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Nutrients, Volume 11, Issue 6 (June 2019)

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Open AccessArticle
Composition and In Vitro Effects of Cultivars of Humulus lupulus L. Hops on Cholinesterase Activity and Microbial Growth
Nutrients 2019, 11(6), 1377; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11061377 (registering DOI)
Received: 17 May 2019 / Revised: 14 June 2019 / Accepted: 14 June 2019 / Published: 19 June 2019
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Abstract
Common hop (Humulus lupulus L.) has significant health-promoting properties. Hop cones contain resins, essential oils, proteins, polyphenols, lipids, waxes, and cellulose. Hop extracts include bioactive compounds such as polyphenolic compounds (phenolic acids, and flavonols), and chlorophylls. The aim of this study was [...] Read more.
Common hop (Humulus lupulus L.) has significant health-promoting properties. Hop cones contain resins, essential oils, proteins, polyphenols, lipids, waxes, and cellulose. Hop extracts include bioactive compounds such as polyphenolic compounds (phenolic acids, and flavonols), and chlorophylls. The aim of this study was to compare the pro-health potential of hop cone extracts obtained from three cultivars (Magnum, Lubelski, and Marynka). The results showed that the cones of Magnum cultivar demonstrated the highest biological activity. The sum of phenolic acids and flavonols in ethanol extract was the highest for this variety and was equal 4903.5 µg/g dw. Ethanol extracts of Magnum cultivars showed the highest degree of iron ion chelation (55.43–88.76%) as well as the activity against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (4.75 mmol Tx/g dw). Hop cone extracts as cholinesterase inhibitors showed high potential for aqueous variants. In terms of antimicrobial activity, all investigated extracts demonstrated strong inhibition against Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis, with the Magnum cultivar showing the strongest inhibition. Owing to the biofunctional features of hop cone, it can be concluded that it is an attractive raw material with pro-health potential that can be used much more widely in food technology. However, it should be noted that toxicological tests and in vitro tests must be carried out before the raw material is used in food production. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Cardiovascular Health, Adiposity, and Food Insecurity in an Underserved Population
Nutrients 2019, 11(6), 1376; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11061376 (registering DOI)
Received: 25 April 2019 / Revised: 14 June 2019 / Accepted: 17 June 2019 / Published: 19 June 2019
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Abstract
This study investigated associations between cardiovascular health (CVH), adiposity, and food insecurity by race, sex, and health literacy in a sample of 800 underserved patients with obesity (body mass index [BMI] ≥ 30 kg/m2). CVH was assessed using American Heart Association [...] Read more.
This study investigated associations between cardiovascular health (CVH), adiposity, and food insecurity by race, sex, and health literacy in a sample of 800 underserved patients with obesity (body mass index [BMI] ≥ 30 kg/m2). CVH was assessed using American Heart Association Life’s Simple 7 (LS7) and adiposity was estimated using BMI and waist circumference (WC). Mixed models including interaction terms between food insecurity and sex, race, and health literacy were analyzed for LS7, BMI, and WC. Stratified models were analyzed as indicated by significant interactions. Mean BMI and WC were 37.3 kg/m2 (4.6 SD) and 113.5 cm (12.4 SD), respectively. Among patients, 31% were food insecure and 31% had low health literacy. There were significant positive associations between food insecurity and BMI (p = 0.03) and WC (p = 0.03) in the overall sample. In sex-stratified models, women who were food insecure had higher BMI (p = 0.02) and WC (p = 0.007) than their food secure counterparts. Further, food insecure patients with better health literacy had greater BMI (p = 0.004) and WC (p = 0.007) than their food secure counterparts. Results suggest that adiposity is a greater burden in food insecure patients, which may be an important consideration for obesity treatment in underserved populations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet, Lifestyle and Cardiometabolic Health in Vulnerable Populations)
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Open AccessArticle
Impact of Maternal Malnutrition on Gut Barrier Defense: Implications for Pregnancy Health and Fetal Development
Nutrients 2019, 11(6), 1375; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11061375 (registering DOI)
Received: 11 May 2019 / Revised: 31 May 2019 / Accepted: 10 June 2019 / Published: 19 June 2019
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Abstract
Small intestinal Paneth cells, enteric glial cells (EGC), and goblet cells maintain gut mucosal integrity, homeostasis, and influence host physiology locally and through the gut-brain axis. Little is known about their roles during pregnancy, or how maternal malnutrition impacts these cells and their [...] Read more.
