Special Issue "Sport Nutrition for Athletes"

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643). This special issue belongs to the section "Sports Nutrition".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 September 2020).

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Marco Malaguti
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department for Life Quality Studies, Alma Mater Studiorum-University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy
Interests: biochemistry of nutrition; nutraceuticals; dietary supplements; sport science; nutrition for health
Dr. Antonello Lorenzini
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Biomedical and Neuromotor Sciences, Alma Mater Studiorum—University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy
Interests: biology of aging; biology of longevity; biochemistry of nutrition; health promotion; sport nutrition

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Nutrition represents, together with training and genetic background, a key factor leading to top performance since it provides energy, influences muscle adaptation to training, and improves cognitive functions and resistance to fatigue. In addition to this well-known concept, athlete nutrition is also related to athlete health. Presently, an increasing number of elderly athletes compete with excellent results in numerous sporting events, suggesting that proper training and proper nutrition can extend the span of “sport longevity”. Athletes are now a population that includes people of different age groups, from teenagers to the elderly, different genders, without or with chronic diseases (e.g., diabetes) or disabilities (Paralympic athletes), all of them with specific nutritional needs. Additionally, different cultural and regional habits and religion-related traditions may affect athlete nutritional needs.  

As such, this Special Issue seeks submissions of manuscripts, either describing original research or reviews with a focus on dietary patterns and/specific nutrient/nutraceutical and supplements for athletes.

Nutrients welcomes also the submissions of work on cell cultures and/or animal models if this work may have a direct implication to human nutrition.

Dr. Marco Malaguti
Dr. Antonello Lorenzini
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Nutrients is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Sport nutrition
  • Sport supplements
  • Athletes
  • Paralympic athletes
  • Young athletes
  • Elderly athletes
  • Exercise

Published Papers (12 papers)

