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Nutrients, Volume 11, Issue 5 (May 2019)

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Cover Story (view full-size image) The trend of increasing obesity and impaired metabolic control in people with type 1 diabetes (T1D) [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of Vitamin D3 on the Postprandial Lipid Profile in Obese Patients: A Non-Targeted Lipidomics Study
Nutrients 2019, 11(5), 1194; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11051194
Received: 23 April 2019 / Revised: 17 May 2019 / Accepted: 22 May 2019 / Published: 27 May 2019
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Abstract
Postprandial lipemia can lead to an accumulation of atherogenic lipoproteins in the circulation associated with systemic low-grade inflammation and an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Lifestyle and pharmacological treatments are usually prescribed for prevention. Vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol), as an anti-atherogenic agent, is [...] Read more.
Postprandial lipemia can lead to an accumulation of atherogenic lipoproteins in the circulation associated with systemic low-grade inflammation and an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Lifestyle and pharmacological treatments are usually prescribed for prevention. Vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol), as an anti-atherogenic agent, is being taken into consideration due to its potential beneficial effects in lipid metabolism and its anti-inflammatory potency. To assess the effects of vitamin D3 in the postprandial lipid profile in obese, vitamin D-deficient women, a non-targeted lipidomics approach using liquid chromatography coupled to a quadrupole time-of flight mass spectrometer was used to identify and quantitate a wide-range of circulating lipid species, including diglycerides, lysophosphatidylcholines, phosphatidylcholines, phosphatidylethanolamines, sphingomyelins and triglycerides. The most important changes were found in plasmatic sphingomyelin levels, which experience a decrease after vitamin D3 intake. Our results suggest a turnover of sphingomyelins, probably due to an increased activity of neutral sphingomyelinases, and, therefore, with implications in the clearance of chylomicrons, LDL and VLDL, decreasing postprandial inflammation and macrophage adherence to endothelia, potentially improving cardiovascular disease risk. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamin D and Obesity)
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Open AccessArticle
The Association of Body Mass Index and Body Composition with Pain, Disease Activity, Fatigue, Sleep and Anxiety in Women with Fibromyalgia
Nutrients 2019, 11(5), 1193; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11051193
Received: 22 April 2019 / Revised: 14 May 2019 / Accepted: 22 May 2019 / Published: 27 May 2019
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Abstract
The link between fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) and obesity has not been thoroughly investigated. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships among body mass index (BMI) and body composition parameters, including fat mass, fat mass percentage, and visceral fat, as well [...] Read more.
The link between fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) and obesity has not been thoroughly investigated. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships among body mass index (BMI) and body composition parameters, including fat mass, fat mass percentage, and visceral fat, as well as FMS features, such as tender point count (TPC), pain, disease activity, fatigue, sleep quality, and anxiety, in a population of FMS women and healthy controls. A total of seventy-three women with FMS and seventy-three healthy controls, matched on weight, were included in this cross-sectional study. We used a body composition analyzer to measure fat mass, fat mass percentage, and visceral fat. Tender point count (TPC) was measured by algometry pressure. The disease severity was measured with the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ-R) and self-reported global pain was evaluated with the visual analog scale (VAS). To measure the quality of sleep, fatigue, and anxiety we used the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Questionnaire (PSQI), the Spanish version of the multidimensional fatigue inventory (MFI), and the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), respectively. Of the women in this study, 38.4% and 31.5% were overweight and obese, respectively. Significant differences in FIQ-R.1 (16.82 ± 6.86 vs. 20.66 ± 4.71, p = 0.030), FIQ-R.3 (35.20 ± 89.02 vs. 40.33 ± 5.60, p = 0.033), and FIQ-R total score (63.87 ± 19.12 vs. 75.94 ± 12.25, p = 0.017) among normal-weight and overweight FMS were observed. Linear analysis regression revealed significant associations between FIQ-R.2 (β(95% CI) = 0.336, (0.027, 0.645), p = 0.034), FIQ-R.3 (β(95% CI) = 0.235, (0.017, 0.453), p = 0.035), and FIQ-R total score (β(95% CI) = 0.110, (0.010, 0.209), p = 0.032) and BMI in FMS women after adjusting for age and menopause status. Associations between sleep latency and fat mass percentage in FMS women (β(95% CI) = 1.910, (0.078, 3.742), p = 0.041) and sleep quality and visceral fat in healthy women (β(95% CI) = 2.614, (2.192, 3.036), p = 0.008) adjusted for covariates were also reported. The higher BMI values are associated with poor FIQ-R scores and overweight and obese women with FMS have higher symptom severity. The promotion of an optimal BMI might contribute to ameliorate some of the FMS symptoms. Full article
Open AccessReview
Energy Metabolism and Intermittent Fasting: The Ramadan Perspective
Nutrients 2019, 11(5), 1192; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11051192
Received: 18 April 2019 / Revised: 6 May 2019 / Accepted: 9 May 2019 / Published: 27 May 2019
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Abstract
Intermittent fasting (IF) has been gaining popularity as a means of losing weight. The Ramadan fast (RF) is a form of IF practiced by millions of adult Muslims globally for a whole lunar month every year. It entails a major shift from normal [...] Read more.
Intermittent fasting (IF) has been gaining popularity as a means of losing weight. The Ramadan fast (RF) is a form of IF practiced by millions of adult Muslims globally for a whole lunar month every year. It entails a major shift from normal eating patterns to exclusive nocturnal eating. RF is a state of intermittent liver glycogen depletion and repletion. The earlier (morning) part of the fasting day is marked by dominance of carbohydrate as the main fuel, but lipid becomes more important towards the afternoon and as the time for breaking the fast at sunset (iftar) gets closer. The practice of observing Ramadan fasting is accompanied by changes in sleeping and activity patterns, as well as circadian rhythms of hormones including cortisol, insulin, leptin, ghrelin, growth hormone, prolactin, sex hormones, and adiponectin. Few studies have investigated energy expenditure in the context of RF including resting metabolic rate (RMR) and total energy expenditure (TEE) and found no significant changes with RF. Changes in activity and sleeping patterns however do occur and are different from non-Ramadan days. Weight changes in the context of Ramadan fast are variable and typically modest with wise inter-individual variation. As well as its direct relevance to many religious observers, understanding intermittent fasting may have implications on weight loss strategies with even broader potential implications. This review examines current knowledge on different aspects of energy balance in RF, as a common model to learn from and also map out strategies for healthier outcomes in such settings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health Effects of Intermittent Fasting: How Broad are the Benefits?)
