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Nutrients, Volume 12, Issue 12 (December 2020) – 314 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Magnesium deficiency and stress are common conditions among the general population, which, over time, can increase the risk of health consequences. Numerous studies in pre-clinical and clinical settings have investigated the interaction of magnesium with mediators of the physiological stress response, and demonstrated that magnesium plays a key role in the regulation of the body’ stress response. Moreover, latent magnesium deficiency and intracellular magnesium depletion have been linked to conditions of stress in clinical or preclinical studies. This review revisits the magnesium and stress vicious circle concept in light of the latest available evidence. View this paper
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Article
Effects of 8 Weeks of 2S-Hesperidin Supplementation on Performance in Amateur Cyclists
Nutrients 2020, 12(12), 3911; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12123911 - 21 Dec 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1877
Abstract
2S-Hesperidin is a flavanone (flavonoid) found in high concentrations in citrus fruits. It has an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects, improving performance in animals. This study investigated the effects of chronic intake of an orange extract (2S-hesperidin) or placebo on non-oxidative/glycolytic and oxidative metabolism [...] Read more.
2S-Hesperidin is a flavanone (flavonoid) found in high concentrations in citrus fruits. It has an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects, improving performance in animals. This study investigated the effects of chronic intake of an orange extract (2S-hesperidin) or placebo on non-oxidative/glycolytic and oxidative metabolism markers and performance markers in amateur cyclists. A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial was carried out between late September and December 2018. Forty amateur cyclists were randomized into two groups: one taking 500 mg/day 2S-hesperidin and the other taking 500 mg/day placebo (microcellulose) for eight weeks. All participants completed the study. An incremental test was used to evaluate performance, and a step test was used to measure oxygen consumption, carbon dioxide, efficiency and oxidation of carbohydrates and fat by indirect calorimetry. The anaerobic power (non-oxidative) was determined using Wingate tests (30 s). After eight weeks supplementation, there was an increase in the incremental test in estimated functional threshold power (FTP) (3.2%; p ≤ 0.05) and maximum power (2.7%; p ≤ 0.05) with 2S-hesperdin compared to placebo. In the step test, there was a decrease in VO2 (L/min) (−8.3%; p ≤ 0.01) and VO2R (mL/kg/min) (−8.9%; p ≤ 0.01) at VT2 in placebo. However, there were no differences between groups. In the Wingate test, there was a significant increase (p ≤ 0.05) in peak and relative power in both groups, but without differences between groups. Supplementation with an orange extract (2S-hesperdin) 500 mg/day improves estimated FTP and maximum power performance in amateur cyclists. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sport Nutrition for Athletes)
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Correction
Correction: Hill, A.; et al. Effects of Vitamin C on Organ Function in Cardiac Surgery Patients: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Nutrients 2019, 11, 2103
Nutrients 2020, 12(12), 3910; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12123910 - 21 Dec 2020
Viewed by 713
Abstract
The authors thank the readers for pointing out the issues [...] Full article
Article
Diet-Induced Obesity Disrupts Trace Element Homeostasis and Gene Expression in the Olfactory Bulb
Nutrients 2020, 12(12), 3909; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12123909 - 21 Dec 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1059
Abstract
The aim of this study was to determine the impact of diet-induced obesity (DIO) on trace element homeostasis and gene expression in the olfactory bulb and to identify potential interaction effects between diet, sex, and strain. Our study is based on evidence that [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to determine the impact of diet-induced obesity (DIO) on trace element homeostasis and gene expression in the olfactory bulb and to identify potential interaction effects between diet, sex, and strain. Our study is based on evidence that obesity and olfactory bulb impairments are linked to neurodegenerative processes. Briefly, C57BL/6J (B6J) and DBA/2J (D2J) male and female mice were fed either a low-fat diet or a high-fat diet for 16 weeks. Brain tissue was then evaluated for iron, manganese, copper, and zinc concentrations and mRNA gene expression. There was a statistically significant diet-by-sex interaction for iron and a three-way interaction between diet, sex, and strain for zinc in the olfactory bulb. Obese male B6J mice had a striking 75% increase in iron and a 50% increase in manganese compared with the control. There was an increase in zinc due to DIO in B6J males and D2J females, but a decrease in zinc in B6J females and D2J males. Obese male D2J mice had significantly upregulated mRNA gene expression for divalent metal transporter 1, alpha-synuclein, amyloid precursor protein, dopamine receptor D2, and tyrosine hydroxylase. B6J females with DIO had significantly upregulated brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression. Our results demonstrate that DIO has the potential to disrupt trace element homeostasis and mRNA gene expression in the olfactory bulb, with effects that depend on sex and genetics. We found that DIO led to alterations in iron and manganese predominantly in male B6J mice, and gene expression dysregulation mainly in male D2J mice. These results have important implications for health outcomes related to obesity with possible connections to neurodegenerative disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and CNS: In Health and Disease)
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Review
The Role of Vitamin C in Two Distinct Physiological States: Physical Activity and Sleep
Nutrients 2020, 12(12), 3908; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12123908 - 21 Dec 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2250
Abstract
This paper is a literature overview of the complex relationship between vitamin C and two opposing physiological states, physical activity and sleep. The evidence suggests a clinically important bidirectional association between these two phenomena mediated by different physiological mechanisms. With this in mind, [...] Read more.
This paper is a literature overview of the complex relationship between vitamin C and two opposing physiological states, physical activity and sleep. The evidence suggests a clinically important bidirectional association between these two phenomena mediated by different physiological mechanisms. With this in mind, and knowing that both states share a connection with oxidative stress, we discuss the existing body of evidence to answer the question of whether vitamin C supplementation can be beneficial in the context of sleep health and key aspects of physical activity, such as performance, metabolic changes, and antioxidant function. We analyze the effect of ascorbic acid on the main sleep components, sleep duration and quality, focusing on the most common disorders: insomnia, obstructive sleep apnea, and restless legs syndrome. Deeper understanding of those interactions has implications for both public health and clinical practice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamin C in Human Health and Disease)
Article
Pathological Preoccupation with Healthy Eating (Orthorexia Nervosa) in a Spanish Sample with Vegetarian, Vegan, and Non-Vegetarian Dietary Patterns
Nutrients 2020, 12(12), 3907; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12123907 - 21 Dec 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1846
Abstract
Orthorexia nervosa (ON) has been defined as an obsessive and pathological attitude towards healthy nutrition. The aim of this study was to compare individuals who followed a vegan, vegetarian, and omnivore diet in terms of ON behaviors and to examine their prime motivations, [...] Read more.
