diet on several aspects of child mental health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Pediatric Nutrition)
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18 pages, 965 KiB  
Review
Interventions for Picky Eaters among Typically Developed Children—A Scoping Review
by Mohd Shah Kamarudin, Mohd Razif Shahril, Hasnah Haron, Masne Kadar, Nik Shanita Safii and Nur Hana Hamzaid
Nutrients 2023, 15(1), 242; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15010242 - 03 Jan 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 4507
Abstract
Picky eating in children is often a major source of concern for many parents and caregivers. Picky eaters (PEs) consume limited foods, demonstrate food aversion, and have a limited food repertoire, which hinders their growth and health. These behaviours are common in children [...] Read more.
Picky eating in children is often a major source of concern for many parents and caregivers. Picky eaters (PEs) consume limited foods, demonstrate food aversion, and have a limited food repertoire, which hinders their growth and health. These behaviours are common in children with special health care needs despite the rise in typically developing children. This leads to less attention being given to intervention programmes for typically developing children. Therefore, this scoping review aims to investigate the key concept of an existing intervention programme for PE among typically developing children, primarily on the types and approaches selected. A thorough literature search was conducted on three primary databases (PubMed, Emerald In-sight, and Web of Science) using predefined keywords. The literature was then appraised using the Joanna Briggs Institute’s guidelines and protocols, and the PRISMScR checklist. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were also specified in the screening procedure. Results showed that the majority of the interventions in these studies were single-component interventions, with the sensory approach being the type that was most frequently utilised, followed by the nutrition approach and parenting approach. Single and multiple intervention components improved the assessed outcome, with a note that other components may or may not show a similar outcome, as they were not assessed in the single-component intervention. Given the evidence that picky eating is influenced by various factors, a multi-component intervention can provide a substantial impact on future programmes. In addition, defining picky eaters using standardised tools is also essential for a more inclusive subject selection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition Environment and Children’s Eating Behavior and Health)
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10 pages, 294 KiB  
Article
Assessment of Oxidative Stress Indices and Total Phenolics Concentrations in Obese Adult Women—The Effect of Training with Supplemental Oxygen: A Randomized Controlled Trial
by Katarzyna Domaszewska, Agnieszka Zawada, Radosław Palutka, Tomasz Podgórski and Aldona Juchacz
Nutrients 2023, 15(1), 241; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15010241 - 03 Jan 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1939
Abstract
Background: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of using an oxygen-enriched breathing mixture during controlled physical training on blood oxidative stress parameters and total phenolics (TP) concentrations in obese adult women. Methods: A prospective randomized controlled trial study included [...] Read more.
Background: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of using an oxygen-enriched breathing mixture during controlled physical training on blood oxidative stress parameters and total phenolics (TP) concentrations in obese adult women. Methods: A prospective randomized controlled trial study included 60 women aged 19–68 with BMIs greater than 30 kg/m2. Patients were randomly assigned to the study group (n = 30), which received additional intervention in supplementing the breathing mixture with oxygen at the flow of 6 L/min during training sessions, and the control group (n = 30). At the beginning and at the end of the study, anthropometric assessments (height and weight and BMI) and blood tests (CRP, FRAP, TBARS, TP, BAC, and La) were performed. For each patient, an individual endurance training plan was established on a cycloergometer, including 12 training units, based on a cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET). Results: A decrease in blood TBARS concentration was observed in each study group. For the control group, the change was more remarkable, and the difference between the groups was significant at (p < 0.05; ES: 0.583). Training with the oxygen breathing mixture increased blood concentrations of TP, while a decrease in TP in blood was observed in the group without oxygen supplementation during physical training. The difference in the responses between the groups was significant at (p < 0.05; ES: 0.657) Conclusions: Increasing the concentration of oxygen in the respiratory mixture under conditions of increased exercise was shown to be safe because it did not exacerbate oxidative stress in the obese group. Full article
10 pages, 1308 KiB  
Article
Nutritional Status Indicators as a Predictor of Achieving Remission at Week 14 during Vedolizumab Therapy in Patients with Ulcerative Colitis: A Pilot Study
by Aleksandra Sobolewska-Włodarczyk, Ewa Walecka-Kapica, Marcin Włodarczyk and Anita Gąsiorowska
Nutrients 2023, 15(1), 240; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15010240 - 03 Jan 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1872
Abstract
Background: The loss of response or failure to achieve remission to vedolizumab in ulcerative colitis (UC) patients is currently a major clinical problem. Recently, Nutritional Risk Index (NRI), Controlling Nutritional Status (CONUT), and Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool (MUST) have been suggested as [...] Read more.