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Open AccessArticle
Dysregulation of Neuronal Genes by Fetal-Neonatal Iron Deficiency Anemia Is Associated with Altered DNA Methylation in the Rat Hippocampus
Nutrients 2019, 11(5), 1191; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11051191
Received: 17 April 2019 / Revised: 21 May 2019 / Accepted: 22 May 2019 / Published: 27 May 2019
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Abstract
Early-life iron deficiency results in long-term abnormalities in cognitive function and affective behavior in adulthood. In preclinical models, these effects have been associated with long-term dysregulation of key neuronal genes. While limited evidence suggests histone methylation as an epigenetic mechanism underlying gene dysregulation, [...] Read more.
Early-life iron deficiency results in long-term abnormalities in cognitive function and affective behavior in adulthood. In preclinical models, these effects have been associated with long-term dysregulation of key neuronal genes. While limited evidence suggests histone methylation as an epigenetic mechanism underlying gene dysregulation, the role of DNA methylation remains unknown. To determine whether DNA methylation is a potential mechanism by which early-life iron deficiency induces gene dysregulation, we performed whole genome bisulfite sequencing to identify loci with altered DNA methylation in the postnatal day (P) 15 iron-deficient (ID) rat hippocampus, a time point at which the highest level of hippocampal iron deficiency is concurrent with peak iron demand for axonal and dendritic growth. We identified 229 differentially methylated loci and they were mapped within 108 genes. Among them, 63 and 45 genes showed significantly increased and decreased DNA methylation in the P15 ID hippocampus, respectively. To establish a correlation between differentially methylated loci and gene dysregulation, the methylome data were compared to our published P15 hippocampal transcriptome. Both datasets showed alteration of similar functional networks regulating nervous system development and cell-to-cell signaling that are critical for learning and behavior. Collectively, the present findings support a role for DNA methylation in neural gene dysregulation following early-life iron deficiency. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Cyanidin-3-O-Galactoside-Enriched Aronia melanocarpa Extract Attenuates Weight Gain and Adipogenic Pathways in High-Fat Diet-Induced Obese C57BL/6 Mice
Nutrients 2019, 11(5), 1190; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11051190
Received: 5 April 2019 / Revised: 16 May 2019 / Accepted: 23 May 2019 / Published: 27 May 2019
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Abstract
Aronia melanocarpa are a rich source of anthocyanins that have received considerable interest for their relations to human health. In this study, the anti-adipogenic effect of cyanidin-3-O-galactoside-enriched Aronia melanocarpa extract (AM-Ex) and its underlying mechanisms were investigated in an in vivo [...] Read more.
Aronia melanocarpa are a rich source of anthocyanins that have received considerable interest for their relations to human health. In this study, the anti-adipogenic effect of cyanidin-3-O-galactoside-enriched Aronia melanocarpa extract (AM-Ex) and its underlying mechanisms were investigated in an in vivo system. Five-week-old male C57BL/6N mice were randomly divided into five groups for 8-week feeding with a control diet (CD), a high-fat diet (HFD), or a HFD with 50 (AM-Ex 50), 100 (AM-Ex 100), or 200 AM-Ex (AM-Ex 200) mg/kg body weight/day. HFD-fed mice showed a significant increase in body weight compared to the CD group, and AM-Ex dose-dependently inhibited this weight gain. AM-Ex significantly reduced the food intake and the weight of white fat tissue, including epididymal fat, retroperitoneal fat, mesenteric fat, and inguinal fat. Treatment with AM-Ex (50 to 200 mg/kg) reduced serum levels of leptin, insulin, triglyceride, total cholesterol, and low density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol. Real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis revealed that AM-Ex suppressed adipogenesis by decreasing CCAAT/enhancer binding protein α, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ, sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1α, acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1, ATP-citrate lyase, fatty acid synthase, and adipocyte protein 2 messenger RNA (mRNA) expressions. These results suggest that AM-Ex is potentially beneficial for the suppression of HFD-induced obesity by modulating multiple pathways associated with adipogenesis and food intake. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Bioactive Compounds and Human Health and Disease)
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Open AccessReview
Health-Promoting Components in Fermented Foods: An Up-to-Date Systematic Review
Nutrients 2019, 11(5), 1189; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11051189
Received: 20 April 2019 / Revised: 23 May 2019 / Accepted: 24 May 2019 / Published: 27 May 2019
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Abstract
Fermented foods have long been produced according to knowledge passed down from generation to generation and with no understanding of the potential role of the microorganism(s) involved in the process. However, the scientific and technological revolution in Western countries made fermentation turn from [...] Read more.
Fermented foods have long been produced according to knowledge passed down from generation to generation and with no understanding of the potential role of the microorganism(s) involved in the process. However, the scientific and technological revolution in Western countries made fermentation turn from a household to a controlled process suitable for industrial scale production systems intended for the mass marketplace. The aim of this paper is to provide an up-to-date review of the latest studies which investigated the health-promoting components forming upon fermentation of the main food matrices, in order to contribute to understanding their important role in healthy diets and relevance in national dietary recommendations worldwide. Formation of antioxidant, bioactive, anti-hypertensive, anti-diabetic, and FODMAP-reducing components in fermented foods are mainly presented and discussed. Fermentation was found to increase antioxidant activity of milks, cereals, fruit and vegetables, meat and fish. Anti-hypertensive peptides are detected in fermented milk and cereals. Changes in vitamin content are mainly observed in fermented milk and fruits. Fermented milk and fruit juice were found to have probiotic activity. Other effects such as anti-diabetic properties, FODMAP reduction, and changes in fatty acid profile are peculiar of specific food categories. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health Effects of Fermentation)
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Open AccessArticle
Endothelial Function is improved by Inducing Microbial Polyamine Production in the Gut: A Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial
Nutrients 2019, 11(5), 1188; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11051188
Received: 16 April 2019 / Revised: 23 May 2019 / Accepted: 23 May 2019 / Published: 27 May 2019
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Abstract
Recently, it was demonstrated that spermidine-induced autophagy reduces the risk of cardiovascular disease in mice. Intestinal bacteria are a major source of polyamines, including spermidine. We previously reported that the intake of both Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis (Bifal) and arginine (Arg) increases the [...] Read more.