Orthorexia nervosa (ON) has been defined as an obsessive and pathological attitude towards healthy nutrition. The aim of this study was to compare individuals who followed a vegan, vegetarian, and omnivore diet in terms of ON behaviors and to examine their prime motivations, attitudes, and behaviors towards food. The Spanish version of the ORTO-15 test — ORTO-11-ES — and the Food Choice Questionnaire (FCQ-SP) were used with a demographic questionnaire in an online survey disseminated among the social networks of different vegetarian associations and the general population. Of 466 individuals, 55% followed an omnivore diet, 23.5% were vegetarian and 21.7% were vegan. Results revealed relationships between type of diet and FCQ-SP dimensions for: health and natural content (H = 8.7, p < 0.05), sensory appeal (H = 11.4, p < 0.01), weight control (H = 40.4, p < 0.01), and familiarity (H = 37.3, p < 0.01). Our results confirm the findings of recent studies showing that individuals who follow a vegan or vegetarian diet are more likely to develop a pathological preoccupation with healthy eating versus omnivores. Further studies are required to determine the potential lines of action for the prevention of ON. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition and Public Health)
Review
Glycemic Variability and CNS Inflammation: Reviewing the Connection
Nutrients 2020, 12(12), 3906; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12123906 - 21 Dec 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1633
Abstract
Glucose is the primary energy source for the brain, and exposure to both high and low levels of glucose has been associated with numerous adverse central nervous system (CNS) outcomes. While a large body of work has highlighted the impact of hyperglycemia on [...] Read more.
Glucose is the primary energy source for the brain, and exposure to both high and low levels of glucose has been associated with numerous adverse central nervous system (CNS) outcomes. While a large body of work has highlighted the impact of hyperglycemia on peripheral and central measures of oxidative stress, cognitive deficits, and vascular complications in Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes, there is growing evidence that glycemic variability significantly drives increased oxidative stress, leading to neuroinflammation and cognitive dysfunction. In this review, the latest data on the impact of glycemic variability on brain function and neuroinflammation will be presented. Because high levels of oxidative stress have been linked to dysfunction of the blood–brain barrier (BBB), special emphasis will be placed on studies investigating the impact of glycemic variability on endothelial and vascular inflammation. The latest clinical and preclinical/in vitro data will be reviewed, and clinical/therapeutic implications will be discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Influence of Carbohydrates Intake on Inflammation)
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Reply
Reply to: “Preoperative Carbohydrate Loading on Outcomes after Cardiac Surgery: A Flawed Meta-Analysis. Comment on: The Effect of Preoperative Carbohydrate Loading on Clinical and Biochemical Outcomes after Cardiac Surgery: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Trials. Nutrients 2020, 12, 3904”
Nutrients 2020, 12(12), 3905; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12123905 - 21 Dec 2020
Viewed by 789
Abstract
We appreciate the thoughts and questions posed by Drs Dileep N Lobo and Girish P Joshi [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Clinical Nutrition)
Comment
Preoperative Carbohydrate Loading on Outcomes after Cardiac Surgery: A Flawed Meta-Analysis. Comment on: “The Effect of Preoperative Carbohydrate Loading on Clinical and Biochemical Outcomes after Cardiac Surgery: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Trials”. Nutrients 2020, 12, 3105
Nutrients 2020, 12(12), 3904; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12123904 - 21 Dec 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1054
Abstract
We read, with interest, the publication in Nutrients on the effects of preoperative carbohydrate loading on outcomes after cardiac surgery [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Clinical Nutrition)
Article
Signs of Warning: Do Health Warning Messages on Sweets Affect the Neural Prefrontal Cortex Activity?
Nutrients 2020, 12(12), 3903; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12123903 - 21 Dec 2020
Viewed by 1122
Abstract
In the global attempt to combat rising obesity rates, the introduction of health warning messages on food products is discussed as one possible approach. However, the perception of graphical health warning messages in the food context and the possible impact that they may [...] Read more.
In the global attempt to combat rising obesity rates, the introduction of health warning messages on food products is discussed as one possible approach. However, the perception of graphical health warning messages in the food context and the possible impact that they may have, in particular at the neuronal level, have hardly been studied. Therefore, the aim of this explorative study was to examine consumers’ reactions (measured as neuronal activity and subjective reporting) of two different types of graphical health warning messages on sweets compared to sweets without warning messages. One type used the red road traffic stop sign as graphical information (“Stop”), while the other one used shocking pictures (“Shock”), an approach similar to the images on cigarette packages. The neural response of 78 participants was examined with the neuroimaging technique functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). Different hemodynamic responses in the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), the frontopolar cortex (FOC), and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) were observed, regions which are associated with reward evaluation, social behavior consequences, and self-control. Further, the health warning messages were actively and emotionally remembered by the participants. These findings point to an interesting health information strategy, which should be explored and discussed further. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition and Public Health)
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Editorial
Novel Dietary Approaches for Controlling High Blood Pressure
Nutrients 2020, 12(12), 3902; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12123902 - 21 Dec 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1178
Abstract
Hypertension is a common health problem, and one of the most important risk factors for cardiovascular disease [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutritional Therapy for High Blood Pressure)
Article
Her-2 Breast Cancer Outcomes Are Mitigated by Consuming n-3 Polyunsaturated, Saturated, and Monounsaturated Fatty Acids Compared to n-6 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids
Nutrients 2020, 12(12), 3901; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12123901 - 20 Dec 2020
Viewed by 1419
Abstract
Lifestyle habits, such as the consumption of a healthy diet, may prevent up to 30–50% of breast cancer (BC) cases. Dietary fats are of specific interest, as research provides strong evidence regarding the association of dietary fats and BC. However, there is limited [...] Read more.
