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Recent Advances in Nutritional Psychiatry

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643). This special issue belongs to the section "Nutrition and Public Health".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2020) | Viewed by 110195

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A printed edition of this Special Issue is available here.

Special Issue Editor

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Mental health disorders represent a major public health issue due to their impact on years lived with disability and cross-talk with other non-communicable diseases such as cancer, cardiovascular diseases, and diabetes. Importantly, most of these conditions can be prevented by implementing healthy dietary habits. Consequently, a recently developed field of psychiatry, “nutritional psychiatry”, is focused on investigating the relationships among dietary factors, eating habits and mental disorders in order to form methods for the prevention and treatment of mental disorders.

This Special Issue of Nutrients will focus on both observational and molecular studies that investigate the effects of nutrients, foods, and whole dietary patterns on mental health. We invite authors to submit reviews and studies providing evidence of the effects of nutritional factors on cognitive function, depression, sleep patterns, stress and quality of life.

Prof. Dr. Giuseppe Grosso
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Nutrients is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2900 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Mediterranean diet
  • polyphenols
  • nutrition
  • diet
  • nutritional psychiatry
  • mental health
  • cognitive disorders
  • dementia
  • stress
  • depression
  • quality of life
  • sleep

Published Papers (11 papers)

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Editorial

Jump to: Research, Review

4 pages, 209 KiB  
Editorial
Nutritional Psychiatry: How Diet Affects Brain through Gut Microbiota
by Giuseppe Grosso
Nutrients 2021, 13(4), 1282; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13041282 - 14 Apr 2021
Cited by 21 | Viewed by 10585
Abstract
Nutritional sciences have been recognized as being of paramount importance for the prevention of non-communicable diseases. Among others, mental health disorders have been hypothesized to be influenced by dietary risk through a variety of molecular mechanisms. The improvements in the technology and implementation [...] Read more.
Nutritional sciences have been recognized as being of paramount importance for the prevention of non-communicable diseases. Among others, mental health disorders have been hypothesized to be influenced by dietary risk through a variety of molecular mechanisms. The improvements in the technology and implementation of-omics sciences in terms of nutrition have created the possibility of studying the relation between diet, gut microbiota and mental health. The gut–brain–axis represents the core rationale setting the stage for a relatively new discipline of study defined as “nutritional psychiatry”. Research on this matter will help to better understand the relation between food and mood, sleep quality, cognition, and mental health in general. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Nutritional Psychiatry)

