Special Issue "Nutritional Therapy for High Blood Pressure"

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643). This special issue belongs to the section "Nutritional Epidemiology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 15 March 2020.

Special Issue Editors

Dr. George Moschonis
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Dietetics, Nutrition and Sport, College of Science, Health and Engineering, La Trobe University, Bundoora VIC 3086, Melbourne, Australia
Interests: Nutrition epidemiology, public health nutrition, lifespan nutrition, obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis, dietary intervention, nutrition counselling, functional foods
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Dr. Kalliopi Karatzi
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, School of Health Science and Education, Harokopio University, 17671 Athens, Greece
Interests: vascular health; dietary patterns; adult hypertension; childhood hypertension; nutraceuticals; vasoactive food constituents
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Hypertension is a common health problem, and one of the most important risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Hypertension treatment is usually based on drug administration, yet lifestyle changes and especially diet have also been proven to be almost as effective in hypertension therapy. Dietary components may act favorably in many pathophysiological mechanisms responsible for blood pressure elevation, such as vasoconstriction, arterial stiffness, peripheral resistance, and fluid balance—both acutely and after long-term use. This Special Issue aims to bring together the latest knowledge regarding the nutrition therapy of high blood pressure either through original research or review articles including systematic reviews or meta- analyses, which will offer valuable insight into how diet as a whole, dietary patterns, nutrients, nutraceuticals, or other components of diet can serve as valuable means for blood pressure control in patients or apparently healthy populations.

Dr. George Moschonis
Dr. Kalliopi Karatzi
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • adult hypertension
  • childhood hypertension
  • diet
  • dietary patterns
  • nutraceuticals
  • vasoactive nutrients
  • nutritional therapy