Recently, it was demonstrated that spermidine-induced autophagy reduces the risk of cardiovascular disease in mice. Intestinal bacteria are a major source of polyamines, including spermidine. We previously reported that the intake of both Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis (Bifal) and arginine (Arg) increases the production of putrescine, a spermidine precursor, in the gut. Here, we investigated the effects of Bifal and Arg consumption on endothelial function in healthy subjects. Healthy individuals with body mass index (BMI) near the maximum value in the “healthy” range (BMI: 25) (n = 44) were provided normal yogurt containing Bifal and Arg (Bifal + Arg YG) or placebo (normal yogurt) for 12 weeks in this randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, parallel-group comparative study. The reactive hyperemia index (RHI), the primary outcome, was measured using endo-peripheral arterial tone (EndoPAT). The change in RHI from week 0 to 12 in the Bifal + Arg YG group was significantly higher than that in the placebo group, indicating that Bifal + Arg YG intake improved endothelial function. At week 12, the concentrations of fecal putrescine and serum putrescine and spermidine in the Bifal + Arg YG group were significantly higher than those in the placebo group. This study suggests that consuming Bifal + Arg YG prevents or reduces the risk of atherosclerosis. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Developmental Vitamin D Deficiency Produces Behavioral Phenotypes of Relevance to Autism in an Animal Model
Nutrients 2019, 11(5), 1187; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11051187
Received: 8 May 2019 / Revised: 22 May 2019 / Accepted: 23 May 2019 / Published: 27 May 2019
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Abstract
Emerging evidence suggests that gestational or developmental vitamin D (DVD) deficiency is associated with an increased risk of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). ASD is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by impairments in social interaction, lack of verbal and non-verbal communications, stereotyped repetitive behaviors and [...] Read more.
Emerging evidence suggests that gestational or developmental vitamin D (DVD) deficiency is associated with an increased risk of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). ASD is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by impairments in social interaction, lack of verbal and non-verbal communications, stereotyped repetitive behaviors and hyper-activities. There are several other clinical features that are commonly comorbid with ASD, including olfactory impairments, anxiety and delays in motor development. Here we investigate these features in an animal model related to ASD—the DVD-deficient rat. Compared to controls, both DVD-deficient male and female pups show altered ultrasonic vocalizations and stereotyped repetitive behavior. Further, the DVD-deficient animals had delayed motor development and impaired motor control. Adolescent DVD-deficient animals had impaired reciprocal social interaction, while as adults, these animals were hyperactive. The DVD-deficient model is associated with a range of behavioral features of interest to ASD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamin D in Health and the Prevention and Treatment of Disease)
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Open AccessReview
Nutritional Strategies to Prevent Lens Cataract: Current Status and Future Strategies
Nutrients 2019, 11(5), 1186; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11051186
Received: 26 April 2019 / Revised: 21 May 2019 / Accepted: 23 May 2019 / Published: 27 May 2019
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Abstract
Oxidative stress and the subsequent oxidative damage to lens proteins is a known causative factor in the initiation and progression of cataract formation, the leading cause of blindness in the world today. Due to the role of oxidative damage in the etiology of [...] Read more.
Oxidative stress and the subsequent oxidative damage to lens proteins is a known causative factor in the initiation and progression of cataract formation, the leading cause of blindness in the world today. Due to the role of oxidative damage in the etiology of cataract, antioxidants have been prompted as therapeutic options to delay and/or prevent disease progression. However, many exogenous antioxidant interventions have to date produced mixed results as anti-cataract therapies. The aim of this review is to critically evaluate the efficacy of a sample of dietary and topical antioxidant interventions in the light of our current understanding of lens structure and function. Situated in the eye behind the blood-eye barrier, the lens receives it nutrients and antioxidants from the aqueous and vitreous humors. Furthermore, being a relatively large avascular tissue the lens cannot rely of passive diffusion alone to deliver nutrients and antioxidants to the distinctly different metabolic regions of the lens. We instead propose that the lens utilizes a unique internal microcirculation system to actively deliver antioxidants to these different regions, and that selecting antioxidants that can utilize this system is the key to developing novel nutritional therapies to delay the onset and progression of lens cataract. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Eye Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Sulforaphane Prevents Hepatic Insulin Resistance by Blocking Serine Palmitoyltransferase 3-Mediated Ceramide Biosynthesis
Nutrients 2019, 11(5), 1185; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11051185
Received: 17 April 2019 / Revised: 22 May 2019 / Accepted: 23 May 2019 / Published: 27 May 2019
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Abstract
Sulforaphane (SFA), a naturally active isothiocyanate compound from cruciferous vegetables used in clinical trials for cancer treatment, was found to possess potency to alleviate insulin resistance. But its underlying molecular mechanisms are still incompletely understood. In this study, we assessed whether SFA could [...] Read more.
Sulforaphane (SFA), a naturally active isothiocyanate compound from cruciferous vegetables used in clinical trials for cancer treatment, was found to possess potency to alleviate insulin resistance. But its underlying molecular mechanisms are still incompletely understood. In this study, we assessed whether SFA could improve insulin sensitivity and glucose homeostasis both in vitro and in vivo by regulating ceramide production. The effects of SFA on glucose metabolism and expression levels of key proteins in the hepatic insulin signaling pathway were evaluated in insulin-resistant human hepatic carcinoma HepG2 cells. The results showed that SFA dose-dependently increased glucose uptake and intracellular glycogen content by regulating the insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1)/protein kinase B (Akt) signaling pathway in insulin-resistant HepG2 cells. SFA also reduced ceramide contents and downregulated transcription of ceramide-related genes. In addition, knockdown of serine palmitoyltransferase 3 (SPTLC3) in HepG2 cells prevented ceramide accumulation and alleviated insulin resistance. Moreover, SFA treatment improved glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity, inhibited SPTLC3 expression and hepatic ceramide production and reduced hepatic triglyceride content in vivo. We conclude that SFA recovers glucose homeostasis and improves insulin sensitivity by blocking ceramide biosynthesis through modulating SPTLC3, indicating that SFA may be a potential candidate for prevention and amelioration of hepatic insulin resistance via a ceramide-dependent mechanism. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Role of Diet on Insulin Sensitivity)
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Open AccessArticle
Cucurbita argyrosperma Seed Extracts Attenuate Angiogenesis in a Corneal Chemical Burn Model
Nutrients 2019, 11(5), 1184; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11051184
Received: 15 April 2019 / Revised: 7 May 2019 / Accepted: 17 May 2019 / Published: 27 May 2019
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Abstract
Severe corneal inflammation produces opacity or even perforation, scarring, and angiogenesis, resulting in blindness. In this study, we used the cornea to examine the effect of new anti-angiogenic chemopreventive agents. We researched the anti-angiogenic effect of two extracts, methanol (Met) and hexane (Hex), [...] Read more.