Background: The loss of response or failure to achieve remission to vedolizumab in ulcerative colitis (UC) patients is currently a major clinical problem. Recently, Nutritional Risk Index (NRI), Controlling Nutritional Status (CONUT), and Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool (MUST) have been suggested as a new prognostic factor of UC activity. Here, we aimed at confirmation of hypotezis that NRI, CONUT and MUST may be used as inexpensive and efficient predictive biomarkers of response in UC patients treated with vedolizumab. Methods: This study was conducted in retrospective manner in 32 adult patients with UC of Caucasian origin (21 men and 11 women), who were qualified for 52-week therapy with vedolizumab and finished the 14-weeks from January 2020 to March 2022. Our study analyzed the 45 courses of vedolizumab therapy. Nutritional status indicators, i.e., the NRI, CONUT and MUST of each UC patient, were marked at the time of qualifying for biological treatment. Results: In our study, the MUST score was significantly lower in UC patients who positively achieved clinical remission at week 14 during vedolizumab induction therapy (0.33 ± 0.49 vs. 1.37 ± 0.83; p = 0.002). The analysis showed the lower baseline NRI and CONUT scores in patients with positive clinical remission at week 14 (NRI: 96.42 ± 4.29 vs. 101.41 ± 7.09; p = 0.024; CONUT: 1.00 ± 1.08 vs. 2.16 ± 1.46; p = 0.031). Conclusions: Nutritional status indicators (NRI, MUST and CONUT) may become valuable predictor of achieving remission at week 14 during vedolizumab therapy in UC patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition and Public Health)
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12 pages, 814 KiB  
Article
Association of Dietary α-Carotene and β-Carotene Intake with Low Cognitive Performance in Older Adults: A Cross-Sectional Study from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey
by Qiya Zhong, Wen Sun, Yao Qin and Huadong Xu
Nutrients 2023, 15(1), 239; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15010239 - 03 Jan 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3353
Abstract
This study aims to examine the relationships of dietary α-carotene and β-carotene intake with cognitive function. The data were selected from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2011–2014. A total of 2009 participants were included in this analysis. Dietary α-carotene and [...] Read more.
This study aims to examine the relationships of dietary α-carotene and β-carotene intake with cognitive function. The data were selected from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2011–2014. A total of 2009 participants were included in this analysis. Dietary α-carotene and β-carotene intake were averaged by two 24-h dietary recalls. The Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer’s Disease Word Learning subset (CERAD W-L), Animal Fluency Test (AFT), and Digit Symbol Substitution Test (DSST) were used to evaluate cognitive function. Logistic regression and restricted cubic spline models were applied to explore the associations of dietary α-carotene and β-carotene intake with cognitive performance. After adjusting for all confounding factors, compared with individuals in the lowest quartile of β-carotene dietary intake, those in the highest quartile had lower risks of both CERAD W-L decline [odds ratio (OR) = 0.63, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.44–0.90] and AFT decline (OR = 0.66, 95% CI: 0.47–0.94). In addition, the third quartile of β-carotene dietary intake had a significantly decreased risk of lower DSST (OR = 0.67, 95% CI: 0.48–0.83). Compared with the lowest quartile of α-carotene intake, the OR of AFT decline in the highest intake quartile was 0.66 (95% CI: 0.46, 0.94). For males, both dietary α-carotene and β-carotene intake were associated with a decreased risk of AFT decline (OR = 0.42, 95% CI: 0.25–0.71; OR = 0.51, 95% CI: 0.30–0.85, respectively). For females, dietary α-carotene intake was associated with a decreased risk of CERAD W-L decline (OR = 0.55, 95% CI: 0.33–0.91) and dietary β-carotene intake was associated with decreased risks of both CERAD W-L and AFT decline (OR = 0.37, 95% CI: 0.21–0.64; OR = 0.58, 95% CI: 0.37–0.91, respectively). Our results suggested that higher dietary α-carotene and β-carotene intake had inverse effects on cognitive function decline among older adults. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effect of Environmentally Sustainable Diets on Human Health)
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15 pages, 2465 KiB  
Article
Depot-Dependent Impact of Time-Restricted Feeding on Adipose Tissue Metabolism in High Fat Diet-Induced Obese Male Mice
by Theresa Bushman, Te-Yueh Lin and Xiaoli Chen
Nutrients 2023, 15(1), 238; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15010238 - 03 Jan 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2514
Abstract
Time-restricted feeding (TRF) is known to be an effective strategy for weight loss and metabolic health. TRF’s effect on metabolism is complex and likely acts on various pathways within multiple tissues. Adipose tissue plays a key role in systemic homeostasis of glucose and [...] Read more.