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Research

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Article
Capsaicin Analogue Supplementation Does Not Improve 10 km Running Time-Trial Performance in Male Amateur Athletes: A Randomized, Crossover, Double-Blind and Placebo-Controlled Study
Nutrients 2021, 13(1), 34; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13010034 - 24 Dec 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1161
Abstract
Background: To investigate the acute effects of a capsaicin analogue supplement on 10 km time-trial performance and physiological responses in amateur athletes. Methods: Twenty-one participants (age = 29.3 ± 5.5 years, weight 74.2 ± 11.3 kg, height 176.0 ± 0.0 cm, fat mass [...] Read more.
Background: To investigate the acute effects of a capsaicin analogue supplement on 10 km time-trial performance and physiological responses in amateur athletes. Methods: Twenty-one participants (age = 29.3 ± 5.5 years, weight 74.2 ± 11.3 kg, height 176.0 ± 0.0 cm, fat mass 12.7 ± 3.8%, V˙O2max 62.7 ± 8.4 mL·k−1·min−1), completed two randomized, double-blind trials: capsaicin analogue condition (Capsiate (CAP) = 24 mg) or a placebo (PLA) condition. The participants consumed two doses of 12 mg of CAP or PLA capsule 45 min before and immediately at the start of each trial. The time required to complete 10 km, lactate concentration, maximum heart rate (HRpeak), and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were recorded. Results: The 10 km time-trial performance (CAP = 45.07 ± 6.41 min vs. PLA = 45.13 ± 6.73, p = 0.828) was not statistically significantly different between conditions. No statistically significant differences between conditions were detected for lactate concentration (p = 0.507), HRpeak (p = 0.897) and RPE (p = 0.517). Conclusion: Two doses of a 12 mg Capsaicin analogue supplement did not improve performance and physiological responses in a 10 km running time-trial in amateur athletes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sport Nutrition for Athletes)
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Article
Effects of 8 Weeks of 2S-Hesperidin Supplementation on Performance in Amateur Cyclists
Nutrients 2020, 12(12), 3911; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12123911 - 21 Dec 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1894
Abstract
2S-Hesperidin is a flavanone (flavonoid) found in high concentrations in citrus fruits. It has an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects, improving performance in animals. This study investigated the effects of chronic intake of an orange extract (2S-hesperidin) or placebo on non-oxidative/glycolytic and oxidative metabolism [...] Read more.
2S-Hesperidin is a flavanone (flavonoid) found in high concentrations in citrus fruits. It has an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects, improving performance in animals. This study investigated the effects of chronic intake of an orange extract (2S-hesperidin) or placebo on non-oxidative/glycolytic and oxidative metabolism markers and performance markers in amateur cyclists. A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial was carried out between late September and December 2018. Forty amateur cyclists were randomized into two groups: one taking 500 mg/day 2S-hesperidin and the other taking 500 mg/day placebo (microcellulose) for eight weeks. All participants completed the study. An incremental test was used to evaluate performance, and a step test was used to measure oxygen consumption, carbon dioxide, efficiency and oxidation of carbohydrates and fat by indirect calorimetry. The anaerobic power (non-oxidative) was determined using Wingate tests (30 s). After eight weeks supplementation, there was an increase in the incremental test in estimated functional threshold power (FTP) (3.2%; p ≤ 0.05) and maximum power (2.7%; p ≤ 0.05) with 2S-hesperdin compared to placebo. In the step test, there was a decrease in VO2 (L/min) (−8.3%; p ≤ 0.01) and VO2R (mL/kg/min) (−8.9%; p ≤ 0.01) at VT2 in placebo. However, there were no differences between groups. In the Wingate test, there was a significant increase (p ≤ 0.05) in peak and relative power in both groups, but without differences between groups. Supplementation with an orange extract (2S-hesperdin) 500 mg/day improves estimated FTP and maximum power performance in amateur cyclists. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sport Nutrition for Athletes)
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Article
The Mediterranean Athlete’s Nutrition: Are Protein Supplements Necessary?
Nutrients 2020, 12(12), 3681; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12123681 - 29 Nov 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2008
Abstract
(1) Background: It is recommended that an athlete, in order to ensure correct nutrition and performance, should consume between 1.2 and 2.0 g/kg/day of protein, while the daily recommended protein intake for a non-athlete is 0.8and 0.9 mg/kg/day. It is unclear if athletes [...] Read more.
(1) Background: It is recommended that an athlete, in order to ensure correct nutrition and performance, should consume between 1.2 and 2.0 g/kg/day of protein, while the daily recommended protein intake for a non-athlete is 0.8and 0.9 mg/kg/day. It is unclear if athletes living in Mediterranean countries are able to meet protein requirements without supplementation, since Mediterranean diet de-emphasizes meat and meat products. (2) Methods: 166 athletes (125 males) enrolled between 2017 and 2019 were required to keep a dietary journal for three consecutive days (2 workdays and 1 weekend day). Athletes had to be >18 years old, train in a particular sport activity more than 3 h a week and compete at least at an amateur level. Journal data were collected and then translated into macro-nutrient content (grams of protein, carbohydrates, and lipids) by a nutritionist. (3) Results: The protein intake reported by this specific population vary slightly from the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics (AND), Dietitians of Canada (DC), and the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) joint statement recommendation level. Average protein levels without protein supplementation fell within the protein guidelines. Counterintuitively, the intake among those who supplemented their diet with protein was higher compared with those who did not, even when excluding the contribution of supplements. Although the majority of subjects participating in the study were able to meet protein intake recommended for athletes without protein supplementation, 27% of athletes were below the guideline range. (4) Conclusions: these data suggest that athletes’ nutrition should be more often evaluated by a nutritionist and that they will benefit from increasing their nutritional knowledge in order to make better food choices, resorting to protein supplementation only when effectively needed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sport Nutrition for Athletes)