Lifestyle habits, such as the consumption of a healthy diet, may prevent up to 30–50% of breast cancer (BC) cases. Dietary fats are of specific interest, as research provides strong evidence regarding the association of dietary fats and BC. However, there is limited research on the role of different types of fats including polyunsaturated (PUFA), monounsaturated (MUFA), and saturated fatty acids (SFA). The objective of this study was to determine the effects of lifelong exposure to various dietary fats on mammary tumour development over a 20-week period. Female heterozygous MMTV-neu (ndl) YD5 mouse models were fed five maternal diets containing (1) 10% safflower oil (n-6 PUFA, control), (2) 3% menhaden oil + 7% safflower oil (marine n-3 PUFA, control), (3) 3% flaxseed + 7% safflower oil (plant-based n-3 PUFA), (4) 10% olive oil (MUFA), or (5) 10% lard (SFA). The primary measures, tumour latency, volume, and multiplicity differed by diet treatment in the following general order, n-6 PUFA > plant n-3 PUFA, SFA, MUFA > marine n-3 PUFA. Overall, these findings show that the quality of the diet plays a significant role influencing mammary tumour outcomes. Full article
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Review
Impact of Early Nutrition, Physical Activity and Sleep on the Fetal Programming of Disease in the Pregnancy: A Narrative Review
Nutrients 2020, 12(12), 3900; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12123900 - 20 Dec 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1998
Abstract
Early programming is the adaptation process by which nutrition and environmental factors alter development pathways during prenatal growth, inducing changes in postnatal metabolism and diseases. The aim of this narrative review, is evaluating the current knowledge in the scientific literature on the effects [...] Read more.
Early programming is the adaptation process by which nutrition and environmental factors alter development pathways during prenatal growth, inducing changes in postnatal metabolism and diseases. The aim of this narrative review, is evaluating the current knowledge in the scientific literature on the effects of nutrition, environmental factors, physical activity and sleep on development pathways. If in utero adaptations were incorrect, this would cause a mismatch between prenatal programming and adulthood. Adequate caloric intake, protein, mineral, vitamin, and long-chain fatty acids, have been noted for their relevance in the offspring brain functions and behavior. Fetus undernutrition/malnutrition causes a delay in growth and have detrimental effects on the development and subsequent functioning of the organs. Pregnancy is a particularly vulnerable period for the development of food preferences and for modifications in the emotional response. Maternal obesity increases the risk of developing perinatal complications and delivery by cesarean section and has long-term implications in the development of metabolic diseases. Physical exercise during pregnancy contributes to overall improved health post-partum. It is also interesting to highlight the relevance of sleep problems during pregnancy, which influence adequate growth and fetal development. Taking into account these considerations, we conclude that nutrition and metabolic factors during early life play a key role of health promotion and public health nutrition programs worldwide to improve the health of the offspring and the health costs of hospitalization. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Perinatal Nutrition: A Strategy to Improve Offspring’s Health)
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Review
Addressing the Fortification Quality Gap: A Proposed Way Forward
Nutrients 2020, 12(12), 3899; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12123899 - 20 Dec 2020
Viewed by 1365
Abstract
Large-scale food fortification is an effective, sustainable, and scalable intervention to address vitamin and mineral deficiencies, however, pressing gaps exist globally around ensuring the quality of fortified foods. This paper summarizes the global challenges and gaps faced in monitoring the quality of fortified [...] Read more.
Large-scale food fortification is an effective, sustainable, and scalable intervention to address vitamin and mineral deficiencies, however, pressing gaps exist globally around ensuring the quality of fortified foods. This paper summarizes the global challenges and gaps faced in monitoring the quality of fortified foods, the guidance produced in response to these challenges, where we are today in terms of effective implementation, and what approaches and opportunities may be usefully applied to enhance the quality of fortified foods moving forward. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Benefits of Food Fortification)
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Perspective
Nutritional and Behavioral Approaches to Body Composition and Low-Grade Chronic Inflammation Management for Older Adults in the Ordinary and COVID-19 Times
Nutrients 2020, 12(12), 3898; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12123898 - 20 Dec 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1680
Abstract
As more insight is gained into personalized health care, the importance of personalized nutritional and behavioral approaches is even more relevant in the COVID-19 era, in addition to the need for further elucidation regarding several diseases/conditions. One of these concerning body composition (in [...] Read more.
As more insight is gained into personalized health care, the importance of personalized nutritional and behavioral approaches is even more relevant in the COVID-19 era, in addition to the need for further elucidation regarding several diseases/conditions. One of these concerning body composition (in this context; bone, lean and adipose tissue) is osteosarcopenic adiposity (OSA) syndrome. OSA occurs most often with aging, but also in cases of some chronic diseases and is exacerbated with the presence of low-grade chronic inflammation (LGCI). OSA has been associated with poor nutrition, metabolic disorders and diminished functional abilities. This paper addresses various influences on OSA and LGCI, as well as their mutual action on each other, and provides nutritional and behavioral approaches which could be personalized to help with either preventing or managing OSA and LGCI in general, and specifically in the time of the COVID-19 pandemic. Addressed in more detail are nutritional recommendations for and roles of macro- and micronutrients and bioactive food components; the microbiome; and optimal physical activity regimens. Other issues, such as food insecurity and nutritional inadequacy, circadian misalignment and shift workers are addressed as well. Since there is still a lack of longer-term primary studies in COVID-19 patients (either acute or recovered) and interventions for OSA improvement, this discussion is based on the existing knowledge, scientific hypotheses and observations derived from similar conditions or studies just being published at the time of this writing. Full article
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Article
Adherence to the Mediterranean Diet in College Students: Evaluation of Psychometric Properties of the KIDMED Questionnaire
Nutrients 2020, 12(12), 3897; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12123897 - 20 Dec 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1118
Abstract
No prior studies have examined the reliability properties of the 16-item Mediterranean Diet Quality Index (KIDMED) questionnaire among young adults from a non-Mediterranean country. The objective of this study was to determine the psychometric properties in terms of the reliability and validity of [...] Read more.