Severe corneal inflammation produces opacity or even perforation, scarring, and angiogenesis, resulting in blindness. In this study, we used the cornea to examine the effect of new anti-angiogenic chemopreventive agents. We researched the anti-angiogenic effect of two extracts, methanol (Met) and hexane (Hex), from the seed of Cucurbita argyrosperma, on inflamed corneas. The corneas of Wistar rats were alkali-injured and treated intragastrically for seven successive days. We evaluated: opacity score, corneal neovascularization (CNV) area, re-epithelialization percentage, and histological changes. Also, we assessed the inflammatory (cyclooxigenase-2, nuclear factor-kappaB, and interleukin-1β) and angiogenic (vascular endothelial growth factor A, VEGF-A; -receptor 1, VEGFR1; and -receptor 2, VEGFR2) markers. Levels of Cox-2, Il-1β, and Vegf-a mRNA were also determined. After treatment, we observed a reduction in corneal edema, with lower opacity scores and cell infiltration compared to untreated rats. Treatment also accelerated wound healing and decreased the CNV area. The staining of inflammatory and angiogenic factors was significantly decreased and related to a down-expression of Cox-2, Il-1β, and Vegf. These results suggest that intake of C. argyrosperma seed has the potential to attenuate the angiogenesis secondary to inflammation in corneal chemical damage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Eye Health)
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Open AccessArticle
High Chili Intake and Cognitive Function among 4582 Adults: An Open Cohort Study over 15 Years
Nutrients 2019, 11(5), 1183; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11051183
Received: 11 March 2019 / Revised: 22 May 2019 / Accepted: 22 May 2019 / Published: 27 May 2019
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Abstract
We aimed to examine the association between chili intake and cognitive function in Chinese adults. This is a longitudinal study of 4852 adults (age 63.4 ± 7.7) attending the China Health and Nutrition Survey during 1991 and 2006. Cognitive function was assessed in [...] Read more.
We aimed to examine the association between chili intake and cognitive function in Chinese adults. This is a longitudinal study of 4852 adults (age 63.4 ± 7.7) attending the China Health and Nutrition Survey during 1991 and 2006. Cognitive function was assessed in 1997, 2000, 2004 and 2006. In total, 3302 completed cognitive screening tests in at least two surveys. Chili intake was assessed by a 3-day food record during home visits in each survey between 1991 and 2006. Multivariable mixed linear regression and logistic regression were used. Chili intake was inversely related to cognitive function. In fully adjusted models, including sociodemographic and lifestyle factors, compared with non-consumers, those whose cumulative average chili intake above 50 g/day had the regression coefficients (and 95% CI) for global cognitive function of −1.13 (−1.71–0.54). Compared with non-consumers, those with chili consumption above 50 g/day had the odds ratio (and 95% CI) of 2.12(1.63–2.77), 1.56(1.23–1.97) for self-reported poor memory and self-reported memory decline, respectively. The positive association between chili intake and cognitive decline was stronger among those with low BMI than those with high BMI. The longitudinal data indicate that higher chili intake is positively associated with cognitive decline in Chinese adults in both genders. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Which Diet for Calcium Stone Patients: A Real-World Approach to Preventive Care
Nutrients 2019, 11(5), 1182; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11051182
Received: 4 April 2019 / Revised: 13 May 2019 / Accepted: 23 May 2019 / Published: 27 May 2019
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Abstract
Kidney stone disease should be viewed as a systemic disorder, associated with or predictive of hypertension, insulin resistance, chronic kidney disease and cardiovascular damage. Dietary and lifestyle changes represent an important strategy for the prevention of kidney stone recurrences and cardiovascular damage. A [...] Read more.
Kidney stone disease should be viewed as a systemic disorder, associated with or predictive of hypertension, insulin resistance, chronic kidney disease and cardiovascular damage. Dietary and lifestyle changes represent an important strategy for the prevention of kidney stone recurrences and cardiovascular damage. A full screening of risk factors for kidney stones and for cardiovascular damage should be recommended in all cases of calcium kidney stone disease, yet it is rarely performed outside of stone specialist clinics. Many patients have a history of kidney stone disease while lacking a satisfactory metabolic profile. Nonetheless, in a real-world clinical practice a rational management of kidney stone patients is still possible. Different scenarios, with different types of dietary approaches based on diagnosis accuracy level can be envisaged. The aim of this review is to give patient-tailored dietary suggestions whatever the level of clinical and biochemistry evaluation. This can help to deliver a useful recommendation, while avoiding excessive dietary restrictions especially when they are not based on a specific diagnosis, and therefore potentially useless or even harmful. We focused our attention on calcium stones and the different scenarios we may find in the daily clinical practice, including the case of patients who reported renal colic episodes and/or passed stones with no information on stone composition, urinary risk factors or metabolic cardiovascular risk factors; or the case of patients with partial and incomplete information; or the case of patients with full information on stone composition, urinary risk factors and metabolic cardiovascular profile. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Preventive Nutrition)
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Open AccessArticle
Extract Methods, Molecular Characteristics, and Bioactivities of Polysaccharide from Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.)
Nutrients 2019, 11(5), 1181; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11051181
Received: 31 March 2019 / Revised: 15 May 2019 / Accepted: 23 May 2019 / Published: 27 May 2019
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Abstract
The polysaccharide isolated from alfalfa was considered to be a kind of macromolecule with some biological activities; however, its molecular structure and effects on immune cells are still unclear. The objectives of this study were to explore the extraction and purifying methods of [...] Read more.
The polysaccharide isolated from alfalfa was considered to be a kind of macromolecule with some biological activities; however, its molecular structure and effects on immune cells are still unclear. The objectives of this study were to explore the extraction and purifying methods of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) polysaccharide (APS) and decipher its composition and molecular characteristics, as well as its activation to lymphocytes. The crude polysaccharides isolated from alfalfa by water extraction and alcohol precipitation methods were purified by semipermeable membrane dialysis. Five batches of alfalfa samples were obtained from five farms (one composite sample per farm) and three replicates were conducted for each sample in determination. The results from ion chromatography (IC) analysis showed that the APS was composed of fucose, arabinose, galactose, glucose, xylose, mannose, galactose, galacturonic acid (GalA), and glucuronic acid (GlcA) with a molar ratio of 2.6:8.0:4.7:21.3:3.2:1.0:74.2:14.9. The weight-average molecular weight (Mw), number-average molecular weight (Mn), and Z-average molecular weight (Mz) of APS were calculated to be 3.30 × 106, 4.06 × 105, and 1.43 × 108 g/mol, respectively, according to the analysis by gel permeation chromatography-refractive index-multiangle laser light scattering (GPC-RI-MALS). The findings of electron ionization mass spectrometry (EI-MS) suggest that APS consists of seven linkage residues, namely 1,5-Araf, galactose (T-D-Glc), glucose (T-D-Gal), 1,4-Gal-Ac, 1,4-Glc, 1,6-Gal, and 1,3,4-GalA, with molar proportions of 10.30%, 4.02%, 10.28%, 52.29%, 17.02%, 3.52%, and 2.57%, respectively. Additionally, APS markedly increased B-cell proliferation and IgM secretion in a dose- and time-dependent manner but not the proliferation and cytokine (IL-2, -4, and IFN-γ) expression of T cells. Taken together, the present results suggest that APS are macromolecular polymers with a molar mass (indicated by Mw) of 3.3 × 106 g/mol and may be a potential candidate as an immunopotentiating pharmaceutical agent or functional food. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Products for Human Wellness)
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Open AccessArticle
Chondroprotective Effects of Genistein against Osteoarthritis Induced Joint Inflammation
Nutrients 2019, 11(5), 1180; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11051180
Received: 29 April 2019 / Revised: 21 May 2019 / Accepted: 24 May 2019 / Published: 27 May 2019
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Abstract
Genistein is an isoflavone extracted from soybean (Glycine max). This compound has anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative, and anti-cancer effects; however, the mechanism underlying the effects of genistein on IL-1β-stimulated human osteoarthritis (OA) chondrocytes remains unknown. Our objectives in this study were to explore the anti-inflammatory [...] Read more.