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Article
Use of Sports Supplements in Competitive Handball Players: Sex and Competitive Level Differences
Nutrients 2020, 12(11), 3357; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12113357 - 31 Oct 2020
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1745
Abstract
Sports supplements are commonly used by elite athletes with the main goal of enhancing sport performance. Supplements use might be substantially different depending on the sport discipline, sex, and competitive level. To date, data about prevalence and the most-commonly used supplements in handball [...] Read more.
Sports supplements are commonly used by elite athletes with the main goal of enhancing sport performance. Supplements use might be substantially different depending on the sport discipline, sex, and competitive level. To date, data about prevalence and the most-commonly used supplements in handball are scarce. Thus, the aim of this investigation was to determine the patterns of supplements use by handball players of both sexes and with different competitive levels: One hundred and eighty-seven handball players (112 men and 75 women) of different competitive levels (106 professional and 81 amateur) completed a validated self-administered questionnaire about supplements use. Supplements were classified according to the categorization of the Australian Institute of Sport (AIS). Overall, 59.9% of the handball players (n = 112) declared the use of at least one supplement and there were no significant differences between men and women (58.9% vs. 61.3%, p = 0.762) nor between professional vs. amateur handball players (67.1% vs. 53.8%, p = 0.074). The most prevalent supplements were sports drinks (42.2%), followed by energy bars (35.3%) and caffeine-containing products (31.6%). However, a greater consumption of group A supplements (those with strong scientific evidence; p = 0.029) and group B supplements (those with emerging scientific support, p = 0.012) was observed in male compared to female handball players. Supplements categorized as medical supplements were more commonly consumed in professional vs. amateur players (0.48 ± 0.80 vs. 0.21 ± 0.44, supplements p < 0.006). Additionally, a higher consumption of group B supplements was observed in professional compared to amateur players (0.58 ± 0.88 vs. 0.33 ± 0.72 supplements, p = 0.015). Handball players revealed a moderate use of supplements while sex and competitive level slighted changed the pattern of supplements use. A high portion of handball players use supplements as fuel during exercise and reported the use of caffeine-containing supplements to enhance performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sport Nutrition for Athletes)
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Article
Validation of a General and Sports Nutrition Knowledge Questionnaire in Italian Early Adolescents
Nutrients 2020, 12(10), 3121; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12103121 - 13 Oct 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1384
Abstract
To the best of our knowledge, no specific questionnaires on sports nutrition knowledge (NK) have been validated so far in Italian early adolescents. The aim of the present study was to validate a short (26-item) general and sports NK questionnaire in a group [...] Read more.
To the best of our knowledge, no specific questionnaires on sports nutrition knowledge (NK) have been validated so far in Italian early adolescents. The aim of the present study was to validate a short (26-item) general and sports NK questionnaire in a group of Italian early adolescents. To this aim, the questionnaire was administered to 264 subjects for analysis of internal consistency, and in a subgroup (n = 39) for evaluating the reliability over time. The questionnaire revealed good overall internal consistency and reliability (Cronbach’s α = 0.684) and a highly significant correlation over time (r = 0.977, p < 0.001). Comparison with other validated questionnaires is tricky, because the previous questionnaires were validated in different populations, such as middle or late adolescents or adults, with a higher number of items compared to our questionnaire. Furthermore, data on adolescent NK in Italy are very limited. This study provides a brief, feasible, and validated questionnaire that can be used for investigating sports NK in young subjects. It could be used for evaluating the efficacy of education on general and sports nutrition in both the general population and athletes, and for investigating the relationship between NK and different sports in early adolescence. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sport Nutrition for Athletes)
Article
Lactobacillus plantarum PS128 Improves Physiological Adaptation and Performance in Triathletes through Gut Microbiota Modulation
Nutrients 2020, 12(8), 2315; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12082315 - 01 Aug 2020
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 4383
Abstract
A triathlon is an extremely high-intensity exercise and a challenge for physiological adaptation. A triathlete’s microbiome might be modulated by diet, age, medical treatments, lifestyle, and exercise, thereby maintaining aerobiosis and optimum health and performance. Probiotics, prebiotics, and synbiotics have been reported to [...] Read more.
A triathlon is an extremely high-intensity exercise and a challenge for physiological adaptation. A triathlete’s microbiome might be modulated by diet, age, medical treatments, lifestyle, and exercise, thereby maintaining aerobiosis and optimum health and performance. Probiotics, prebiotics, and synbiotics have been reported to have health-promoting activities (e.g., immunoregulation and cancer prevention). However, few studies have addressed how probiotics affect the microbiota of athletes and how this translates into functional activities. In our previous study, we found that Lactobacillus plantarum PS128 could ameliorate inflammation and oxidative stress, with improved exercise performance. Thus, here we investigate how the microbiota of triathletes are altered by L. plantarum PS128 supplementation, not only for exercise performance but also for possible physiological adaptation. The triathletes were assigned to two groups: an L. plantarum 128 supplement group (LG, 3 × 1010 colony-forming units (CFU)/day) and a placebo group (PG). Both groups continued with their regular exercise training for the next 4 weeks. The endurance performance, body composition, biochemistries, blood cells, microbiota, and associated metabolites were further investigated. PS128 significantly increased the athletes’ endurance, by about 130% as compared to the PG group, but there was no significant difference in maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) and composition between groups. The PS128 supplementation (LG) modulated the athlete’s microbiota with both significant decreases (Anaerotruncus, Caproiciproducens, Coprobacillus, Desulfovibrio, Dielma, Family_XIII, Holdemania, and Oxalobacter) and increases (Akkermansia, Bifidobacterium, Butyricimonas, and Lactobacillus), and the LG showed lower diversity when compared to the PG. Also, the short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs; acetate, propionate, and butyrate) of the LG were significantly higher than the PG, which might be a result of a modulation of the associated microbiota. In conclusion, PS128 supplementation was associated with an improvement on endurance running performance through microbiota modulation and related metabolites, but not in maximal oxygen uptake. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sport Nutrition for Athletes)
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Article
Influence of Sunlight and Oral D3 Supplementation on Serum 25(OH)D Concentration and Exercise Performance in Elite Soccer Players
Nutrients 2020, 12(5), 1311; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12051311 - 04 May 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2115
Abstract
The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of natural sun exposure and six weeks of a high dose of vitamin D supplementation on vitamin D, testosterone and cortisol serum concentrations as well as speed, power and VO2max in professional [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of natural sun exposure and six weeks of a high dose of vitamin D supplementation on vitamin D, testosterone and cortisol serum concentrations as well as speed, power and VO2max in professional soccer players. Materials: The study was conducted from January to September. At the beginning of the study, 33 professional soccer players were enrolled; however, only 28 subjects (height 181.5 cm; body mass 77.81 ± 8.8 kg; body fat 12.38% ± 2.4% and muscle mass 40.27 ± 5.3 kg) completed the study. The research consisted of three stages. The first one, lasting 10 days, was conducted in January during a training camp in the south part of Cyprus at a latitude of 34 33°, where participants experienced natural sun exposure; it was called a winter sun exposure (WSE) period. The second stage, which was a supplementation period (SP), lasted 6 weeks, during which all subjects were randomly assigned either to an experimental group—EG (n = 15)—or a placebo group—PG (n = 13)—and were administered 6000 IU/d cholecalciferol or a placebo, respectively. The third stage took place in September, after summertime (summer sun exposure—SSE). The data of the 25(OH)D, free and total testosterone (fT, tT), cortisol as well as 5 and 30 m sprint tests (STs), power of the left leg (PLL) and VO2max were evaluated before and after the WSE period, the SP and SSE. Results: In January, the baseline value of vitamin D in 12 subjects was ≤20 ng/mL, and 14 of them had levels between 20–30 ng/mL and 2 individuals >30 ng/mL. After the WSE period, significant changes in 25(OH)D, fT, tT and cortisol concentration, as well as in the 5 m ST, were observed. After the SP, in the EG, significant changes were found in 25(OH)D, fT, tT and the 5 m ST. Furthermore, a positive correlation between the concentration of 25(OH) fT and tT was observed. After SSE, 2 out of 28 players had <20 ng/mL 25(OH)D, 12 of them had 25(OH)D between 20 and 30 ng/mL and 14 of them had 25(OH)D between 30 and 50 ng/mL. Significant differences in 25(OH)D, fT, tT concentration and the 5 m ST performance were observed following SSE compared with the WSE period. Conclusion: Due to the serum level of 25(OH)D demonstrated by most participants at the beginning of the study and after summertime, all-year-round supplementation with high doses of vitamin D seems to be a reasonable solution to enhance high 25(OH)D concentration in blood and physical performance. In the middle of the winter, almost half of the soccer players were serum deficient of 25(OH)D. After ten days of sun exposure and 6 weeks of vitamin D supplementation, the concentration of 25(OH)D significantly increased, as did testosterone and results in the 5 m sprint test also improved. Therefore, athletes should be constantly monitored for serum levels of 25(OH)D throughout the year and should be supplemented if deficiencies or insufficient amounts of this vitamin occur. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sport Nutrition for Athletes)
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Article
Effect of Quercetin Treatment on Mitochondrial Biogenesis and Exercise-Induced AMP-Activated Protein Kinase Activation in Rat Skeletal Muscle
Nutrients 2020, 12(3), 729; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12030729 - 10 Mar 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1793
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of chronic quercetin treatment on mitochondrial biogenesis, endurance exercise performance and activation levels of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in rat skeletal muscle. Rats were assigned to a control or quercetin group and were [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of chronic quercetin treatment on mitochondrial biogenesis, endurance exercise performance and activation levels of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in rat skeletal muscle. Rats were assigned to a control or quercetin group and were fed for 7 days. Rats treated with quercetin showed no changes in the protein levels of citrate synthase or cytochrome C oxidase IV or those of sirtuin 1, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1α or phosphorylated AMPK. After endurance swimming exercise, quercetin-treated rats demonstrated no differences in blood and muscle lactate levels or glycogen utilization speed compared to control rats. These results indicate that quercetin treatment does not stimulate mitochondrial biogenesis in skeletal muscle and does not influence metabolism in a way that might enhance endurance exercise capacity. On the other hand, the AMPK phosphorylation level immediately after exercise was significantly lower in quercetin-treated muscles, suggesting that quercetin treatment might provide a disadvantage to muscle adaptation when administered with exercise training. The molecular results of this study indicate that quercetin treatment may not be advantageous for improving endurance exercise performance, at least after high-dose and short-term therapy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sport Nutrition for Athletes)
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Review