Time-restricted feeding (TRF) is known to be an effective strategy for weight loss and metabolic health. TRF’s effect on metabolism is complex and likely acts on various pathways within multiple tissues. Adipose tissue plays a key role in systemic homeostasis of glucose and lipid metabolism. Adipose tissue dysregulation has been causally associated with metabolic disorders in obesity. However, it is largely unknown how TRF impacts metabolic pathways such as lipolysis, lipogenesis, and thermogenesis within different in adipose tissue depots in obesity. To determine this, we conducted a 10-week TRF regimen in male mice, previously on a long-term high fat diet (HFD) and subjected the mice to TRF of a HFD for 10 h per day or ad libitum. The TRF regimen showed reduction in weight gain. TRF restored HFD-induced impairment of adipogenesis and increased lipid storage in white adipose tissues. TRF also showed a depot-dependent effect in lipid metabolism and restored ATP-consuming futile cycle of lipogenesis and lipolysis that is impaired by HFD within epididymal adipose tissue, but not inguinal fat depot. We demonstrate that TRF may be a beneficial option as a dietary and lifestyle intervention in lowering bodyweight and improving adipose tissue metabolism. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet, Nutrition, and Abdominal Obesity)
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18 pages, 7867 KiB  
Article
Catalpol Attenuates Oxidative Stress and Inflammation via Mechanisms Involving Sirtuin-1 Activation and NF-κB Inhibition in Experimentally-Induced Chronic Kidney Disease
by Nur Elena Zaaba, Suhail Al-Salam, Sumaya Beegam, Ozaz Elzaki, Javed Yasin and Abderrahim Nemmar
Nutrients 2023, 15(1), 237; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15010237 - 03 Jan 2023
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2392
Abstract
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a stealthy disease, and its development is linked to mechanisms including inflammation and oxidative stress. Catalpol (CAT), an iridoid glucoside from the root of Rehmannia glutinosa, is reported to manifest anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antiapoptotic and antifibrotic properties. Hence, [...] Read more.
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a stealthy disease, and its development is linked to mechanisms including inflammation and oxidative stress. Catalpol (CAT), an iridoid glucoside from the root of Rehmannia glutinosa, is reported to manifest anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antiapoptotic and antifibrotic properties. Hence, we studied the possible nephroprotective effects of CAT and its mechanisms in an adenine-induced (0.2% w/w in feed for 4 weeks) murine model of CKD by administering 5 mg/kg CAT to BALB/c mice for the duration of 4 weeks except during weekends. Upon sacrifice, the kidney, plasma and urine were collected and various physiological, biochemical and histological endpoints were assessed. CAT significantly ameliorated the adenine-induced altered body and kidney weight, water intake, urine volume, and concentrations of urea and creatinine in plasma, as well as the creatinine clearance and the albumin and creatinine ratio. Moreover, CAT significantly ameliorated the effect of adenine-induced kidney injury by reducing the kidney injury molecule-1, neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin, cystatin C and adiponectin. Similarly, the augmented concentrations of markers of inflammation and oxidative stress in the adenine-treated group were markedly reduced with CAT pretreatment. Furthermore, CAT prevented adenine-induced deoxyribonucleic acid damage and apoptotic activity in the kidneys. Histologically, CAT significantly reduced the formation of tubular necrosis and dilation, as well as interstitial fibrosis in the kidney. In addition to that, CAT significantly decreased the adenine-induced increase in the phosphorylated NF-κB and reversed the reduced expression of sirtuin-1 in the kidney. In conclusion, CAT exhibits salutary effects against adenine-induced CKD in mice by mitigating inflammation, oxidative stress and fibrosis via mechanisms involving sirtuin-1 activation and NF-κB inhibition. Confirmatory studies are warranted in order to consider CAT as a potent nephroprotective agent against CKD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Products and Health)
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11 pages, 663 KiB  
Article
Ionized Magnesium: Interpretation and Interest in Atrial Fibrillation
by Jean-Baptiste Bouillon-Minois, Louisa Khaled, Florence Vitte, Ludovic Miraillet, Romain Eschalier, Matthieu Jabaudon, Vincent Sapin, Lucas Derault, Samy Kahouadji, Marina Brailova, Julie Durif, Jeannot Schmidt, Fares Moustafa, Bruno Pereira, Emmanuel Futier and Damien Bouvier
Nutrients 2023, 15(1), 236; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15010236 - 03 Jan 2023
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2616
Abstract
Background: Magnesium (Mg) is often used to manage de novo atrial fibrillation (AF) in the emergency department (ED) and intensive care unit (ICU). Point of care measurement of ionized magnesium (iMg) allows a rapid identification of patients with impaired magnesium status, however, unlike [...] Read more.