No prior studies have examined the reliability properties of the 16-item Mediterranean Diet Quality Index (KIDMED) questionnaire among young adults from a non-Mediterranean country. The objective of this study was to determine the psychometric properties in terms of the reliability and validity of the KIDMED questionnaire in young adults from Colombia. A cross-sectional validation study was conducted among 604 Colombian college students (47.51% men and 52.48% women; mean age of 21.60 ± 2.02 years). Kappa statistics were used to assess the reliability of the KIDMED questionnaire. A categorical principal components analysis was used to determine validity. Based on the KIDMED score, 58.4% of students had a good adherence to the Mediterranean diet (MedDiet). Good agreement in the general score of the questionnaire was observed (κ = 0.727, 95% confidence interval = 0.676 to 0.778, p < 0.001). A five-factor model was identified which explained almost 51.38% of the variability, showing the multidimensionality of the questionnaire. In conclusion, this study provides reasonable evidence for the reliability and validity of the KIDMED questionnaire for assessing adherence to MedDiet in college students within a Latin American country. The evaluation of the psychometric properties of this tool in early adulthood and in a non-Mediterranean country will be useful in clinical practice and epidemiological research, since practitioners and health researchers now have a valid and reliable short scale. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition and Public Health)
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Review
Psychobiotics: Mechanisms of Action, Evaluation Methods and Effectiveness in Applications with Food Products
Nutrients 2020, 12(12), 3896; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12123896 - 19 Dec 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2888
Abstract
The gut-brain-microbiota axis consists of a bilateral communication system that enables gut microbes to interact with the brain, and the latter with the gut. Gut bacteria influence behavior, and both depression and anxiety symptoms are directly associated with alterations in the microbiota. Psychobiotics [...] Read more.
The gut-brain-microbiota axis consists of a bilateral communication system that enables gut microbes to interact with the brain, and the latter with the gut. Gut bacteria influence behavior, and both depression and anxiety symptoms are directly associated with alterations in the microbiota. Psychobiotics are defined as probiotics that confer mental health benefits to the host when ingested in a particular quantity through interaction with commensal gut bacteria. The action mechanisms by which bacteria exert their psychobiotic potential has not been completely elucidated. However, it has been found that these bacteria provide their benefits mostly through the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, the immune response and inflammation, and through the production of neurohormones and neurotransmitters. This review aims to explore the different approaches to evaluate the psychobiotic potential of several bacterial strains and fermented products. The reviewed literature suggests that the consumption of psychobiotics could be considered as a viable option to both look after and restore mental health, without undesired secondary effects, and presenting a lower risk of allergies and less dependence compared to psychotropic drugs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Prebiotics and Probiotics)
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Article
Mediterranean Diet Decreases the Initiation of Use of Vitamin K Epoxide Reductase Inhibitors and Their Associated Cardiovascular Risk: A Randomized Controlled Trial
Nutrients 2020, 12(12), 3895; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12123895 - 19 Dec 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1254
Abstract
Our aim is to assess whether following a Mediterranean Diet (MedDiet) decreases the risk of initiating antithrombotic therapies and the cardiovascular risk associated with its use in older individuals at high cardiovascular risk. We evaluate whether participants of the PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea [...] Read more.
Our aim is to assess whether following a Mediterranean Diet (MedDiet) decreases the risk of initiating antithrombotic therapies and the cardiovascular risk associated with its use in older individuals at high cardiovascular risk. We evaluate whether participants of the PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea (PREDIMED) study allocated to a MedDiet enriched in extra-virgin olive oil or nuts (versus a low-fat control intervention) disclose differences in the risk of initiation of: (1) vitamin K epoxide reductase inhibitors (acenocumarol/warfarin; n = 6772); (2) acetylsalicylic acid as antiplatelet agent (n = 5662); and (3) other antiplatelet drugs (cilostazol/clopidogrel/dipyridamole/ditazol/ticlopidine/triflusal; n = 6768). We also assess whether MedDiet modifies the association between the antithrombotic drug baseline use and incident cardiovascular events. The MedDiet intervention enriched with extra-virgin olive oil decreased the risk of initiating the use of vitamin K epoxide reductase inhibitors relative to control diet (HR: 0.68 [0.46–0.998]). Their use was also more strongly associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease in participants not allocated to MedDiet interventions (HRcontrol diet: 4.22 [1.92–9.30], HRMedDiets: 1.71 [0.83–3.52], p-interaction = 0.052). In conclusion, in an older population at high cardiovascular risk, following a MedDiet decreases the initiation of antithrombotic therapies and the risk of suffering major cardiovascular events among users of vitamin K epoxide reductase inhibitors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutritional Epidemiology)
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Review
Passiflora incarnata in Neuropsychiatric Disorders—A Systematic Review
Nutrients 2020, 12(12), 3894; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12123894 - 19 Dec 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3751
Abstract
Background: Stress is a natural response of the body, induced by factors of a physical (hunger, thirst, and infection) and/or psychological (perceived threat, anxiety, or concern) nature. Chronic, long-term stress may cause problems with sleep, concentration, and memory, as well as affective disorders. [...] Read more.