Research

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13 pages, 539 KiB  
Article
Moderate Mocha Coffee Consumption Is Associated with Higher Cognitive and Mood Status in a Non-Demented Elderly Population with Subcortical Ischemic Vascular Disease
by Francesco Fisicaro, Giuseppe Lanza, Manuela Pennisi, Carla Vagli, Mariagiovanna Cantone, Giovanni Pennisi, Raffaele Ferri and Rita Bella
Nutrients 2021, 13(2), 536; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13020536 - 6 Feb 2021
Cited by 24 | Viewed by 4987
Abstract
To date, interest in the role of coffee intake in the occurrence and course of age-related neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders has provided an inconclusive effect. Moreover, no study has evaluated mocha coffee consumption in subjects with mild vascular cognitive impairment and late-onset depression. [...] Read more.
To date, interest in the role of coffee intake in the occurrence and course of age-related neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders has provided an inconclusive effect. Moreover, no study has evaluated mocha coffee consumption in subjects with mild vascular cognitive impairment and late-onset depression. We assessed the association between different quantities of mocha coffee intake over the last year and cognitive and mood performance in a homogeneous sample of 300 non-demented elderly Italian subjects with subcortical ischemic vascular disease. Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE), Stroop Colour-Word Interference Test (Stroop T), 17-items Hamilton Depression Rating Scalfe (HDRS), Activities of Daily Living (ADL), and Instrumental ADL were the outcome measures. MMSE, HDRS, and Stroop T were independently and significantly associated with coffee consumption, i.e., better scores with increasing intake. At the post-hoc analyses, it was found that the group with a moderate intake (two cups/day) had similar values compared to the heavy drinkers (≥three cups/day), with the exception of MMSE. Daily mocha coffee intake was associated with higher cognitive and mood status, with a significant dose-response association even with moderate consumption. This might have translational implications for the identification of modifiable factors for vascular dementia and geriatric depression. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Nutritional Psychiatry)
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11 pages, 297 KiB  
Article
Association between Time Restricted Feeding and Cognitive Status in Older Italian Adults
by Walter Currenti, Justyna Godos, Sabrina Castellano, Giuseppe Caruso, Raffaele Ferri, Filippo Caraci, Giuseppe Grosso and Fabio Galvano
Nutrients 2021, 13(1), 191; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13010191 - 9 Jan 2021
Cited by 38 | Viewed by 6989
Abstract
Background: Due to the increased life expectancy, the prevalence of aging-related health conditions, such as cognitive impairment, dementia and Alzheimer’s disease is increasing. Among the modifiable risk factors, dietary factors have proved to be of primary importance in preserving and improving mental health [...] Read more.
Background: Due to the increased life expectancy, the prevalence of aging-related health conditions, such as cognitive impairment, dementia and Alzheimer’s disease is increasing. Among the modifiable risk factors, dietary factors have proved to be of primary importance in preserving and improving mental health and cognitive status in older adults, possibly through the modulation of adult neurogenesis, neuronal plasticity and brain signaling. Feeding/fasting timing manipulation has emerged as an innovative strategy to counteract and treat cognitive decline. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between the timing of the feeding period and cognitive status in a cross-sectional cohort of adults living in the Mediterranean area. Methods: Demographic and dietary characteristics of 883 adults living in Southern Italy (Sicily) were analyzed. Food frequency questionnaires were used to calculate the time window between the first and the last meal of an average day. Participants with an eating time window duration of more than 10 h were then identified, as well as those with eating time restricted to less than 10 h (TRF). Results: After adjusting for potential confounding factors, individuals adherent to TRF were less likely to have cognitive impairment, compared to those with no eating time restrictions [odds ratio (OR) = 0.28; 95% confidence intervals (CI): 0.07–0.90]; a similar association was found for individuals having breakfast (OR = 0.37, 95% CI: 0.16–0.89), but not for those having dinner. Conclusions: The results of this study reveal that time restricted eating may be positively associated with cognitive status, and thus exert plausible effects on brain health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Nutritional Psychiatry)
19 pages, 774 KiB  
Article
Diet Quality and Sociodemographic, Lifestyle, and Health-Related Determinants among People with Depression in Spain: New Evidence from a Cross-Sectional Population-Based Study (2011–2017)
by Jesús Cebrino and Silvia Portero de la Cruz
Nutrients 2021, 13(1), 106; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13010106 - 30 Dec 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 3474
Abstract
The role of diet quality in depression is an emerging research area and it appears that diet quality could be an important modifying factor. The aims of this study were to report the prevalence of diet quality among individuals with and without a [...] Read more.