Background: Magnesium (Mg) is often used to manage de novo atrial fibrillation (AF) in the emergency department (ED) and intensive care unit (ICU). Point of care measurement of ionized magnesium (iMg) allows a rapid identification of patients with impaired magnesium status, however, unlike ionized calcium, the interpretation of iMg is not entirely understood. Thus, we evaluated iMg reference values, correlation between iMg and plasmatic magnesium (pMg), and the impact of pH and albumin variations on iMg levels. Secondary objectives were to assess the incidence of hypomagnesemia in de novo AF. Methods: A total of 236 emergency department and intensive care unit patients with de novo AF, and 198 control patients were included. Reference values were determined in the control population. Correlation and concordance between iMg and pMg were studied using calcium (ionized and plasmatic) as a control in the whole study population. The impact of albumin and pH was assessed in the discordant iMg and pMg values. Lastly, we assessed the incidence of ionized hypomagnesemia (hypoMg) among de novo AF. Results: The reference range values established in our study for iMg were: 0.48–0.65 mmol/L (the manufacturers were: 0.45–0.60 mmol/L). A strong correlation was observed between pMg and iMg (r = 0.85), but, unlike for calcium values, there was no significant impact of pH and albumin in iMg/pMg interpretation. The incidence of hypoMg among de novo AF patients was 8.5% (12.7% using our ranges). When using our ranges, we found a significant link (p = 0.01) between hyopMg and hypokalemia. Conclusion: We highlight the need for more accurate reference range values of iMg. Furthermore, our results suggest that blood Mg content is not identical to that of calcium. The incidence of ionized hypomagnesemia among de novo AF patients in our study is 8.5%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Magnesium: From In Vitro to Clinical Research)
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3 pages, 181 KiB  
Editorial
The Key Role of Patient Empowerment in the Future Management of Cancer-Related Malnutrition
by Amanda Casirati, Valentina Da Prat, Emanuele Cereda, Francesco Serra, Lorenzo Perrone, Salvatore Corallo, Francesco De Lorenzo, Paolo Pedrazzoli and Riccardo Caccialanza
Nutrients 2023, 15(1), 235; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15010235 - 03 Jan 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2178
Abstract
Malnutrition is a common condition in cancer patients [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hot Topics in Clinical Nutrition)
19 pages, 1836 KiB  
Article
Total Usual Nutrient Intakes and Nutritional Status of United Arab Emirates Children (4 Years–12.9 Years): Findings from the Kids Nutrition and Health Survey (KNHS) 2021
by Nahla Hwalla, Lara Chehade, Lynda M. O’Neill, Samer Kharroubi, Amira Kassis, Leila Cheikh Ismail, Ayesha S. Al Dhaheri, Habiba I. Ali, Sarah Ibrahim, Fatima Al Zahraa Chokor, Maysm N. Mohamad, Wafaa Ayesh, Lara Nasreddine and Farah Naja
Nutrients 2023, 15(1), 234; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15010234 - 02 Jan 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 7689
Abstract
This study aims at investigating the anthropometric status and food consumption patterns of children in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) and assessing their adherence to nutrient and dietary recommendations. It is a population-based cross-sectional survey of 690 children (4–12.9 years), from 3 major [...] Read more.
This study aims at investigating the anthropometric status and food consumption patterns of children in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) and assessing their adherence to nutrient and dietary recommendations. It is a population-based cross-sectional survey of 690 children (4–12.9 years), from 3 major Emirates. Socio-demographic and anthropometric characteristics were collected. Dietary intakes were assessed using the 24-hour recall approach. Of the total sample, 4% were stunted, 8% were wasted and 28% were overweight/obese. A third of participating children consumed above the Estimated Energy Requirement, while the majority’s intakes carbohydrate, total fat, and protein were within the recommendations; whereas over 70% and 90% of participants consumed above the WHO daily limits of free sugars and saturated fats, respectively. Inadequate intakes of linoleic acid (36% of children), alpha-linolenic acid (91%) and dietary fiber (100%) were observed. All children failed to meet the recommendation for vitamin D and considerable proportions had inadequate intakes of vitamin A, calcium, zinc, folate, and magnesium. Compared with the American Heart Association/American Academy of Pediatrics recommendations, low dietary adherence was noted for fruits (9%), vegetables (4%), and milk/dairy (14%). These findings may be used in the development of nutritional policies aimed at improving the diets of children in the UAE. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutritional Epidemiology)
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17 pages, 963 KiB  
Review
Family Household Characteristics and Stunting: An Update Scoping Review
by Desy Indra Yani, Laili Rahayuwati, Citra Windani Mambang Sari, Maria Komariah and Sherllina Rizqi Fauziah
Nutrients 2023, 15(1), 233; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15010233 - 02 Jan 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 4564
Abstract
Stunting remains a public health concern in developing countries. Factors related to stunting have been categorized using various frameworks. Family plays an important role in providing nutrients for children; however, no review specifies this aspect for identifying family characteristics related to stunting. This [...] Read more.
Stunting remains a public health concern in developing countries. Factors related to stunting have been categorized using various frameworks. Family plays an important role in providing nutrients for children; however, no review specifies this aspect for identifying family characteristics related to stunting. This study aimed to identify family household characteristics related to stunting among children aged less than 5 years. A scoping review was undertaken with sources from PubMed, CINAHL, and Scopus, using the keywords “family characteristics” AND “growth”. Inclusion criteria were (1) correlational study; (2) published between 2018 and 31 July 2022; (3) families with children under the age of 5 years; and (4) independent variable any measure of stunting factors from family and household factors. Of 376 articles, only 20 met the inclusion criteria of the study. The family household characteristics included individual factors (sex age, history of diarrhea, and birthplace), family factors (family headship, primary caregiver/mother, social-cultural orientation, and family system factors), and environmental factors. Various child variables, family factors, and environmental factors (the type of home, floor type, water access, source of drinking water, and household electricity) were identified as being associated with stunting. Therefore, these factors should be evaluated to prevent and control stunting, and they should be incorporated into health programs targeting stunting. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition and Public Health)
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15 pages, 1306 KiB  
Article
Enteral Nutrition Prescription in Children and Adults with Inflammatory Bowel Diseases: Gaps in Current Gastroenterology Practice in Saudi Arabia
by Sarah M. Ajabnoor, Atheer Attar, Noof BinJahlan, Nawal Almutairi, Shimaa Bashmail, Almoutaz Hashim, Alastair Forbes and Hani Jawa
Nutrients 2023, 15(1), 232; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15010232 - 02 Jan 2023
Viewed by 2191
Abstract
Background: Evidence for the effectiveness of enteral nutrition (EN) for the management of patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is well-established. However, there is considerable global variation in EN practices. This study aimed to characterize the practices and perceptions of gastroenterologists regarding the [...] Read more.