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Review
How Does the Dietary Intake of Female Field-Based Team Sport Athletes Compare to Dietary Recommendations for Health and Performance? A Systematic Literature Review
Nutrients 2021, 13(4), 1235; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13041235 - 09 Apr 2021
Viewed by 1554
Abstract
Field-based team sports present large energetic demands given their intermittent high-intensity nature. Current evidence suggests that the dietary intake of female athletes may be insufficient to meet such demands, resulting in negative consequences for athletic performance and health. The primary aim of this [...] Read more.
Field-based team sports present large energetic demands given their intermittent high-intensity nature. Current evidence suggests that the dietary intake of female athletes may be insufficient to meet such demands, resulting in negative consequences for athletic performance and health. The primary aim of this review was to therefore assess the adequacy of dietary intake of female field-based team sport athletes when compared to dietary recommendations. A systematic search of databases, including PubMed, Web of Science, SPORTDiscus, and OpenGrey, was performed from the earliest record available until July 2020, obtaining an initial total of 2588 articles. To be included within the final review, articles were required to provide a quantitative assessment of baseline dietary intake specific to the target population. A total of 20 studies (n = 462) met the full eligibility criteria. A majority reported that the dietary intake of female field-based team sport athletes was insufficient in overall energy (2064 ± 309 kcal·day−1), carbohydrate (4.3 ± 1.2 g·kg·day−1), and iron intake (13.6 ± 6.2 mg·day−1) when compared to recommendations. Future research is required to establish why female team sport athletes consistently demonstrate deficient dietary practices, and to explore the potential negative consequences of this. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sport Nutrition for Athletes)
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Review
What Model of Nutrition Can Be Recommended to People Ending Their Professional Sports Career? An Analysis of the Mediterranean Diet and the CRON Diet in the Context of Former Athletes
Nutrients 2020, 12(12), 3604; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12123604 - 24 Nov 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1140
Abstract
Athletes who retire from their sporting career face an increase in body weight, leading to overweight or obesity. Simultaneously, a significant number of these athletes meet the criteria of metabolic syndrome. The available literature does not offer clearly defined standards of nutrition for [...] Read more.
Athletes who retire from their sporting career face an increase in body weight, leading to overweight or obesity. Simultaneously, a significant number of these athletes meet the criteria of metabolic syndrome. The available literature does not offer clearly defined standards of nutrition for the discussed group of people. In this situation, it seems advisable to develop different standards of dietary behavior typical of athletes finishing their sports careers. For this purpose, the study analyzed two types of diets: the Mediterranean diet and the Calorie Restriction with Optimal Nutrition (CRON) diet based on significant calorie restrictions. Both diets seem to meet the requirements of this group of people. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sport Nutrition for Athletes)
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Review
Nutritional Strategies to Optimize Performance and Recovery in Rowing Athletes
Nutrients 2020, 12(6), 1685; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12061685 - 05 Jun 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 3413
Abstract
Rowing is a high-intensity sport requiring a high level of aerobic and anaerobic capacity. Although good nutrition is essential for successful performance in a rowing competition, its significance is not sufficiently established. This review aimed to provide nutritional strategies to optimize performance and [...] Read more.
Rowing is a high-intensity sport requiring a high level of aerobic and anaerobic capacity. Although good nutrition is essential for successful performance in a rowing competition, its significance is not sufficiently established. This review aimed to provide nutritional strategies to optimize performance and recovery in rowing athletes based on a literature review. Following the guidelines given in the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA), we performed web searches using online databases (Pubmed, Web of Science, Wiley Online Library, ACS Publications, and SciFinder). Typically, a rowing competition involves a 6–8-min high-intensity exercise on a 2000-m course. The energy required for the exercise is supplied by muscle-stored glycogens, which are derived from carbohydrates. Therefore, rowing athletes can plan their carbohydrate consumption based on the intensity, duration, and type of training they undergo. For effective and safe performance enhancement, rowing athletes can take supplements such as β-alanine, caffeine, β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyric acid (HMB), and beetroot juice (nitrate). An athlete may consume carbohydrate-rich foods or use a carbohydrate mouth rinse. Recovery nutrition is also very important to minimize the risk of injury or unexplained underperformance syndrome (UUPS) from overuse. It must take into account refueling (carbohydrate), rehydration (fluid), and repair (protein). As lightweight rowing athletes often attempt acute weight loss by limiting food and fluid intake to qualify for a competition, they require personalized nutritional strategies and plans based on factors such as their goals and environment. Training and competition performance can be maximized by including nutritional strategies in training plans. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sport Nutrition for Athletes)
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Other