Genistein is an isoflavone extracted from soybean (Glycine max). This compound has anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative, and anti-cancer effects; however, the mechanism underlying the effects of genistein on IL-1β-stimulated human osteoarthritis (OA) chondrocytes remains unknown. Our objectives in this study were to explore the anti-inflammatory effects of genistein on IL-1β-stimulated human OA chondrocytes and to investigate the potential mechanisms which underlie them. Our results from an in-vitro model of osteoarthritis indicate that genistein inhibits the IL-1β-induced expression of the catabolic factors nitric oxide synthase 2 (NOS2), cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2), and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). Genistein was shown to stimulate Ho-1 expression, which has been associated with Nrf-2 pathway activation in human chondrocytes. In a rat model, genistein was also shown to attenuate the progression of traumatic osteoarthritis. Taken together, these results demonstrate the effectiveness of genistein in mediating the inflammation associated with joint disorders. Our results also indicate that genistein could potentially serve as an alternative therapeutic treatment for OA. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Arthritis and Nutrition: Can Food be Medicine?)
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Open AccessReview
Overcoming the Bitter Taste of Oils Enriched in Fatty Acids to Obtain Their Effects on the Heart in Health and Disease
Nutrients 2019, 11(5), 1179; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11051179
Received: 16 April 2019 / Revised: 13 May 2019 / Accepted: 22 May 2019 / Published: 27 May 2019
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Abstract
Fatty acids come in a variety of structures and, because of this, create a variety of functions for these lipids. Some fatty acids have a role to play in energy metabolism, some help in lipid storage, cell structure, the physical state of the [...] Read more.
Fatty acids come in a variety of structures and, because of this, create a variety of functions for these lipids. Some fatty acids have a role to play in energy metabolism, some help in lipid storage, cell structure, the physical state of the lipid, and even in food stability. Fatty acid metabolism plays a particularly important role in meeting the energy demands of the heart. It is the primary source of myocardial energy in control conditions. Its role changes dramatically in disease states in the heart, but the pathologic role these fatty acids play depends upon the type of cardiovascular disease and the type of fatty acid. However, no matter how good a food is for one’s health, its taste will ultimately become a deciding factor in its influence on human health. No food will provide health benefits if it is not ingested. This review discusses the taste characteristics of culinary oils that contain fatty acids and how these fatty acids affect the performance of the heart during healthy and diseased conditions. The contrasting contributions that different fatty acid molecules have in either promoting cardiac pathologies or protecting the heart from cardiovascular disease is also highlighted in this article. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bitter Taste, Microbiome and Human Health)
Open AccessArticle
May Young Elite Cyclists Have Less Efficient Bone Metabolism?
Nutrients 2019, 11(5), 1178; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11051178
Received: 10 April 2019 / Revised: 16 May 2019 / Accepted: 21 May 2019 / Published: 26 May 2019
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Abstract
The purpose of this work was to describe changes in metabolic activity in the bones of young male competitive cyclists (CYC) as compared with age-matched controls (CON) over a one-year period of study. Eight adolescent male cyclists aged between fourteen and twenty, and [...] Read more.
The purpose of this work was to describe changes in metabolic activity in the bones of young male competitive cyclists (CYC) as compared with age-matched controls (CON) over a one-year period of study. Eight adolescent male cyclists aged between fourteen and twenty, and eight age-matched controls participated in this longitudinal study. Serum osteocalcin (OC), amino-terminal propeptide of type I procollagen (PINP), beta-isomerized C-telopeptides (β-CTx) and plasma 25 hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D], were investigated by an electrogenerated chemiluminescence immunoassay. Analysis of variance revealed no significant differences in formation and resorption markers between cyclists and controls. Within the groups, both CYC and CON showed decreased OC at −30% and −24%, respectively, and PINP where the figures were −28% and −30% respectively (all p < 0.05). However, only the CYC group showed a decrease in [25(OH)D], lower by 11% (p < 0.05). The similarity in the concentrations of markers in cyclists and controls seems to indicate that cycling does not modify the process of bone remodeling. The decrease in vitamin D in cyclists might be detrimental to their future bone health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Calcium, Vitamin D and Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of 12-Week Daily Intake of the High-Lycopene Tomato (Solanum Lycopersicum), a Variety Named “PR-7”, on Lipid Metabolism: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Parallel-Group Study
Nutrients 2019, 11(5), 1177; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11051177
Received: 18 April 2019 / Revised: 16 May 2019 / Accepted: 22 May 2019 / Published: 25 May 2019
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Abstract
Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) is a rich source of lycopene, a carotenoid that confers various positive biological effects such as improved lipid metabolism. Here, we conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group comparative study to investigate the effects of regular and continuous intake [...] Read more.
Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) is a rich source of lycopene, a carotenoid that confers various positive biological effects such as improved lipid metabolism. Here, we conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group comparative study to investigate the effects of regular and continuous intake of a new high-lycopene tomato, a variety named PR-7, for 12 weeks, based on 74 healthy Japanese subjects with low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels ≥120 to <160 mg/dL. The subjects were randomly assigned to either the high-lycopene tomato or placebo (lycopene-free tomato) group. Each subject in the high-lycopene group ingested 50 g of semidried PR-7 (lycopene, 22.0–27.8 mg/day) each day for 12 weeks, while subjects in the placebo group ingested placebo semidried tomato. Medical interviews were conducted, vital signs were monitored, body composition was determined, and blood and saliva samples were taken at weeks 0 (baseline), 4, 8, and 12. The primary outcome assessed was LDL-C. The intake of high-lycopene tomato increased lycopene levels in this group compared to levels in the placebo group (p < 0.001). In addition, high-lycopene tomato intake improved LDL-C (p = 0.027). The intake of high-lycopene tomato, PR-7, reduced LDL-C and was confirmed to be safe. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Glucose Tolerance Test and Pharmacokinetic Study of Kaempferia parviflora Extract in Healthy Subjects
Nutrients 2019, 11(5), 1176; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11051176
Received: 19 April 2019 / Revised: 22 May 2019 / Accepted: 23 May 2019 / Published: 25 May 2019
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Abstract
Kaempferia parviflora Wall. ex Baker (KP), Krachaidam in Thai or Thai ginseng, is a herbal medicine that has many potential pharmacological effects. The effect of KP extract on blood glucose level in rodent was reported. This study focused on the oral glucose tolerance [...] Read more.