The role of diet quality in depression is an emerging research area and it appears that diet quality could be an important modifying factor. The aims of this study were to report the prevalence of diet quality among individuals with and without a self-reported diagnosis of depression aged from 16 to 64 years old in Spain, to analyze the time trends of the frequency of food consumption and diet quality from 2011 to 2017 in individuals with a self-reported diagnosis of depression, and to explore the associations between poor/improvable diet quality and sociodemographic, lifestyle, and health-related factors. A nationwide cross-sectional study was conducted in 42,280 participants with and without a self-reported diagnosis of depression who had participated in the 2011/2012 and 2017 Spanish National Health Surveys and the 2014 European Health Survey in Spain. A logistic regression analysis was performed to identify the variables associated with diet quality. The overall prevalence of diet quality among depressive and non-depressive individuals revealed 65.71% and 70.27% were in need of improvement, respectively. Moreover, having a poor or improvable diet quality is associated with male gender, people aged 16–24 years old and 25–44 years old, separated or divorced, and also in smokers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Nutritional Psychiatry)
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21 pages, 2652 KiB  
Article
Evaluating the Effects of Grain of Isogenic Wheat Lines Differing in the Content of Anthocyanins in Mouse Models of Neurodegenerative Disorders
by Maria A. Tikhonova, Olesya Yu. Shoeva, Michael V. Tenditnik, Marina V. Ovsyukova, Anna A. Akopyan, Nina I. Dubrovina, Tamara G. Amstislavskaya and Elena K. Khlestkina
Nutrients 2020, 12(12), 3877; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12123877 - 18 Dec 2020
Cited by 26 | Viewed by 6386
Abstract
Functional foods enriched with plant polyphenols and anthocyanins in particular attract special attention due to multiple beneficial bioactive properties of the latter. We evaluated the effects of a grain diet rich in anthocyanins in a mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease induced by amyloid-beta [...] Read more.
Functional foods enriched with plant polyphenols and anthocyanins in particular attract special attention due to multiple beneficial bioactive properties of the latter. We evaluated the effects of a grain diet rich in anthocyanins in a mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease induced by amyloid-beta (Aβ) and a transgenic mouse model of Parkinson’s disease (PD) with overexpression of human alpha-synuclein. The mice were kept at a diet that consisted of the wheat grain of near isogenic lines differing in anthocyanin content for five–six months. The anthocyanin-rich diet was safe and possessed positive effects on cognitive function. Anthocyanins prevented deficits in working memory induced by Aβ or a long-term grain mono-diet; they partially reversed episodic memory alterations. Both types of grain diets prolonged memory extinction and rescued its facilitation in the PD model. The dynamics of the extinction in the group fed with the anthocyanin-rich wheat was closer to that in a group of wild-type mice given standard chow. The anthocyanin-rich diet reduced alpha-synuclein accumulation and modulated microglial response in the brain of the transgenic mice including the elevated expression of arginase1 that marks M2 microglia. Thus, anthocyanin-rich wheat is suggested as a promising source of functional nutrition at the early stages of neurodegenerative disorders. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Nutritional Psychiatry)
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11 pages, 965 KiB  
Article
Influence of Dietary Habits and Mediterranean Diet Adherence on Sleep Quality during Pregnancy. The GESTAFIT Project
by Marta Flor-Alemany, Teresa Nestares, Inmaculada Alemany-Arrebola, Nuria Marín-Jiménez, Milkana Borges-Cosic and Virginia A. Aparicio
Nutrients 2020, 12(11), 3569; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12113569 - 20 Nov 2020
Cited by 22 | Viewed by 3680
Abstract
We examined the association of the dietary habits and the Mediterranean diet (MD) adherence with sleep quality during pregnancy. A food frequency questionnaire and the Mediterranean Food Pattern were employed to assess dietary habits and MD adherence, respectively. Sleep quality was assessed with [...] Read more.
We examined the association of the dietary habits and the Mediterranean diet (MD) adherence with sleep quality during pregnancy. A food frequency questionnaire and the Mediterranean Food Pattern were employed to assess dietary habits and MD adherence, respectively. Sleep quality was assessed with the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) global score (n = 150; mean age 32.9 ± 4.6 years). A higher consumption of fruits was associated with better sleep quality at the 16th gestational week (g.w.; p < 0.05). A greater olive oil consumption and a higher MD adherence were associated with better sleep quality at the 16th and 34th g.w. (all, p < 0.05). Contrarily, a higher red meat and subproducts consumption was associated with worse sleep quality at the 34th g.w. (p < 0.05). The group with the highest adherence to the MD (Tertile 3) showed better sleep quality than the group with the lowest adherence (Tertile 1) at the 16th and 34th g.w. (both, p < 0.05). A higher adherence to the MD, a greater intake of fruits and olive oil and a lower intake of red meat and subproducts were associated with better sleep quality along the pregnancy course, especially among sedentary women. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Nutritional Psychiatry)
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13 pages, 684 KiB  
Article
The Relationship between Food Security Status and Sleep Disturbance among Adults: A Cross-Sectional Study in an Indonesian Population
by Emyr Reisha Isaura, Yang-Ching Chen, Hsiu-Yueh Su and Shwu-Huey Yang
Nutrients 2020, 12(11), 3411; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12113411 - 6 Nov 2020
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 3491
Abstract
Background: The relationship between food insecurity and the experience of sleep disturbance has received little attention among researchers, although food insecurity is associated with poor physical and mental health globally. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between food security status and sleep [...] Read more.