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Brief Report
The Effects of Cholecalciferol Supplementation on Vitamin D Status Among a Diverse Population of Collegiate Basketball Athletes: A Quasi-Experimental Trial
Nutrients 2020, 12(2), 370; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12020370 - 31 Jan 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 4543
Abstract
Vitamin D may play a role in performance and injury risk, yet the required supplementation dosage for collegiate athletes is unclear. The objective of this study was to define the dosage of vitamin D3 supplementation required to beneficially affect serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [...] Read more.
Vitamin D may play a role in performance and injury risk, yet the required supplementation dosage for collegiate athletes is unclear. The objective of this study was to define the dosage of vitamin D3 supplementation required to beneficially affect serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) among a sample of collegiate basketball athletes. This was a quasi-experimental trial, participants were allocated to one of three groups of vitamin D3 daily at the beginning of pre-season training and dependent upon their baseline vitamin D status as follows: insufficient (<75 nmol/L) to 10,000 IU, sufficient (75–125 nmol/L) to 5000 IU and optimal (>125 nmol/L) to no supplementation. Follow-up assessments were completed ~ 5 months later in post season. The majority (n = 13) were allocated to 10,000 IU vs. n = 5 to 5000 IU and n = 2 to no supplementation. The 10,000 IU group showed the greatest change (35.0 ± 27.0 nmol/L) vs. the 5000 IU group (−9.3 ± 9.6 nmol/L) and no supplementation group (−41.6 ± 11.7 nmol/L, p < 0.01). Only 1 participant reached optimal status in the 10,000 IU group. In conclusion, a daily dosage of 10,000 IU vitamin D3 supplementation mitigated the high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among collegiate basketball players but was insufficient for all to reach sufficient levels. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sport Nutrition for Athletes)
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