Background: Stress is a natural response of the body, induced by factors of a physical (hunger, thirst, and infection) and/or psychological (perceived threat, anxiety, or concern) nature. Chronic, long-term stress may cause problems with sleep, concentration, and memory, as well as affective disorders. The passionflower (Passiflora incarnata) is a perennial plant with documented therapeutic properties. The literature data suggest that the passionflower itself, as well as its preparations, helps reduce stress and can therefore be helpful in the treatment of insomnia, anxiety, and depression. The objective of this systematic review was to evaluate Passiflora incarnata in terms of its neuropsychiatric effects. Methods: The scientific databases PubMed, ClinTrials.gov, and Embase were searched up to 22 October 2019. The search identified randomized clinical trials describing the effects of Passiflora incarnata in neuropsychiatric disorders. Results: The systematic review included nine clinical trials. The duration of the studies included in the analysis varied widely, from one day up to 30 days. Study participants were no less than 18 years old. In each of the papers, the effects of passionflower were measured by using a number of different tests and scales. The majority of studies reported reduced anxiety levels following the administration of Passiflora incarnata preparations, with the effect less evident in people with mild anxiety symptoms. No adverse effects, including memory loss or collapse of psychometric functions, were observed. Conclusion: Passiflora incarnata may be helpful in treating some symptoms in neuropsychiatric patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Nutritional Psychiatry)
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Article
Effects of Consuming Sugar-Sweetened Beverages for 2 Weeks on 24-h Circulating Leptin Profiles, Ad Libitum Food Intake and Body Weight in Young Adults
Nutrients 2020, 12(12), 3893; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12123893 - 19 Dec 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1473
Abstract
Sugar-sweetened beverage (sugar-SB) consumption is associated with body weight gain. We investigated whether the changes of (Δ) circulating leptin contribute to weight gain and ad libitum food intake in young adults consuming sugar-SB for two weeks. In a parallel, double-blinded, intervention study, participants [...] Read more.
Sugar-sweetened beverage (sugar-SB) consumption is associated with body weight gain. We investigated whether the changes of (Δ) circulating leptin contribute to weight gain and ad libitum food intake in young adults consuming sugar-SB for two weeks. In a parallel, double-blinded, intervention study, participants (n = 131; BMI 18–35 kg/m2; 18–40 years) consumed three beverages/day containing aspartame or 25% energy requirement as glucose, fructose, high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) or sucrose (n = 23–28/group). Body weight, ad libitum food intake and 24-h leptin area under the curve (AUC) were assessed at Week 0 and at the end of Week 2. The Δbody weight was not different among groups (p = 0.092), but the increases in subjects consuming HFCS- (p = 0.0008) and glucose-SB (p = 0.018) were significant compared with Week 0. Subjects consuming sucrose- (+14%, p < 0.0015), fructose- (+9%, p = 0.015) and HFCS-SB (+8%, p = 0.017) increased energy intake during the ad libitum food intake trial compared with subjects consuming aspartame-SB (−4%, p = 0.0037, effect of SB). Fructose-SB decreased (−14 ng/mL × 24 h, p = 0.0006) and sucrose-SB increased (+25 ng/mL × 24 h, p = 0.025 vs. Week 0; p = 0.0008 vs. fructose-SB) 24-h leptin AUC. The Δad libitum food intake and Δbody weight were not influenced by circulating leptin in young adults consuming sugar-SB for 2 weeks. Studies are needed to determine the mechanisms mediating increased energy intake in subjects consuming sugar-SB. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Craving, Appetite and Weight Gain)
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Review
Source and Composition in Amino Acid of Dietary Proteins in the Primary Prevention and Treatment of CKD
Nutrients 2020, 12(12), 3892; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12123892 - 19 Dec 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1502
Abstract
Nutrition is a cornerstone in the management of chronic kidney disease (CKD). To limit urea generation and accumulation, a global reduction in protein intake is routinely proposed. However, recent evidence has accumulated on the benefits of plant-based diets and plant-derived proteins without a [...] Read more.
Nutrition is a cornerstone in the management of chronic kidney disease (CKD). To limit urea generation and accumulation, a global reduction in protein intake is routinely proposed. However, recent evidence has accumulated on the benefits of plant-based diets and plant-derived proteins without a clear understanding of underlying mechanisms. Particularly the roles of some amino acids (AAs) appear to be either deleterious or beneficial on the progression of CKD and its complications. This review outlines recent data on the role of a low protein intake, the plant nature of proteins, and some specific AAs actions on kidney function and metabolic disorders. We will focus on renal hemodynamics, intestinal microbiota, and the production of uremic toxins. Overall, these mechanistic effects are still poorly understood but deserve special attention to understand why low-protein diets provide clinical benefits and to find potential new therapeutic targets in CKD. Full article
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Article
Differences in Diet Quality between School Lunch Participants and Nonparticipants in the United States by Income and Race
Nutrients 2020, 12(12), 3891; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12123891 - 19 Dec 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1381
Abstract
Prior research has shown that participation in the United States’ National School Lunch Program (NSLP) is associated with consuming higher-quality lunches and diets overall, but little is known about differences by income and race/ethnicity. This analysis used 24 h dietary recall data from [...] Read more.
Prior research has shown that participation in the United States’ National School Lunch Program (NSLP) is associated with consuming higher-quality lunches and diets overall, but little is known about differences by income and race/ethnicity. This analysis used 24 h dietary recall data from the School Nutrition and Meal Cost Study to examine how NSLP participation affects the diet quality of students in different income and racial/ethnic subgroups. Diet quality at lunch and over 24 h was assessed using the Healthy Eating Index (HEI)-2010, where higher scores indicate higher-quality intakes. HEI-2010 scores for NSLP participants and nonparticipants in each subgroup were estimated, and two-tailed t-tests were conducted to determine whether participant–nonparticipant differences in scores within each subgroup were statistically significant. NSLP participants’ lunches received significantly higher total HEI-2010 scores than those of nonparticipants for lower-income, higher-income, non-Hispanic White, and non-Hispanic Black students, suggesting that participating in the NSLP helps most students consume healthier lunches. These significantly higher total scores for participants’ lunch intakes persisted over 24 h for higher-income students and non-Hispanic White students but not for lower-income students or students of other races/ethnicities. For NSLP participants in all subgroups, the nutritional quality of their 24 h intakes was much lower than at lunch, suggesting that the positive influence of the NSLP on their overall diet quality was negatively influenced by foods consumed the rest of the day (outside of lunch). Full article
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Article
Mendelian Randomization Study on Amino Acid Metabolism Suggests Tyrosine as Causal Trait for Type 2 Diabetes
Nutrients 2020, 12(12), 3890; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12123890 - 19 Dec 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1353
Abstract
Circulating levels of branched-chain amino acids, glycine, or aromatic amino acids have been associated with risk of type 2 diabetes. However, whether those associations reflect causal relationships or are rather driven by early processes of disease development is unclear. We selected diabetes-related amino [...] Read more.