Kaempferia parviflora Wall. ex Baker (KP), Krachaidam in Thai or Thai ginseng, is a herbal medicine that has many potential pharmacological effects. The effect of KP extract on blood glucose level in rodent was reported. This study focused on the oral glucose tolerance test and pharmacokinetic study in healthy volunteers administered with KP extract (90 and 180 mg/day, placebo). The oral glucose tolerance tests were performed at baselines and 28-days of administration. The pharmacokinetics were determined after a single dose administration of the tested products using 3,5,7,3′,4′-pentamethoxyflavone (PMF) and 5,7,4′-trimethoxylflavone (TMF) as markers. The results showed that glucose metabolism via oral glucose tolerance test was not affected by KP extract. Blood glucose levels of volunteers at 120 min after glucose loading were able to be returned to initial levels in placebo, KP 90 mg/day, and KP 180 mg/day groups both at baseline and 28-days of administration. The results of the pharmacokinetic study revealed that only TMF and PMF, but not 5,7-dimethoxyflavone (DMF) levels could be detected in human blood. The given doses of KP extract at 90 and 180 mg/day showed a linear dose-relationship of blood PMF concentration whereas blood TMF was detected only at high given dose (180 mg/day). The half-lives of PMF and TMF were 2–3 h. The maximum concentration (Cmax), area under the curve of blood concentration and time (AUC), and time to maximum concentration (Tmax) values of PMF and TMF estimated for the 180 mg/day dose were 71.2 ± 11.3, 63.0 ± 18.0 ng/mL; 291.9 ± 48.2, 412.2 ± 203.7 ng∙h/mL; and 4.02 ± 0.37, 6.03 ± 0.96 h, respectively. PMF was quickly eliminated with higher Ke and Cl than TMF at the dose of 180 mg/day of KP extract. In conclusion, the results demonstrated that KP extract had no effect on the glucose tolerance test. In addition, this is the first demonstration of the pharmacokinetic parameters of methoxyflavones of KP extract in healthy volunteers. The data suggest the safety of the KP extract and will be of benefit for further clinical trials using KP extract as food and sport supplements as well as a drug in health product development. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Brazilian Food Truck Consumers’ Profile, Choices, Preferences, and Food Safety Importance Perception
Nutrients 2019, 11(5), 1175; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11051175
Received: 23 April 2019 / Revised: 22 May 2019 / Accepted: 24 May 2019 / Published: 25 May 2019
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Abstract
This study aimed to investigate food truck consumers’ profile, choices, preferences, and food safety importance perception. We conducted structured interviews with a convenient sample of 133 food truck consumers in the Federal District, Brazil. Most of the participating consumers were married (52%) and [...] Read more.
This study aimed to investigate food truck consumers’ profile, choices, preferences, and food safety importance perception. We conducted structured interviews with a convenient sample of 133 food truck consumers in the Federal District, Brazil. Most of the participating consumers were married (52%) and female (56%), who had completed at least tertiary school (81%). The interviews revealed that most food truck consumers eat from food trucks once or twice a week (96%), usually near home (74%), and have an average per capita expenditure of approximately US $5 to US $9.99 (70%). Hamburgers and sandwiches are the most popular food among consumers (72%). Consumers indicated that taste (30%) was the most important reason to choose a food truck and that poor vehicle hygiene (30%) was the main point assigned for not opting for a food truck. Food hygiene and vendors’ personal hygiene were considered important by consumers when eating from food trucks (78% and 80%, respectively). Considering all food truck consumers interviewed and the questions about food safety importance perception, the minimum score was 1 and the maximum was 2.9, with a mean score of 1.68 (SD = 0.46), indicating a high level of perceived importance. The instrument of food safety importance perception presented a Cronbach’s alpha coefficient of 0.73, indicating good internal consistency. No significant differences were observed in the food safety importance perception scores in gender (0.192), marital status (0.418), level of education (0.652) or food safety training (0.166). However, significant differences were found in the food safety importance perception scores for age (0.026) and the presence of children (0.001). The findings of this study indicate that there remains the need for consumers to comprehend their role in the food supply chain. Food safety and food handling practices are of public concern, and strategies are required to prevent foodborne diseases. Future public health interventions aiming to increase consumer knowledge and awareness of food safety should be emphasized. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Choice and Nutrition)
Open AccessArticle
Comparison of Blood Profiles of γ-Oryzanol and Ferulic Acid in Rats after Oral Intake of γ-Oryzanol
Nutrients 2019, 11(5), 1174; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11051174
Received: 7 May 2019 / Revised: 20 May 2019 / Accepted: 23 May 2019 / Published: 25 May 2019
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Abstract
γ-Oryzanol (OZ), a bioactive phytochemical abundant in cereals such as rice, has been reported to be mainly hydrolyzed to ferulic acid (FA) in the body. Meanwhile, in our previous study, we revealed that a part of OZ is absorbed into the body and [...] Read more.
γ-Oryzanol (OZ), a bioactive phytochemical abundant in cereals such as rice, has been reported to be mainly hydrolyzed to ferulic acid (FA) in the body. Meanwhile, in our previous study, we revealed that a part of OZ is absorbed into the body and exists in its intact form. However, the comprehensive absorption profile of OZ and its metabolites (e.g., FA) after OZ intake has not been fully elucidated yet. Therefore, in this study, we measured the concentrations of OZ, FA, and FA conjugates (i.e., FA sulfate and glucuronide) in the blood of rats with the use of HPLC-MS/MS after a single oral administration of 300 µmol/kg body weight of rice bran OZ (RBOZ). As a result, intact OZ along with FA and FA conjugates existed in the blood, which implied that these constituents may all contribute to the physiological effects under OZ intake. Additionally, when an equimolar amount of FA (300 µmol/kg body weight) was administered, it was found that the absorption profile of FA was significantly different from that when RBOZ was administered. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Role of Apple Phytochemicals, Phloretin and Phloridzin, in Modulating Processes Related to Intestinal Inflammation
Nutrients 2019, 11(5), 1173; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11051173
Received: 25 April 2019 / Revised: 22 May 2019 / Accepted: 23 May 2019 / Published: 25 May 2019
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Abstract
Plant-derived food consumption has gained attention as potential intervention for the improvement of intestinal inflammatory diseases. Apple consumption has been shown to be effective at ameliorating intestinal inflammation symptoms. These beneficial effects have been related to (poly)phenols, including phloretin (Phlor) and its glycoside [...] Read more.