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
The Effects of Beetroot Juice on Blood Pressure, Microvascular Function and Large-Vessel Endothelial Function: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Pilot Study in Healthy Older Adults
Nutrients 2019, 11(8), 1792; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11081792 - 02 Aug 2019
Abstract
Dietary nitrate (NO3) has been reported to improve endothelial function (EF) and blood pressure (BP). However, most studies only assess large-vessel EF with little research on the microvasculature. Thus, the aim of the present pilot study is to examine NO [...] Read more.
Dietary nitrate (NO3) has been reported to improve endothelial function (EF) and blood pressure (BP). However, most studies only assess large-vessel EF with little research on the microvasculature. Thus, the aim of the present pilot study is to examine NO3 supplementation on microvascular and large-vessel EF and BP. Twenty older adults (63 ± 6 years) were randomized to a beetroot juice (BRJ) or placebo (PLA) group for 28 (±7) days and attended three laboratory visitations. Across visitations, blood pressure, microvascular function and large-vessel EF were assessed by laser Doppler imaging (LDI) with iontophoresis of vasoactive substances and flow-mediated dilatation (FMD), respectively. Plasma NO3concentrations, BP and the presence of NO3 reducing bacteria were also assessed. Plasma NO3 increased following two weeks of BRJ supplementation (p = 0.04) along with a concomitant decrease in systolic and diastolic BP of approximately −6 mmHg and −4 mmHg, respectively (p = 0.04; p = 0.01, respectively). BP remained unchanged in the PLA group. There were no significant differences in endothelium-dependent or endothelium-independent microvascular responses between groups. FMD increased by 1.5% following two weeks of BRJ (p = 0.04), with only a minimal (0.1%) change for the PLA group. In conclusion, this pilot study demonstrated that medium-term BRJ ingestion potentially improves SBP, DBP and large-vessel EF in healthy older adults. The improvements observed in the present study are likely to be greater in populations presenting with endothelial dysfunction. Thus, further prospective studies are warranted in individuals at greater risk for cardiovascular disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutritional Therapy for High Blood Pressure)
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Open AccessArticle
‘Low-Salt’ Bread as an Important Component of a Pragmatic Reduced-Salt Diet for Lowering Blood Pressure in Adults with Elevated Blood Pressure
Nutrients 2019, 11(8), 1725; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11081725 - 26 Jul 2019
Abstract
Reformulation of bread in terms of salt content remains an important measure to help achieve a reduction in salt intake in the population and for the prevention of hypertension and elevated blood pressure (BP). Our fundamental studies on the reduction of salt on [...] Read more.
Reformulation of bread in terms of salt content remains an important measure to help achieve a reduction in salt intake in the population and for the prevention of hypertension and elevated blood pressure (BP). Our fundamental studies on the reduction of salt on dough and bread characteristics showed that wheat breads produced with 0.3 g salt/100 g (“low-salt”) were found to be comparable quality to that produced with the typical level of salt (1.2%). This food-based intervention trial examined, using a 5 week cross-over design, the potential for inclusion of “low-salt” bread as part of a pragmatic reduced-salt diet on BP, markers of bone metabolism, and plasma lipids in 97 adults with slightly to moderately elevated BP. Assuming all sodium from dietary intake was excreted through the urine, the intake of salt decreased by 1.7 g/day, on average, during the reduced-salt dietary period. Systolic BP was significantly lower (by 3.3 mmHg on average; p < 0.0001) during the reduced-salt dietary period compared to the usual-salt dietary period, but there was no significant difference (p = 0.81) in diastolic BP. There were no significant differences (p > 0.12, in all cases) in any of the urinary- or serum-based biochemical indices of calcium or bone metabolism or in plasma lipids between the two periods. In conclusion, a modest reduction in dietary salt intake, in which the use of “low-salt” (i.e., 0.3 g/100g) bread played a key role along with dietary advice, and led to a significant, and clinically meaningful, decrease in systolic, but not diastolic, BP in adults with mildly to moderately elevated BP. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutritional Therapy for High Blood Pressure)
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Open AccessArticle
Combination of Healthy Lifestyle Factors on the Risk of Hypertension in a Large Cohort of French Adults
Nutrients 2019, 11(7), 1687; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11071687 - 23 Jul 2019
Abstract
Background: Healthy lifestyle factors are widely recommended for hypertension prevention and control. Nevertheless, little is known about their combined impact on hypertension, in the general population. Our aim was to compute a Healthy Lifestyle Index (HLI) comprising the main non-pharmacological measures usually recommended [...] Read more.
Background: Healthy lifestyle factors are widely recommended for hypertension prevention and control. Nevertheless, little is known about their combined impact on hypertension, in the general population. Our aim was to compute a Healthy Lifestyle Index (HLI) comprising the main non-pharmacological measures usually recommended to improve hypertension prevention: normal weight, regular physical activity, limited alcohol consumption, adoption of a healthy diet; to evaluate their combined impact on hypertension incidence. Methods: We prospectively followed the incidence of hypertension among 80,426 French adults participating in the NutriNet-Santé cohort study. Self-reported dietary, socio-demographic, lifestyle and health data were assessed at baseline and yearly using a dedicated website; the association between HLI and hypertension risk was assessed by multivariable Cox proportional hazards models adjusted for age, sex, family history of hypertension, socio-demographic and lifestyle factors. Hypothetical Population Attributable Risks associated to each factor were estimated. Results: During a median follow-up of 3.5 years (IQR: 1.5–5.3), 2413 incident cases of hypertension were identified. Compared with no or one healthy lifestyle factor, the hazard ratios (HR) for hypertension were 0.76 (95% CI, 0.67–0.85) for two factors, 0.47 (95% CI, 0.42–0.53) for three factors and 0.35 (95% CI, 0.30–0.41) for all healthy lifestyle factors (p-trend <0.0001). Compared with adhering to 0, 1, 2 or 3 healthy lifestyles, adhering to all of them was found associated with a reduction of the hypertension risk of half (HR = 0.55 (95% CI, 0.46–0.65)). Conclusion: Active promotion of healthy lifestyle factors at population level is a key leverage to fight the hypertension epidemic. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutritional Therapy for High Blood Pressure)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Relationship between Nutrition and Alcohol Consumption with Blood Pressure: The ESTEBAN Survey
Nutrients 2019, 11(6), 1433; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11061433 - 25 Jun 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
Background: Dietary interventions are recommended for the prevention of hypertension. The aim of this study was to evaluate and quantify the relationship between alcohol consumption and the DASH (Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension) score with blood pressure (BP) stratified by gender. Methods: Cross-sectional [...] Read more.
Background: Dietary interventions are recommended for the prevention of hypertension. The aim of this study was to evaluate and quantify the relationship between alcohol consumption and the DASH (Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension) score with blood pressure (BP) stratified by gender. Methods: Cross-sectional analyses were performed using data from 2105 adults from the ESTEBAN survey, a representative sample of the French population. Pearson correlation analyses were used to assess the correlation between the DASH score and alcohol with BP. Regressions were adjusted by age, treatment, socio-economic level, tobacco, exercise, Body mass index (BMI), and cardiovascular risk factors and diseases. Results: The DASH score was negatively correlated with systolic (SBP) and diastolic BP (DBP) (p < 0.0001). Alcohol was positively associated with increased BP only in men. The worst quintile of the DASH score was associated with an 1.8 mmHg increase in SBP and an 0.6 mmHg increase in SBP compared to the greatest quintile in men and with a 1.5 mmHg increase in SBP and an 0.4 mmHg increase in SBP in women. Male participants in the worst quintile of alcohol consumption showed an increase of 3.0 mmHg in SBP and 0.8 mmHg in DBP compared to those in the greatest quintile. Conclusion: A high DASH score and a reduction in alcohol consumption could be effective nutritional strategies for the prevention of hypertension. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutritional Therapy for High Blood Pressure)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Current Data on Dietary Sodium, Arterial Structure and Function in Humans: A Systematic Review
Nutrients 2020, 12(1), 5; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12010005 - 18 Dec 2019
Abstract
Background: Subclinical arterial damage (SAD) (arteriosclerosis, arterial remodeling and atheromatosis) pre-exists decades before cardiovascular disease (CVD) onset. Worldwide, sodium (Na) intake is almost double international recommendations and has been linked with CVD and death, although in a J-shape manner. Studies regarding dietary Na [...] Read more.
Background: Subclinical arterial damage (SAD) (arteriosclerosis, arterial remodeling and atheromatosis) pre-exists decades before cardiovascular disease (CVD) onset. Worldwide, sodium (Na) intake is almost double international recommendations and has been linked with CVD and death, although in a J-shape manner. Studies regarding dietary Na and major types of SAD may provide pathophysiological insight into the association between Na and CVD. Objectives: Systematic review of data derived from observational and interventional studies in humans, investigating the association between dietary Na with (i) atheromatosis (arterial plaques); (ii) arteriosclerosis (various biomarkers of arterial stiffness); (iii) arterial remodeling (intima–media thickening and arterial lumen diameters). Data sources: Applying the PRISMA criteria, the PubMed and Scopus databases were used. Results: 36 studies were included: 27 examining arteriosclerosis, four arteriosclerosis and arterial remodeling, three arterial remodeling, and two arterial remodeling and atheromatosis. Conclusions: (i) Although several studies exist, the evidence does not clearly support a clinically meaningful and direct (independent from blood pressure) effect of Na on arterial wall stiffening; (ii) data regarding the association of dietary Na with arterial remodeling are limited, mostly suggesting a positive trend between dietary Na and arterial hypertrophy but still inconclusive; (iii) as regards to atheromatosis, data are scarce and the available studies present high heterogeneity. Further state-of-the-art interventional studies must address the remaining controversies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutritional Therapy for High Blood Pressure)
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Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