Circulating levels of branched-chain amino acids, glycine, or aromatic amino acids have been associated with risk of type 2 diabetes. However, whether those associations reflect causal relationships or are rather driven by early processes of disease development is unclear. We selected diabetes-related amino acid ratios based on metabolic network structures and investigated causal effects of these ratios and single amino acids on the risk of type 2 diabetes in two-sample Mendelian randomization studies. Selection of genetic instruments for amino acid traits relied on genome-wide association studies in a representative sub-cohort (up to 2265 participants) of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Potsdam Study and public data from genome-wide association studies on single amino acids. For the selected instruments, outcome associations were drawn from the DIAGRAM (DIAbetes Genetics Replication And Meta-analysis, 74,124 cases and 824,006 controls) consortium. Mendelian randomization results indicate an inverse association for a per standard deviation increase in ln-transformed tyrosine/methionine ratio with type 2 diabetes (OR = 0.87 (0.81–0.93)). Multivariable Mendelian randomization revealed inverse association for higher log10-transformed tyrosine levels with type 2 diabetes (OR = 0.19 (0.04–0.88)), independent of other amino acids. Tyrosine might be a causal trait for type 2 diabetes independent of other diabetes-associated amino acids. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Amino Acid Nutrition and Metabolism Related to Health and Well Being)
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Article
Appetitive Traits in a Population-Based Study of Polish Adolescents within the PLACE-19 Study: Validation of the Adult Eating Behavior Questionnaire
Nutrients 2020, 12(12), 3889; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12123889 - 19 Dec 2020
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 1407
Abstract
Appetitive traits of food approach or food avoidance are commonly measured using the Adult Eating Behavior Questionnaire (AEBQ). However, there is no Polish version of the AEBQ validated for adolescents, and to the best of our knowledge, no study completed with the Polish [...] Read more.
Appetitive traits of food approach or food avoidance are commonly measured using the Adult Eating Behavior Questionnaire (AEBQ). However, there is no Polish version of the AEBQ validated for adolescents, and to the best of our knowledge, no study completed with the Polish version of the AEBQ has been published thus far. The present study aimed to validate the AEBQ in a population-based sample of Polish secondary school students and to assess differences in appetitive traits between boys and girls within the Polish Adolescents’ COVID-19 Experience (PLACE-19) Study. The PLACE-19 Study was conducted in a group of 2448 adolescents recruited in May 2020 through the random quota sampling of secondary schools. The AEBQ was used to assess food approach subscales (Food Responsiveness, Emotional Over-Eating, and Enjoyment of Food) and food avoidance subscales (Satiety Responsiveness, Emotional Under-Eating, Food Fussiness, and Slowness in Eating). To validate the questionnaire, the standardized factor loadings within confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) with weighted least squares (WLS) were analyzed, and invariance was verified. The CFA presented good model fit, with χ2 = 4826.105 (degrees of freedom (df) = 384), root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA) = 0.069 (90% confidence interval (CI): 0.067, 0.070), comparative fit index (CFI) = 0.90, and standardized root mean square residual (SRMR) = 0.08. The results revealed that, compared to the configural invariance model, the metric invariance model did not result in significantly decreased model fit, with ΔCFI = −0.002 and ΔRMSEA = −0.001, which were lower than the recommended cutoffs of 0.010 and 0.015, respectively. The scalar invariance model also did not result in significantly decreased fit of the model over the metric invariance model, with ΔCFI = −0.005 and ΔRMSEA = 0.000. Girls reported higher levels of Food Responsiveness (p < 0.0001), Emotional Over-Eating (p < 0.0001), Satiety Responsiveness (p < 0.0001), Emotional Under-Eating (p < 0.0001), and Slowness in Eating than boys (p < 0.0001), and the total AEBQ scores of girls were also higher (p < 0.0001). Positive inter-correlations were observed between all food approach subscales, as well as between Emotional Under-Eating and all food approach subscales for girls, boys, and the total sample; positive inter-correlations were also observed between the majority of food avoidance subscales. The present study confirmed the validity of the AEBQ in the studied population, and supported the associations between appetitive traits assessed using the AEBQ; it also indicated higher scores of both food approach and food avoidance subscales in girls than in boys in a population-based sample of Polish secondary school students. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Eating-Behavior in Children and Adolescents)
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Article
Knowledge about Sugar Sources and Sugar Intake Guidelines in Portuguese Consumers
Nutrients 2020, 12(12), 3888; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12123888 - 19 Dec 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 996
Abstract
In this work, we examined knowledge about sugars and guidelines for its consumption and explored the relationship between knowledge and measures related to nutritional information processing as well as sugar consumption. Specifically, we asked participants (n = 1010 Portuguese) to categorize a [...] Read more.