Background: The relationship between food insecurity and the experience of sleep disturbance has received little attention among researchers, although food insecurity is associated with poor physical and mental health globally. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between food security status and sleep disturbance among adults 20–64 years old. Methods: The study’s population-based sample included 20,212 Indonesian adults who participated in the fifth wave of the Indonesia Family Life Survey (IFLS5) in 2014. Dietary intake data, gathered using a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ), were used to assess the food security status. Sleep disturbance was assessed using the 10-item Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) questionnaire. We used multiple linear and logistic regression models to test the study hypothesis. Results: A higher likelihood of experiencing sleep disturbance was recorded in people aged older than 56 years (OR = 1.78, 95% CI: 1.17–2.72, p = 0.007), people with depressive symptoms (OR = 3.57, 95% CI: 2.77–4.61, p < 0.001), and food-insecure people (OR = 1.32, 95% CI: 1.02–1.70, p = 0.036). A lower likelihood of experiencing sleep disturbance was recorded in people with low educational attainment (OR = 0.41, 95% CI: 0.30–0.57, p < 0.001). Sleep disturbance was dependent on the food consumption groups and food security status among men (p = 0.004). Conclusions: Sleep disturbance may be affected by the food-insecure status of adults, and later, may lead to serious health outcomes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Nutritional Psychiatry)
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12 pages, 271 KiB  
Article
Diet Quality and Health Service Utilization for Depression: A Prospective Investigation of Adults in Alberta’s Tomorrow Project
by Shelby Marozoff, Paul J. Veugelers, Julia Dabravolskaj, Dean T. Eurich, Ming Ye and Katerina Maximova
Nutrients 2020, 12(8), 2437; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12082437 - 13 Aug 2020
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 3083
Abstract
Depression is a leading cause of disability and economic burden worldwide. Primary prevention strategies are urgently needed. We examined the association of diet quality with depression in a large provincial cohort of adults. A past year food frequency questionnaire was completed by Alberta’s [...] Read more.
Depression is a leading cause of disability and economic burden worldwide. Primary prevention strategies are urgently needed. We examined the association of diet quality with depression in a large provincial cohort of adults. A past year food frequency questionnaire was completed by Alberta’s Tomorrow Project (ATP) participants enrolled between 2000–2008 (n = 25,016; average age 50.4 years) and used to calculate Healthy Eating Index-Canada (HEI-C) 2015 scores. The number of physician visits for depression 2000–2015 was obtained via linkage with administrative health records. Negative binomial regression models assessed the relationship between HEI-C 2015 scores and physician visits for depression, adjusting for confounders. Every 10-unit increase in HEI-C 2015 scores was associated with 4.7% fewer physician visits for depression (rate ratio (RR): 0.95; 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 0.92–0.98). This relationship persisted when participants with physician visits for mental illness prior to cohort enrollment were excluded. Higher quality diets were associated with a lower number of physician visits for depression. Results highlight diet may be an important prevention strategy for reducing the burden of health service utilization for depression. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Nutritional Psychiatry)
15 pages, 315 KiB  
Article
Specific Dietary (Poly)phenols Are Associated with Sleep Quality in a Cohort of Italian Adults
by Justyna Godos, Raffaele Ferri, Sabrina Castellano, Donato Angelino, Pedro Mena, Daniele Del Rio, Filippo Caraci, Fabio Galvano and Giuseppe Grosso
Nutrients 2020, 12(5), 1226; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12051226 - 26 Apr 2020
Cited by 34 | Viewed by 5015
Abstract
Background: Diet has been the major focus of attention as a leading risk factor for non-communicable diseases, including mental health disorders. A large body of literature supports the hypothesis that there is a bidirectional association between sleep and diet quality, possibly via the [...] Read more.
Background: Diet has been the major focus of attention as a leading risk factor for non-communicable diseases, including mental health disorders. A large body of literature supports the hypothesis that there is a bidirectional association between sleep and diet quality, possibly via the modulation of neuro-inflammation, adult neurogenesis and synaptic and neuronal plasticity. In the present study, the association between dietary total, subclasses of and individual (poly)phenols and sleep quality was explored in a cohort of Italian adults. Methods: The demographic and dietary characteristics of 1936 adults living in southern Italy were analyzed. Food frequency questionnaires (FFQs) were used to assess dietary intake. Data on the (poly)phenol content in foods were retrieved from the Phenol-Explorer database. The Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index was used to measure sleep quality. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to test the associations. Results: A significant inverse association between a higher dietary intake of lignans and inadequate sleep quality was found. Additionally, individuals with the highest quartile of hydroxycinnamic acid intake were less likely to have inadequate sleep quality. When individual compounds were taken into consideration, an association with sleep quality was observed for naringenin and apigenin among flavonoids, and for matairesinol among lignans. A secondary analysis was conducted, stratifying the population into normal weight and overweight/obese individuals. The findings in normal weight individuals showed a stronger association between certain classes of, subclasses of and individual compounds and sleep quality. Notably, nearly all individual compounds belonging to the lignan class were inversely associated with inadequate sleep quality. In the overweight/obese individuals, there were no associations between any dietary (poly)phenol class and sleep quality. Conclusions: The results of this study suggest that a higher dietary intake of certain (poly)phenols may be associated with better sleep quality among adult individuals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Nutritional Psychiatry)