Plant-derived food consumption has gained attention as potential intervention for the improvement of intestinal inflammatory diseases. Apple consumption has been shown to be effective at ameliorating intestinal inflammation symptoms. These beneficial effects have been related to (poly)phenols, including phloretin (Phlor) and its glycoside named phloridzin (Phldz). To deepen the modulatory effects of these molecules we studied: i) their influence on the synthesis of proinflammatory molecules (PGE2, IL-8, IL-6, MCP-1, and ICAM-1) in IL-1β-treated myofibroblasts of the colon CCD-18Co cell line, and ii) the inhibitory potential of the formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs). The results showed that Phlor (10–50 μM) decreased the synthesis of PGE2 and IL-8 and the formation of AGEs by different mechanisms. It is concluded that Phlor and Phldz, compounds found exclusively in apples, are positively associated with potential beneficial effects of apple consumption. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Predicting Glycemic Index and Glycemic Load from Macronutrients to Accelerate Development of Foods and Beverages with Lower Glucose Responses
Nutrients 2019, 11(5), 1172; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11051172
Received: 15 April 2019 / Revised: 22 May 2019 / Accepted: 23 May 2019 / Published: 25 May 2019
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Abstract
Low glycemic index (GI) and/or low glycemic load (GL) are associated with decreased risks of type-2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. It is therefore relevant to consider GI and GL in the early phases of the development of packaged foods and beverages. This paper [...] Read more.
Low glycemic index (GI) and/or low glycemic load (GL) are associated with decreased risks of type-2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. It is therefore relevant to consider GI and GL in the early phases of the development of packaged foods and beverages. This paper proposes a model that predicts GI and GL from macronutrient composition, by quantifying both the impact of glycemic carbohydrates and the GI-lowering effects of nutrients such as proteins, fats and fibers. The precision of the model is illustrated using data on 42 breakfast cereals. The predictions of GI (r = 0.90, median residual = 2.0) and GL (r = 0.96, median residual = 0.40 g) compete well with the precision of the underlying in-vivo data (Standard Error SE = 3.5 for GI). This model can guide product development towards lowering GI and GL, before final confirmation by in vivo testing. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Dietary Flaxseed as a Strategy for Improving Human Health
Nutrients 2019, 11(5), 1171; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11051171
Received: 16 April 2019 / Revised: 17 May 2019 / Accepted: 22 May 2019 / Published: 25 May 2019
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Abstract
Flaxseed is a rich source of the omega-3 fatty acid, alpha linolenic acid, the lignan secoisolariciresinol diglucoside and fiber. These compounds provide bioactivity of value to the health of animals and humans through their anti-inflammatory action, anti-oxidative capacity and lipid modulating properties. The [...] Read more.
Flaxseed is a rich source of the omega-3 fatty acid, alpha linolenic acid, the lignan secoisolariciresinol diglucoside and fiber. These compounds provide bioactivity of value to the health of animals and humans through their anti-inflammatory action, anti-oxidative capacity and lipid modulating properties. The characteristics of ingesting flaxseed or its bioactive components are discussed in this article. The benefits of administering flaxseed or the individual bioactive components on health and disease are also discussed in this review. Specifically, the current evidence on the benefits or limitations of dietary flaxseed in a variety of cardiovascular diseases, cancer, gastro-intestinal health and brain development and function, as well as hormonal status in menopausal women, are comprehensive topics for discussion. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bitter Taste, Microbiome and Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Food Composition Impacts the Accuracy of Wearable Devices When Estimating Energy Intake from Energy-Dense Food
Nutrients 2019, 11(5), 1170; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11051170
Received: 1 April 2019 / Revised: 20 May 2019 / Accepted: 21 May 2019 / Published: 24 May 2019
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Abstract
The present study aimed to assess the feasibility and reliability of an a3utomatic food intake measurement device in estimating energy intake from energy-dense foods. Eighteen volunteers aged 20–36 years were recruited from the University of Padova. The device used in the present study [...] Read more.
The present study aimed to assess the feasibility and reliability of an a3utomatic food intake measurement device in estimating energy intake from energy-dense foods. Eighteen volunteers aged 20–36 years were recruited from the University of Padova. The device used in the present study was the Bite Counter (Bite Technologies, Pendleton, USA). The rationale of the device is that the wrist movements occurring in the act of bringing food to the mouth present unique patterns that are recognized and recorded by the Bite Counter. Subjects were asked to wear the Bite Counter on the wrist of the dominant hand, to turn the device on before the first bite and to turn it off once he or she finished his or her meal. The accuracy of caloric intake was significantly different among the methods used. In addition, the device’s accuracy in estimating energy intake varied according to the type and amount of macronutrients present, and the difference was independent of the number of bites recorded. Further research is needed to overcome the current limitations of wearable devices in estimating caloric intake, which is not independent of the food being eaten. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Innovative Techniques of Processing Human Milk to Preserve Key Components
Nutrients 2019, 11(5), 1169; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11051169
Received: 29 April 2019 / Revised: 15 May 2019 / Accepted: 20 May 2019 / Published: 24 May 2019
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Abstract
Human milk not only contains all nutritional elements that an infant requires, but is also the source of components whose regulatory role was confirmed by demonstrating health-related deficiencies in formula-fed children. A human milk diet is especially important for premature babies in the [...] Read more.
Human milk not only contains all nutritional elements that an infant requires, but is also the source of components whose regulatory role was confirmed by demonstrating health-related deficiencies in formula-fed children. A human milk diet is especially important for premature babies in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). In cases where breastfeeding is not possible and the mother’s own milk is insufficient in volume, the most preferred food is pasteurized donor milk. The number of human milk banks has increased recently but their technical infrastructure is continuously developing. Heat treatment at a low temperature and long time, also known as holder pasteurization (62.5 °C, 30 min), is the most widespread method of human milk processing, whose effects on the quality of donor milk is well documented. Holder pasteurization destroys vegetative forms of bacteria and most viruses including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) herpes and cytomegalovirus (CMV). The macronutrients remain relatively intact but various beneficial components are destroyed completely or compromised. Enzymes and immune cells are the most heat sensitive elements. The bactericidal capacity of heat-pasteurized milk is lower than that of untreated milk. The aim of the study was for a comprehensive comparison of currently tested methods of improving the preservation stage. Innovative techniques of milk processing should minimize the risk of milk-borne infections and preserve the bioactivity of this complex biological fluid better than the holder method. In the present paper, the most promising thermal pasteurization condition (72 °C–75 °C,) and a few non-thermal processes were discussed (high pressure processing, microwave irradiation). This narrative review presents an overview of methods of human milk preservation that have been explored to improve the safety and quality of donor milk. Full article
Open AccessReview
Assessing Eating Behaviour Using Upper Limb Mounted Motion Sensors: A Systematic Review
Nutrients 2019, 11(5), 1168; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11051168
Received: 28 February 2019 / Revised: 21 May 2019 / Accepted: 22 May 2019 / Published: 24 May 2019
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Abstract
Wearable motion tracking sensors are now widely used to monitor physical activity, and have recently gained more attention in dietary monitoring research. The aim of this review is to synthesise research to date that utilises upper limb motion tracking sensors, either individually or [...] Read more.
