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Psychobiotics: Mechanisms of Action, Evaluation Methods and Effectiveness in Applications with Food Products

Tecnologico de Monterrey, Escuela de Ingeniería y Ciencias, Avenida General Ramón Corona 2514, 45138 Zapopan, Jalisco, Mexico
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Nutrients 2020, 12(12), 3896; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12123896
Received: 30 November 2020 / Revised: 17 December 2020 / Accepted: 17 December 2020 / Published: 19 December 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Prebiotics and Probiotics)
The gut-brain-microbiota axis consists of a bilateral communication system that enables gut microbes to interact with the brain, and the latter with the gut. Gut bacteria influence behavior, and both depression and anxiety symptoms are directly associated with alterations in the microbiota. Psychobiotics are defined as probiotics that confer mental health benefits to the host when ingested in a particular quantity through interaction with commensal gut bacteria. The action mechanisms by which bacteria exert their psychobiotic potential has not been completely elucidated. However, it has been found that these bacteria provide their benefits mostly through the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, the immune response and inflammation, and through the production of neurohormones and neurotransmitters. This review aims to explore the different approaches to evaluate the psychobiotic potential of several bacterial strains and fermented products. The reviewed literature suggests that the consumption of psychobiotics could be considered as a viable option to both look after and restore mental health, without undesired secondary effects, and presenting a lower risk of allergies and less dependence compared to psychotropic drugs. View Full-Text
Keywords: psychobiotic; fermented food; gut-brain-microbiota axis psychobiotic; fermented food; gut-brain-microbiota axis
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MDPI and ACS Style

Del Toro-Barbosa, M.; Hurtado-Romero, A.; Garcia-Amezquita, L.E.; García-Cayuela, T. Psychobiotics: Mechanisms of Action, Evaluation Methods and Effectiveness in Applications with Food Products. Nutrients 2020, 12, 3896. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12123896

AMA Style

Del Toro-Barbosa M, Hurtado-Romero A, Garcia-Amezquita LE, García-Cayuela T. Psychobiotics: Mechanisms of Action, Evaluation Methods and Effectiveness in Applications with Food Products. Nutrients. 2020; 12(12):3896. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12123896

Chicago/Turabian Style

Del Toro-Barbosa, Mariano, Alejandra Hurtado-Romero, Luis E. Garcia-Amezquita, and Tomás García-Cayuela. 2020. "Psychobiotics: Mechanisms of Action, Evaluation Methods and Effectiveness in Applications with Food Products" Nutrients 12, no. 12: 3896. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12123896

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