In this work, we examined knowledge about sugars and guidelines for its consumption and explored the relationship between knowledge and measures related to nutritional information processing as well as sugar consumption. Specifically, we asked participants (n = 1010 Portuguese) to categorize a set of ingredients (e.g., glucose, aspartame) regarding their composition (i.e., intrinsic vs. added/free sugars) and origin (e.g., natural vs. artificial) and if they were aware of the WHO guidelines for sugar intake. Overall, despite using information about sugar frequently and considering attending to such information as very important to stay healthy, most participants were unaware of the WHO guidelines and revealed difficulties in the categorization task. Women, participants with a higher level of education, and those with children in the household reported higher use of sugar content information present in nutritional labels, higher perceived knowledge of nutritional guidelines, and higher hit rates in categorizing sugar sources. Almost one-fourth of the population exceeds the daily limit recommended by the WHO. Therefore, characterizing the knowledge of a Portuguese sample regarding sugar sources and sugar intake guidelines is particularly relevant, and our results emphasize the need to implement effective strategies to reduce sugar intake. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutritional Policies and Education for Health Promotion)
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Article
Carnitine Serum Levels in Frail Older Subjects
Nutrients 2020, 12(12), 3887; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12123887 - 19 Dec 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 901
Abstract
Frailty is an expression that reconciles and condenses loss of autonomy, both physical and cognitive decline and a wide spectrum of adverse outcomes due to aging. The decrease in physical and cognitive activity is associated with altered mitochondrial function, and energy loss and [...] Read more.
Frailty is an expression that reconciles and condenses loss of autonomy, both physical and cognitive decline and a wide spectrum of adverse outcomes due to aging. The decrease in physical and cognitive activity is associated with altered mitochondrial function, and energy loss and consequently morbidity and mortality. In this cross-sectional study, we evaluated the carnitine levels in frailty status. The mean serum concentrations of total carnitine (TC) were lower in frail elderly subjects than in prefrail ones (p = 0.0006), higher in frail vs. robust subjects (p < 0.0001), and higher in prefrail vs. robust subjects (p < 0.0001). The mean serum concentrations of free carnitine (FC) were lower in frail elderly subjects than in prefrail ones (p < 0.0001), lower in frail vs. robust subjects (p < 0.0001) and lower in prefrail vs. robust subjects (p = 0.0009). The mean serum concentrations of acylcarnitine (AC) were higher in frail elderly subjects than in prefrail ones (p = 0.054) and were higher in pre-frail vs. robust subjects (p = 0.0022). The mean urine concentrations of TC were lower in frail elderly subjects than in prefrail ones (p < 0.05) and lower in frail vs. robust subjects (p < 0.0001). The mean urine concentrations of free carnitine were lower in frail elderly vs. robust subjects (p < 0.05). The mean urine concentrations of acyl carnitines were lower in frail elderly subjects than those in both prefrail (p < 0.0001) and robust subjects (p < 0.0001). Conclusion: high levels of carnitine may have a favorable effect on the functional status and may treat the frailty status in older subjects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carnitine and Derivatives in Health and Disease)
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Article
Effects of Caffeine and Chlorogenic Acid on Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis in Mice Induced by Choline-Deficient, L-Amino Acid-Defined, High-Fat Diet
Nutrients 2020, 12(12), 3886; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12123886 - 18 Dec 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1181
Abstract
Several recent experimental studies have investigated the effects of caffeine and chlorogenic acid (CGA), representative ingredients of coffee, on nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)/nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). However, the results are conflicting, and their effects are yet to be clarified. In the present study, [...] Read more.
Several recent experimental studies have investigated the effects of caffeine and chlorogenic acid (CGA), representative ingredients of coffee, on nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)/nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). However, the results are conflicting, and their effects are yet to be clarified. In the present study, we examined the effects of caffeine and CGA on choline-deficient, L-amino acid-defined, high-fat diet (CDAHFD)-fed mice, relatively new model mice of NASH. Seven-week-old male C57BL/6J mice were divided into the following groups: Control diet (control), CDAHFD (CDAHFD), CDAHFD supplemented with 0.05% (w/w) caffeine (caffeine), and CDAHFD supplemented with 0.1% (w/w) CGA (CGA). After seven weeks, the mice were killed and serum biochemical, histopathological, and molecular analyses were performed. Serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels were significantly higher in the caffeine and CGA groups than in the CDAHFD group. On image analysis, the prevalence of Oil red O-positive areas (reflecting steatosis) was significantly higher in the caffeine group than in the CDAHFD group, and that of CD45R-positive areas (reflecting lymphocytic infiltration) in the hepatic lobule was significantly higher in the caffeine and CGA groups than in the CDAHFD group. Hepatic expression of interleukin (IL)-6 mRNA was higher in the caffeine and CGA groups than in the CDAHFD group, and the difference was statistically significant for the caffeine group. In conclusion, in the present study, caffeine and CGA significantly worsened the markers of liver cell injury, inflammation, and/or steatosis in NASH lesions in mice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Phytochemicals and Human Health)
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Article
Appetite Control Might not Be Improved after Weight Loss in Adolescents with Obesity, Despite Non-Persistent Metabolic Syndrome
Nutrients 2020, 12(12), 3885; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12123885 - 18 Dec 2020
Viewed by 1054
Abstract
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a multidisciplinary weight loss intervention on energy intake and appetite sensations in adolescents with obesity, depending on the initial diagnosis or persistence of the metabolic syndrome. Ninety-two adolescents with obesity (12–15 years) [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a multidisciplinary weight loss intervention on energy intake and appetite sensations in adolescents with obesity, depending on the initial diagnosis or persistence of the metabolic syndrome. Ninety-two adolescents with obesity (12–15 years) followed a 16-week multidisciplinary weight loss intervention. Anthropometric and body composition characteristics, metabolic profile, ad libitum daily energy intake, and appetite sensations were assessed before and after the intervention. The presence of metabolic syndrome (MS) was determined at baseline (MS vs. non-MS) and after the program (persistent vs. non-persistent). While the intervention was effective in inducing weight loss (body weight T0: 87.1 ± 14.9 vs. T1: 81.2 ± 13.0 kg; p < 0.001) and body composition improvements in both adolescents with and without MS, energy intake (p = 0.07), hunger (p = 0.008), and prospective food consumption (p = 0.03) increased, while fullness decreased (p = 0.04) in both groups. Energy intake and appetite were not improved in non-persistent MS after the program and remained significantly higher among non-persistent adolescents compared with initially non-MS adolescents. To conclude, appetite control seems impaired in obese adolescents, irrespective of being affected by MS or not, whereas the treatment of MS in this population might fail to effectively preclude the adolescents from potential post-intervention compensatory food intake and subsequent weight regain. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Diet in Metabolic Syndrome)
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Article
Hylocereus polyrhizus Peel Extract Retards Alcoholic Liver Disease Progression by Modulating Oxidative Stress and Inflammatory Responses in C57BL/6 Mice
Nutrients 2020, 12(12), 3884; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12123884 - 18 Dec 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1231
Abstract
Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) has become a health problem as alcohol consumption has increased annually. Hepatic lipid accumulation, oxidative stress, and inflammation are important factors in the progression of ALD. Red pitaya (Hylocereus polyrhizus (Weber) Britt. & Rose) peel is rich in [...] Read more.
Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) has become a health problem as alcohol consumption has increased annually. Hepatic lipid accumulation, oxidative stress, and inflammation are important factors in the progression of ALD. Red pitaya (Hylocereus polyrhizus (Weber) Britt. & Rose) peel is rich in polyphenols and betanins, which possess antioxidative and anti-inflammatory properties. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of red pitaya peel extract (PPE) on ALD and explore the associated mechanisms. C57BL/6 J mice were administered an ethanol liquid diet for 11 weeks with or without two different doses of PPE (500 and 1000 mg/kg BW). PPE treatment significantly ameliorated liver injury and hepatic fat accumulation, and it improved hepatic lipid metabolism via increases in AMPK and PPAR-α protein expression and a decrease in SREBP-1 expression. In addition, PPE inhibited CYP2E1 and Nrf2 protein expression, reduced endotoxin levels in the serum, and decreased TLR4 and MyD88 expression and inflammatory cytokine TNF-α and IL-1β levels in the liver. In conclusion, these findings suggest that PPE may prevent the progression of ALD by modulating lipid metabolism and reducing oxidative stress and inflammatory responses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Phytochemicals and Human Health)
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Review
Exploring Patterns of Disturbed Eating in Psychosis: A Scoping Review
Nutrients 2020, 12(12), 3883; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12123883 - 18 Dec 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1440
Abstract
Disturbed eating behaviours have been widely reported in psychotic disorders since the early 19th century. There is also evidence that antipsychotic (AP) treatment may induce binge eating or other related compulsive eating behaviours. It is therefore possible that abnormal eating patterns may contribute [...] Read more.
Disturbed eating behaviours have been widely reported in psychotic disorders since the early 19th century. There is also evidence that antipsychotic (AP) treatment may induce binge eating or other related compulsive eating behaviours. It is therefore possible that abnormal eating patterns may contribute to the significant weight gain and other metabolic disturbances observed in patients with psychosis. In this scoping review, we aimed to explore the underlying psychopathological and neurobiological mechanisms of disrupted eating behaviours in psychosis spectrum disorders and the role of APs in this relationship. A systematic search identified 35 studies that met our eligibility criteria and were included in our qualitative synthesis. Synthesizing evidence from self-report questionnaires and food surveys, we found that patients with psychosis exhibit increased appetite and craving for fatty food, as well as increased caloric intake and snacking, which may be associated with increased disinhibition. Limited evidence from neuroimaging studies suggested that AP-naïve first episode patients exhibit similar neural processing of food to healthy controls, while chronic AP exposure may lead to decreased activity in satiety areas and increased activity in areas associated with reward anticipation. Overall, this review supports the notion that AP use can lead to disturbed eating patterns in patients, which may contribute to AP-induced weight gain. However, intrinsic illness-related effects on eating behaviors remain less well elucidated, and many confounding factors as well as variability in study designs limits interpretation of existing literature in this field and precludes firm conclusions from being made. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Clinical Utility of Food Addiction and Eating Addiction)
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Article
Fruit and Vegetable Consumption and Incident Prefrailty and Frailty in Community-Dwelling Older People: The English Longitudinal Study of Ageing
Nutrients 2020, 12(12), 3882; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12123882 - 18 Dec 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1342
Abstract
Background: There is limited evidence in the literature regarding associations between fruit and vegetable consumption and risk of frailty. Objective: To examine associations between fruit and vegetable consumption and risk of incident frailty and incident prefrailty/frailty. Design: A prospective panel study. Setting and [...] Read more.
Background: There is limited evidence in the literature regarding associations between fruit and vegetable consumption and risk of frailty. Objective: To examine associations between fruit and vegetable consumption and risk of incident frailty and incident prefrailty/frailty. Design: A prospective panel study. Setting and Subjects: 2634 non-frail community-dwelling men and women aged 60 years or older from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA). Methods: Fruit and vegetable consumption/day was measured using a self-completion questionnaire at baseline. Frailty status was measured at baseline and follow-up was based on modified frailty phenotype criteria. Four-year incident frailty was examined among 2634 robust or prefrail participants, and incident prefrailty/frailty was measured among 1577 robust participants. Results: Multivariable logistic regression models adjusted for age, gender, and other confounders showed that fruit and vegetable consumption was not associated with incident frailty risks among robust or prefrail participants. However, robust participants consuming 5–7.5 portions of 80 g per day (odds ratio (OR) = 0.56, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.37–0.85, p < 0.01) and 7.5–10 portions per day (OR = 0.46, 95%CI = 0.27–0.77, p < 0.01) had significantly lower risk of incident prefrailty/frailty compared with those consuming 0–2.5 portions/day, whereas those consuming 10 or more portions/day did not (OR = 1.10, 95%CI = 0.54–2.26, p = 0.79). Analysis repeated with fruit and vegetable separately showed overall similar results. Conclusions: Robust older adults without frailty who eat current U.K. government recommendations for fruit and vegetable consumption (5–10 portions/day) had significantly reduced risks of incident prefrailty/frailty compared with those who only eat small amount (0–2.5 portions/day). Older people can be advised that eating sufficient amounts of fruit and vegetable may be beneficial for frailty prevention. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Rehabilitation in Older Patients with Disability)
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