Background: Evidence for the effectiveness of enteral nutrition (EN) for the management of patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is well-established. However, there is considerable global variation in EN practices. This study aimed to characterize the practices and perceptions of gastroenterologists regarding the use of EN in patients with IBD in one of the largest countries in the Gulf region. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on pediatric and adult gastroenterologists working in Saudi Arabia who are involved in IBD management. A self-administered web-based survey was distributed via social media platforms and mailing lists of national gastroenterology societies. Results: A total of 80 gastroenterologists completed the survey. However, only 55 reported that they were currently practicing EN in any form. EN was mostly indicated by gastroenterologists who “sometimes” recommend EN for: the prevention and correction of undernutrition (50.9%), preoperative optimization (50.9%), and the induction of remission in patients with active and long-standing CD (36.4%), at initial diagnosis (34.5%), during the management of complications (61.8%), and after failing to respond to pharmacological therapy (58.2%). Exclusive enteral nutrition (EEN) is regularly recommended by 14.5% of gastroenterologists. The prescription of EEN was significantly associated with the pediatric profession (p < 0.01), IBD specialty (p < 0.05), level of nutrition education during training (p < 0.01), and previous training in a unit with regular EN use (p < 0.01). The most reported barriers to using EN were patients’ lack of acceptance (73.8%) and poor adherence (65%). A lack of dietitian support and a lack of standardized protocols were also reported as barriers by many physicians. Pediatric gastroenterologists were more likely to use at least one assessment method to evaluate EN success. Conclusion: EN practices differ between gastroenterologists working in Saudi Arabia. Future EN protocols should be optimized to support both children and adults with IBD. Gastroenterology training programs should offer nutrition support-focused training to help physicians better utilize EN. Full article
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26 pages, 315 KiB  
Article
Increased LC PUFA Levels in the Serum of Pregnant Women and Their Children as a Result of Dietary Supplementation with ‘Omega’ Fatty Acids
by Magdalena Broś-Konopielko, Agnieszka Białek, Monika Johne and Krzysztof Czajkowski
Nutrients 2023, 15(1), 231; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15010231 - 02 Jan 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2736
Abstract
Essential fatty acids (EFA) and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC PUFA) are considered the most valuable bioactive fatty acids (FA) of the greatest importance for the mother’s and child’s health (e.g., placentation process, labor course, development of the central nervous system, visual acuity, [...] Read more.
Essential fatty acids (EFA) and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC PUFA) are considered the most valuable bioactive fatty acids (FA) of the greatest importance for the mother’s and child’s health (e.g., placentation process, labor course, development of the central nervous system, visual acuity, cognitive functions), which results in dietary recommendations concerning EFA and LC PUFA intake in the diet of pregnant women. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the frequency of different food products consumption and ‘omega’ dietary supplements usage in groups of pregnant women. We also measured n-3 and n-6 FA content in serum samples of pregnant women and their children with the GC-FID technique, estimated the efficacy of applied supplementation, and compared the usefulness of different dietary supplements dedicated for pregnant women. ‘Omega’ dietary supplements effectively increased LC PUFA in the maternal blood (EPA, p = 0.0379; DHA p < 0.0001; n-3 PUFA, p < 0.0001), which penetrated the umbilical cord (EPA, p = 0.0131; DHA, p = 0.0288). If fish and seafood consumption is not enough, dietary supplements of the highest quality may provide sufficient LC PUFA without apprehension of MetHg contamination. ‘Omega’ dietary supplementation seems the most efficient way of providing an optimal supply of LC PUFA for the developing child from the earliest stages of development, which will bring advantages in the child’s future life and its health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Supplements during Pregnancy)
16 pages, 2203 KiB  
Article
Association between Different Types of Plant-Based Diets and Dyslipidemia in Middle-Aged and Elderly Chinese Participants
by Lu Wang, Yuanyuan Li, Yan Liu, Huanwen Zhang, Tingting Qiao, Lei Chu, Tao Luo, Zewen Zhang and Jianghong Dai
Nutrients 2023, 15(1), 230; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15010230 - 02 Jan 2023
Viewed by 2327
Abstract
Plant-based dietary patterns may reduce the risk of dyslipidemia. However, not all plant-based foods are beneficial, and limited data exist for the Chinese population. We investigated the association between different plant-based dietary indices and the risk of dyslipidemia in a Chinese middle-aged and [...] Read more.