Author: Tomos Jones, Emily Dunn, Jamie Macdonald, Hans-Peter Kubis, Aamer Sandoo
Affiliation: School of Sport, Health and Exercise Sciences, Bangor University, Bangor LL57 2PZ, Gwynedd, Wales, UK
Title: The long-term effects of beetroot juice on microvascular and large vessel endothelial function: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study in healthy older adults

Author: Tsirimiagou C, Karatzi K,Tzioufas Α, Manios Υ, Yiannakoulia Μ, Protogerou Α
Affiliation: Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, School of Health Science and Education, Harokopio University, Athens, Greece
Title: Sodium, arterial structure and function: current evidence from basic research to epidemiology

Author: Johanna Hoskin, Katerina Sarapis, Colleen Thomas, George Moschonis
Affiliation: Department of Dietetics, Nutrition and Sport, School of Allied Health, Human Services and Sport, La Trobe University, Bundoora, VIC 3086, Australia
Title: Effect of high-polyphenol extra virgin olive oil on blood pressure and arterial stiffness markers in healthy and prehypertensive adults. A systematic literature review of randomised controlled trials

Author: Alexandre Vallée, Amélie Gabet, Valérie Deschamps, Jacques Blacher, Valérie Olié
Title: The relationship between nutrition and alcohol consumption with blood pressure: the Esteban survey

Author: Hélène Lelong, Jacques Blacher, Julie Baudry, Solia Adriouch, Pilar Galan, Leopold Fezeu, Serge Hercberg, Emmanuelle Kesse-Guyot
Title: Combination of healthy lifestyle factors on the risk of hypertension in a large cohort of French adults. A prospective analysis from the NutriNet-Santé cohort study

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