Wearable motion tracking sensors are now widely used to monitor physical activity, and have recently gained more attention in dietary monitoring research. The aim of this review is to synthesise research to date that utilises upper limb motion tracking sensors, either individually or in combination with other technologies (e.g., cameras, microphones), to objectively assess eating behaviour. Eleven electronic databases were searched in January 2019, and 653 distinct records were obtained. Including 10 studies found in backward and forward searches, a total of 69 studies met the inclusion criteria, with 28 published since 2017. Fifty studies were conducted exclusively in laboratory settings, 13 exclusively in free-living settings, and three in both settings. The most commonly used motion sensor was an accelerometer (64) worn on the wrist (60) or lower arm (5), while in most studies (45), accelerometers were used in combination with gyroscopes. Twenty-six studies used commercial-grade smartwatches or fitness bands, 11 used professional grade devices, and 32 used standalone sensor chipsets. The most used machine learning approaches were Support Vector Machine (SVM, n = 21), Random Forest (n = 19), Decision Tree (n = 16), Hidden Markov Model (HMM, n = 10) algorithms, and from 2017 Deep Learning (n = 5). While comparisons of the detection models are not valid due to the use of different datasets, the models that consider the sequential context of data across time, such as HMM and Deep Learning, show promising results for eating activity detection. We discuss opportunities for future research and emerging applications in the context of dietary assessment and monitoring. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Exploring Associations between Interindividual Differences in Taste Perception, Oral Microbiota Composition, and Reported Food Intake
Nutrients 2019, 11(5), 1167; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11051167
Received: 25 April 2019 / Revised: 19 May 2019 / Accepted: 21 May 2019 / Published: 24 May 2019
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Abstract
The role of taste perception, its relationship with oral microbiota composition, and their putative link with eating habits and food intake were the focus of the present study. A sample of 59 reportedly healthy adults (27 male, 32 female; age: 23.3 ± 2.6 [...] Read more.
The role of taste perception, its relationship with oral microbiota composition, and their putative link with eating habits and food intake were the focus of the present study. A sample of 59 reportedly healthy adults (27 male, 32 female; age: 23.3 ± 2.6 years) were recruited for the study and taste thresholds for basic tastes, food intake, and oral microbiota composition were evaluated. Differences in taste perception were associated with different habitual food consumption (i.e., frequency) and actual intake. Subjects who were orally hyposensitive to salty taste reported consuming more bakery and salty baked products, saturated-fat-rich products, and soft drinks than hypersensitive subjects. Subjects hyposensitive to sweet taste reported consuming more frequently sweets and desserts than the hypersensitive group. Moreover, subjects hypersensitive to bitter taste showed higher total energy and carbohydrate intakes compared to those who perceived the solution as less bitter. Some bacterial taxa on tongue dorsum were associated with gustatory functions and with vegetable-rich (e.g., Prevotella) or protein/fat-rich diets (e.g., Clostridia). Future studies will be pivotal to confirm the hypothesis and the potential exploitation of oral microbiome as biomarker of long-term consumption of healthy or unhealthy diets. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Salt Taste, Nutrition, and Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Activity-Guided Fractionation of Red Fruit Extracts for the Identification of Compounds Influencing Glucose Metabolism
Nutrients 2019, 11(5), 1166; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11051166
Received: 30 April 2019 / Revised: 20 May 2019 / Accepted: 22 May 2019 / Published: 24 May 2019
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Abstract
An activity-guided search for compounds influencing glucose metabolism in extracts from aronia (Aronia melanocarpa, A.), pomegranate (Punica granatum L., P.), and red grape (Vitis vinifera, RG) was carried out. The three extracts were fractionated by means of [...] Read more.
An activity-guided search for compounds influencing glucose metabolism in extracts from aronia (Aronia melanocarpa, A.), pomegranate (Punica granatum L., P.), and red grape (Vitis vinifera, RG) was carried out. The three extracts were fractionated by means of membrane chromatography to separate the anthocyanins from other noncolored phenolic compounds (copigments). In addition, precipitation with hexane was performed to isolate the polymers (PF). The anthocyanin and copigment fractions (AF, CF) of aronia, pomegranate, and red grape were furthermore fractionated with high-performance countercurrent chromatography (HPCCC) and the subfractions were characterized by HPLC-PDA-MS/MS analyses. Each of the (sub-)fractions was examined by in vitro-tests, i.e., the inhibition of the activity of α-amylase and α-glucosidase. On the basis of this screening, several potent inhibitors of the two enzymes could be identified, which included flavonols (e.g., quercetin), ellagitannins (e.g., pedunculagin), and anthocyanins (e.g., delphinidin-3-glucoside and petunidin-3-glucoside). In the α-glucosidase assay all of the examined fractions and subfractions of the fruit extracts were more active than the positive control acarbose. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Bioactives and Human Health)
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Open AccessReview
Green Tea Intake and Risks for Dementia, Alzheimer’s Disease, Mild Cognitive Impairment, and Cognitive Impairment: A Systematic Review
Nutrients 2019, 11(5), 1165; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11051165
Received: 3 April 2019 / Revised: 10 May 2019 / Accepted: 21 May 2019 / Published: 24 May 2019
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Abstract
Dementia has become a major issue that requires urgent measures. The prevention of dementia may be influenced by dietary factors. We focused on green tea and performed a systematic review of observational studies that examined the association between green tea intake and dementia, [...] Read more.
Dementia has become a major issue that requires urgent measures. The prevention of dementia may be influenced by dietary factors. We focused on green tea and performed a systematic review of observational studies that examined the association between green tea intake and dementia, Alzheimer’s disease, mild cognitive impairment, or cognitive impairment. We searched for articles registered up to 23 August 2018, in the PubMed database and then for references of original articles or reviews that examined tea and cognition. Subsequently, the extracted articles were examined regarding whether they included original data assessing an association of green tea intake and dementia, Alzheimer’s disease, mild cognitive impairment, or cognitive impairment. Finally, we included three cohort studies and five cross-sectional studies. One cohort study and three cross-sectional studies supported the positive effects of green tea intake. One cohort study and one cross-sectional study reported partial positive effects. The remaining one cohort study and one cross-sectional study showed no significant association of green tea intake. These results seem to support the hypothesis that green tea intake might reduce the risk for dementia, Alzheimer’s disease, mild cognitive impairment, or cognitive impairment. Further results from well-designed and well-conducted cohort studies are required to derive robust evidence. Full article
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