Plant-based dietary patterns may reduce the risk of dyslipidemia. However, not all plant-based foods are beneficial, and limited data exist for the Chinese population. We investigated the association between different plant-based dietary indices and the risk of dyslipidemia in a Chinese middle-aged and elderly population. The study participants (n = 4096) consisted of adults between 35 and 74 years of age from Xinjiang, China. Dietary consumption of the study participants was evaluated using a semi-quantitative food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Three different plant-based dietary indices were calculated using data from dietary surveys, including overall plant-based diet index (PDI), healthy plant-based diet index (hPDI), and unhealthy plant-based diet index (uPDI). Based on these indices, we created an adjusted plant-based diet index (aPDI) based on the Xinjiang population actual dietary behavior and health effects of food. We measured the levels of total cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL-C, and HDL-C in the blood of the study participants. We used multivariable logistic regression and restricted cubic spline to analyze the relationship between plant-based diets and dyslipidemia. The findings showed that 36.6% of the participants had dyslipidemia. Higher PDI adherence was related to lower odds of dyslipidemia (Q3 vs. Q1, OR: 0.780, 95% CI: 0.641–0.949; Q4 vs. Q1, OR: 0.799, 95% CI: 0.659–0.970). High aPDI was related to lower odds of dyslipidemia (Q4 vs. Q1, OR: 0.770, 95% CI: 0.628–0.945; Q5 vs. Q1, OR: 0.748, 95% CI: 0.607–0.921). High scores for PDI, hPDI, and aPDI were all related to a reduced risk of low HDL-C (OR: 0.638, 95% CI: 0.491–0.823; OR: 0.661, 95% CI: 0.502–0.870; OR: 0.580, 95% CI: 0.443–0.758). Conversely, a high uPDI score was associated with an increased risk of low HDL-C (OR: 1.349, 95% CI: 1.046–1.740). There was no non-linear relationship between PDI, hPDI, uPDI, and aPDI and the risk of different types of dyslipidemia. Plant-based dietary indices are related to specific types of dyslipidemia risk. Appropriately increasing the consumption of plant-based foods while improving the quality of plant-based dietary patterns is critical for the prevention of dyslipidemia, especially low HDL-C, in the population. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutritional Epidemiology)
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30 pages, 655 KiB  
Review
Ceramides in Autoimmune Rheumatic Diseases: Existing Evidence and Therapeutic Considerations for Diet as an Anticeramide Treatment
by Ioanna Alexandropoulou, Maria G. Grammatikopoulou, Kalliopi K. Gkouskou, Agathi A. Pritsa, Tonia Vassilakou, Eirini Rigopoulou, Helen M. Lindqvist and Dimitrios P. Bogdanos
Nutrients 2023, 15(1), 229; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15010229 - 02 Jan 2023
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 3757
Abstract
Autoimmune rheumatic diseases (AIRDs) constitute a set of connective tissue disorders and dysfunctions with akin clinical manifestations and autoantibody responses. AIRD treatment is based on a comprehensive approach, with the primary aim being achieving and attaining disease remission, through the control of inflammation. [...] Read more.
Autoimmune rheumatic diseases (AIRDs) constitute a set of connective tissue disorders and dysfunctions with akin clinical manifestations and autoantibody responses. AIRD treatment is based on a comprehensive approach, with the primary aim being achieving and attaining disease remission, through the control of inflammation. AIRD therapies have a low target specificity, and this usually propels metabolic disturbances, dyslipidemias and increased cardiovascular risk. Ceramides are implicated in inflammation through several different pathways, many of which sometimes intersect. They serve as signaling molecules for apoptosis, altering immune response and driving endothelial dysfunction and as regulators in the production of other molecules, including sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) and ceramide 1-phosphate (C1P). With lipid metabolism being severely altered in AIRD pathology, several studies show that the concentration and variety of ceramides in human tissues is altered in patients with rheumatic diseases compared to controls. As a result, many in vitro and some in vivo (animal) studies research the potential use of ceramides as therapeutic targets in rheumatoid arthritis (RA), ankylosing spondylitis, systemic lupus erythematosus, fibromyalgia syndrome, primary Sjögren’s syndrome, systemic sclerosis, myositis, systemic vasculitis and psoriatic arthritis. Furthermore, the majority of ceramide synthesis is diet-centric and, as a result, dietary interventions may alter ceramide concentrations in the blood and affect health. Subsequently, more recently several clinical trials evaluated the possibility of distinct dietary patterns and nutrients to act as anti-ceramide regimes in humans. With nutrition being an important component of AIRD-related complications, the present review details the evidence regarding ceramide levels in patients with AIRDs, the results of anti-ceramide treatments and discusses the possibility of using medical nutritional therapy as a complementary anti-ceramide treatment in rheumatic disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Effect of Nutrition in Healthy and Unhealthy Immune System)
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30 pages, 4143 KiB  
Review
Treatment of Dyslipidemia through Targeted Therapy of Gut Microbiota
by Brandon Flaig, Rachel Garza, Bhavdeep Singh, Sevag Hamamah and Mihai Covasa
Nutrients 2023, 15(1), 228; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15010228 - 02 Jan 2023
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 4340
Abstract
Dyslipidemia is a multifaceted condition with various genetic and environmental factors contributing to its pathogenesis. Further, this condition represents an important risk factor for its related sequalae including cardiovascular diseases (CVD) such as coronary artery disease (CAD) and stroke. Emerging evidence has shown [...] Read more.