Review

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19 pages, 466 KiB  
Review
Passiflora incarnata in Neuropsychiatric Disorders—A Systematic Review
by Katarzyna Janda, Karolina Wojtkowska, Karolina Jakubczyk, Justyna Antoniewicz and Karolina Skonieczna-Żydecka
Nutrients 2020, 12(12), 3894; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12123894 - 19 Dec 2020
Cited by 27 | Viewed by 52142
Abstract
Background: Stress is a natural response of the body, induced by factors of a physical (hunger, thirst, and infection) and/or psychological (perceived threat, anxiety, or concern) nature. Chronic, long-term stress may cause problems with sleep, concentration, and memory, as well as affective disorders. [...] Read more.
Background: Stress is a natural response of the body, induced by factors of a physical (hunger, thirst, and infection) and/or psychological (perceived threat, anxiety, or concern) nature. Chronic, long-term stress may cause problems with sleep, concentration, and memory, as well as affective disorders. The passionflower (Passiflora incarnata) is a perennial plant with documented therapeutic properties. The literature data suggest that the passionflower itself, as well as its preparations, helps reduce stress and can therefore be helpful in the treatment of insomnia, anxiety, and depression. The objective of this systematic review was to evaluate Passiflora incarnata in terms of its neuropsychiatric effects. Methods: The scientific databases PubMed, ClinTrials.gov, and Embase were searched up to 22 October 2019. The search identified randomized clinical trials describing the effects of Passiflora incarnata in neuropsychiatric disorders. Results: The systematic review included nine clinical trials. The duration of the studies included in the analysis varied widely, from one day up to 30 days. Study participants were no less than 18 years old. In each of the papers, the effects of passionflower were measured by using a number of different tests and scales. The majority of studies reported reduced anxiety levels following the administration of Passiflora incarnata preparations, with the effect less evident in people with mild anxiety symptoms. No adverse effects, including memory loss or collapse of psychometric functions, were observed. Conclusion: Passiflora incarnata may be helpful in treating some symptoms in neuropsychiatric patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Nutritional Psychiatry)
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10 pages, 540 KiB  
Review
Ketogenic Diet: A Dietary Modification as an Anxiolytic Approach?
by Adam Włodarczyk, Wiesław Jerzy Cubała and Aleksandra Wielewicka
Nutrients 2020, 12(12), 3822; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12123822 - 14 Dec 2020
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 7777
Abstract
Anxiety disorders comprise persistent, disabling conditions that are distributed across the globe, and are associated with the high medical and socioeconomic burden of the disease. Within the array of biopsychosocial treatment modalities—including monoaminergic antidepressants, benzodiazepines, and CBT—there is an unmet need for the [...] Read more.
Anxiety disorders comprise persistent, disabling conditions that are distributed across the globe, and are associated with the high medical and socioeconomic burden of the disease. Within the array of biopsychosocial treatment modalities—including monoaminergic antidepressants, benzodiazepines, and CBT—there is an unmet need for the effective treatment of anxiety disorders resulting in full remission and recovery. Nutritional intervention may be hypothesized as a promising treatment strategy; in particular, it facilitates relapse prevention. Low-carbohydrate high-fat diets (LCHF) may provide a rewarding outcome for some anxiety disorders; more research is needed before this regimen can be recommended to patients on a daily basis, but the evidence mentioned in this paper should encourage researchers and clinicians to consider LCHF as a piece of advice somewhere between psychotherapy and pharmacology, or as an add-on to those two. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Nutritional Psychiatry)
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