Dyslipidemia is a multifaceted condition with various genetic and environmental factors contributing to its pathogenesis. Further, this condition represents an important risk factor for its related sequalae including cardiovascular diseases (CVD) such as coronary artery disease (CAD) and stroke. Emerging evidence has shown that gut microbiota and their metabolites can worsen or protect against the development of dyslipidemia. Although there are currently numerous treatment modalities available including lifestyle modification and pharmacologic interventions, there has been promising research on dyslipidemia that involves the benefits of modulating gut microbiota in treating alterations in lipid metabolism. In this review, we examine the relationship between gut microbiota and dyslipidemia, the impact of gut microbiota metabolites on the development of dyslipidemia, and the current research on dietary interventions, prebiotics, probiotics, synbiotics and microbiota transplant as therapeutic modalities in prevention of cardiovascular disease. Overall, understanding the mechanisms by which gut microbiota and their metabolites affect dyslipidemia progression will help develop more precise therapeutic targets to optimize lipid metabolism. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Endocrinology and Metabolic Diseases in Human Health)
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14 pages, 1740 KiB  
Article
Osteosarcopenic Adiposity and Nutritional Status in Older Nursing Home Residents during the COVID-19 Pandemic
by Selma Cvijetić, Irena Keser, Dario Boschiero and Jasminka Z. Ilich
Nutrients 2023, 15(1), 227; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15010227 - 01 Jan 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2413
Abstract
The aim was to evaluate body composition and prevalence of osteosarcopenic adiposity (OSA) in nursing home residents (NHR) and to assess their nutritional status. This research builds on our pilot study (conducted prior COVID-19 pandemic) that revealed high OSA prevalence and poor nutritional [...] Read more.
The aim was to evaluate body composition and prevalence of osteosarcopenic adiposity (OSA) in nursing home residents (NHR) and to assess their nutritional status. This research builds on our pilot study (conducted prior COVID-19 pandemic) that revealed high OSA prevalence and poor nutritional status in NHR. The current study included newly recruited n = 365 NHR; 296 women, 69 men, aged 84.3 ± 5.6 and 83.1 ± 7.3 years, respectively. Body composition was measured by bioelectrical impedance BIA-ACC®, yielding total bone mass along with all components of lean and adipose tissues. The Mini Nutritional Assessment-Short Form (MNA-SF) was used to assess nutritional status. Participants reported about their present/past diseases, including COVID-19. Mean duration of stay in nursing homes was 46.3 ± 47.0 months. Approximately 30% of participants had COVID-19 prior (median 6.7 months) to entering the study. OSA was diagnosed in 70.8% women and 47.8% men (p < 0.001). Malnourishment was detected in 5.8% women and 6.2% men while the risk of malnourishment was found in 30.8% women and 30.0% men. No significant differences in age, body composition parameters, prevalence of OSA, malnutrition/risk for malnutrition were found in participants who had COVID-19 compared to those who did not. Regression analysis showed that intramuscular adipose tissue (%) was significantly positively, while bone mass was significantly negatively associated with OSA. In this population, the high prevalence of OSA coincided with the high prevalence of malnutrition/risk of malnutrition. Such unfavorable body composition status is more likely a consequence of potentially poor diet quality in nursing homes, rather than of health hazards caused by COVID-19. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effect of Lifestyle and Diet for Older Persons' Health)
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16 pages, 366 KiB  
Review
Dysgeusia in Patients with Breast Cancer Treated with Chemotherapy—A Narrative Review
by Marianna Pellegrini, Fabio Dario Merlo, Elena Agnello, Taira Monge, Andrea Devecchi, Valentina Casalone, Filippo Montemurro, Ezio Ghigo, Anna Sapino and Simona Bo
Nutrients 2023, 15(1), 226; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15010226 - 01 Jan 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3717
Abstract
Breast cancer (BC) is the most common cancer worldwide. Chemotherapy (CT) is essential for the treatment of BC, but is often accompanied by several side effects, including taste alterations, due to different mechanisms. Although dysgeusia is usually underestimated by clinicians, it is considered [...] Read more.
Breast cancer (BC) is the most common cancer worldwide. Chemotherapy (CT) is essential for the treatment of BC, but is often accompanied by several side effects, including taste alterations, due to different mechanisms. Although dysgeusia is usually underestimated by clinicians, it is considered very worrying and disturbing by cancer patients undergoing CT, because it induces changes in dietary choices and social habits, affecting their physical and psychological health, with a profound impact on their quality of life. Several strategies and therapies have been proposed to prevent or alleviate CT-induced dysgeusia. This review aimed to evaluate the available evidence on prevalence, pathophysiological mechanisms, clinical consequences, and strategies for managing dysgeusia in BC patients receiving CT. We queried the National Library of Medicine, the Cochrane Library, Excerpta Medica dataBASE, and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature database, performing a search strategy using database-specific keywords. We found that the literature on this topic is scarce, methodologically limited, and highly heterogeneous in terms of study design and criteria for patient inclusion, making it difficult to obtain definitive results and make recommendations for clinical practice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition and Public Health)
12 pages, 596 KiB  
Article
Effect of Mid-Adolescent Dietary Practices on Eating Behaviors and Attitudes in Adulthood
by Miao Wu, Lin Wu and Akira Ishida
Nutrients 2023, 15(1), 225; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15010225 - 01 Jan 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2781
Abstract
This paper aimed to clarify the association of mid-adolescent dietary practices and experiences with adult eating behavior and attitudes using individual data from the “Survey of Attitudes toward Shokuiku (food and nutrition education), 2019” put forth by the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and [...] Read more.
This paper aimed to clarify the association of mid-adolescent dietary practices and experiences with adult eating behavior and attitudes using individual data from the “Survey of Attitudes toward Shokuiku (food and nutrition education), 2019” put forth by the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries of Japan. We applied conditional mixed-process models to estimate the parameters simultaneously, and used them to predict current eating consciousness, current eating behaviors in a balanced diet, dietary behavior, and attitudes toward preventing or improving lifestyle-related diseases as dependent variables. As a result, compared to those who did not have good dietary practices and experiences in mid-adolescence, participants who had good dietary practices and experiences in the same period displayed greater interest in practicing a healthier diet. These participants frequently consumed a combination of staple foods, main dishes, and side dishes, and were more concerned about preventing or improving lifestyle-related diseases. In conclusion, mid-adolescent dietary practices and experiences had a lasting influence on adult eating behaviors and attitudes in Japanese participants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition and Public Health)
16 pages, 804 KiB  
Review
Update on Anti-Inflammatory Molecular Mechanisms Induced by Oleic Acid
by Consuelo Santa-María, Soledad López-Enríquez, Sergio Montserrat-de la Paz, Isabel Geniz, María Edith Reyes-Quiroz, Manuela Moreno, Francisca Palomares, Francisco Sobrino and Gonzalo Alba
Nutrients 2023, 15(1), 224; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15010224 - 01 Jan 2023
Cited by 24 | Viewed by 8841
Abstract
In 2010, the Mediterranean diet was recognized by UNESCO as an Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity. Olive oil is the most characteristic food of this diet due to its high nutraceutical value. The positive effects of olive oil have often been attributed to [...] Read more.
In 2010, the Mediterranean diet was recognized by UNESCO as an Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity. Olive oil is the most characteristic food of this diet due to its high nutraceutical value. The positive effects of olive oil have often been attributed to its minor components; however, its oleic acid (OA) content (70–80%) is responsible for its many health properties. OA is an effective biomolecule, although the mechanism by which OA mediates beneficial physiological effects is not fully understood. OA influences cell membrane fluidity, receptors, intracellular signaling pathways, and gene expression. OA may directly regulate both the synthesis and activities of antioxidant enzymes. The anti-inflammatory effect may be related to the inhibition of proinflammatory cytokines and the activation of anti-inflammatory ones. The best-characterized mechanism highlights OA as a natural activator of sirtuin 1 (SIRT1). Oleoylethanolamide (OEA), derived from OA, is an endogenous ligand of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα) nuclear receptor. OEA regulates dietary fat intake and energy homeostasis and has therefore been suggested to be a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment of obesity. OEA has anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. The beneficial effects of olive oil may be related to the actions of OEA. New evidence suggests that oleic acid may influence epigenetic mechanisms, opening a new avenue in the exploration of therapies based on these mechanisms. OA can exert beneficial anti-inflammatory effects by regulating microRNA expression. In this review, we examine the cellular reactions and intracellular processes triggered by OA in T cells, macrophages, and neutrophils in order to better understand the immune modulation exerted by OA. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Role of Nutraceuticals in Immune Function)
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17 pages, 7426 KiB  
Article
Daucosterol Alleviates Alcohol−Induced Hepatic Injury and Inflammation through P38/NF−κB/NLRP3 Inflammasome Pathway
by Feng Zhang, Mengyao Wang, Yang Zha, Jie Zhou, Jihong Han and Shuang Zhang
Nutrients 2023, 15(1), 223; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15010223 - 01 Jan 2023
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 3229
Abstract
Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is caused by chronic excessive alcohol consumption, which leads to inflammation, oxidative stress, lipid accumulation, liver fibrosis/cirrhosis, and even liver cancer. However, there are currently no effective drugs for ALD. Herein, we report that a natural phytosterol Daucosterol (DAU) [...] Read more.
Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is caused by chronic excessive alcohol consumption, which leads to inflammation, oxidative stress, lipid accumulation, liver fibrosis/cirrhosis, and even liver cancer. However, there are currently no effective drugs for ALD. Herein, we report that a natural phytosterol Daucosterol (DAU) can effectively protect against liver injury caused by alcohol, which plays anti−inflammatory and antioxidative roles in many chronic inflammatory diseases. Our results demonstrate that DAU ameliorates liver inflammation induced by alcohol through p38/nuclear factor kappa B (NF−κB)/NOD−like receptor protein−3 (NLRP3) inflammasome pathway. Briefly, DAU decreases NF−κB nuclear translocation and inhibits NLRP3 activation by decreasing p38 phosphorylation. At the same time, DAU also protects against hepatic oxidative stress and lipid accumulation. In conclusion, our research provides a new clue about the protective effects of naturally active substances on ALD. Full article
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