Small intestinal Paneth cells, enteric glial cells (EGC), and goblet cells maintain gut mucosal integrity, homeostasis, and influence host physiology locally and through the gut-brain axis. Little is known about their roles during pregnancy, or how maternal malnutrition impacts these cells and their development. Pregnant mice were fed a control diet (CON), undernourished by 30% vs. control (UN), or fed a high fat diet (HF). At day 18.5 (term = 19), gut integrity and function were assessed by immunohistochemistry and qPCR. UN mothers displayed reduced mRNA expression of Paneth cell antimicrobial peptides (AMP; Lyz2, Reg3g) and an accumulation of villi goblet cells, while HF had reduced Reg3g and mucin (Muc2) mRNA and increased lysozyme protein. UN fetuses had increased mRNA expression of gut transcription factor Sox9, associated with reduced expression of maturation markers (Cdx2, Muc2), and increased expression of tight junctions (TJ; Cldn-7). HF fetuses had increased mRNA expression of EGC markers (S100b, Bfabp, Plp1), AMP (Lyz1, Defa1, Reg3g), and TJ (Cldn-3, Cldn-7), and reduced expression of an AMP-activator (Tlr4). Maternal malnutrition altered expression of genes that maintain maternal gut homeostasis, and altered fetal gut permeability, function, and development. This may have long-term implications for host-microbe interactions, immunity, and offspring gut-brain axis function. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Early Life Nutrition and Future Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Designing Optimal Breakfast for the United States Using Linear Programming and the NHANES 2011–2014 Database: A Study from the International Breakfast Research Initiative (IBRI)
Nutrients 2019, 11(6), 1374; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11061374 (registering DOI)
Received: 8 May 2019 / Revised: 31 May 2019 / Accepted: 7 June 2019 / Published: 19 June 2019
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Abstract
The quality of dietary patterns can be optimized using a mathematical technique known as linear programming (LP). LP methods have rarely been applied to individual meals. The present LP models optimized the breakfast meal for those participants in the nationally representative National Health [...] Read more.
The quality of dietary patterns can be optimized using a mathematical technique known as linear programming (LP). LP methods have rarely been applied to individual meals. The present LP models optimized the breakfast meal for those participants in the nationally representative National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2011–2014 who ate breakfast (n = 11,565). The Nutrient Rich Food Index (NRF9.3) was a measure of diet quality. Breakfasts in the bottom tertile of NRF9.3 scores (T1) were LP-modeled to meet nutrient requirements without deviating too much from current eating habits. Separate LP models were run for children and for adults. The LP-modeled breakfasts resembled the existing ones in the top tertile of NRF9.3 scores (T3), but were more nutrient-rich. Favoring fruit, cereals, and dairy, the LP-modeled breakfasts had less meat, added sugars and fats, but more whole fruit and 100% juices, more whole grains, and more milk and yogurt. LP modeling methods can build on existing dietary patterns to construct food-based dietary guidelines and identify individual meals and/or snacks that need improvement. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Comparison of the Effectiveness of Lifestyle Modification with Other Treatments on the Incidence of Type 2 Diabetes in People at High Risk: A Network Meta-Analysis
Nutrients 2019, 11(6), 1373; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11061373 (registering DOI)
Received: 1 May 2019 / Revised: 11 June 2019 / Accepted: 16 June 2019 / Published: 19 June 2019
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Abstract
Background: Many clinical trials have been conducted to verify the effects of interventions for prevention of type 2 diabetes (T2D) using different treatments and outcomes. The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of lifestyle modifications (LM) with other treatments in [...] Read more.
Background: Many clinical trials have been conducted to verify the effects of interventions for prevention of type 2 diabetes (T2D) using different treatments and outcomes. The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of lifestyle modifications (LM) with other treatments in persons at high risk of T2D by a network meta-analysis (NMA). Methods: Searches were performed of PUBMED up to January 2018 to identify randomized controlled trials. The odds ratio (OR) with onset of T2D at 1 year in the intervention group (LM, dietary, exercise, or medication) versus a control group (standard treatments or placebo) were the effect sizes. Frequentist and Bayesian NMAs were conducted. Results: Forty-seven interventions and 12 treatments (20,113 participants) were used for the analyses. The OR in the LM was approximately 0.46 (95% CI: 0.33 to 0.61) times lower compared to the standard intervention by the Bayesian approach. The effects of LM compared to other treatments by indirect comparisons were not significant. Conclusions: This meta-analysis further strengthened the evidence that LM reduces the onset of T2D compared to standard and placebo interventions and appears to be at least as effective as nine other treatments in preventing T2D. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of Nut Consumption on Erectile and Sexual Function in Healthy Males: A Secondary Outcome Analysis of the FERTINUTS Randomized Controlled Trial
Nutrients 2019, 11(6), 1372; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11061372 (registering DOI)
Received: 8 May 2019 / Revised: 10 June 2019 / Accepted: 17 June 2019 / Published: 19 June 2019
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Abstract
Lifestyle risk factors for erectile and sexual function include smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, lack of physical activity, psychological stress, and adherence to unhealthy diets. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of mixed nuts supplementation on erectile and sexual function. Eighty-three healthy [...] Read more.
Lifestyle risk factors for erectile and sexual function include smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, lack of physical activity, psychological stress, and adherence to unhealthy diets. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of mixed nuts supplementation on erectile and sexual function. Eighty-three healthy male aged 18–35 with erectile function assessment were included in this FERTINUTS study sub-analysis; a 14-week randomized, controlled, parallel feeding trial. Participants were allocated to (1) the usual Western-style diet enriched with 60 g/day of a mixture of nuts (nut group; n = 43), or (2) the usual Western-style diet avoiding nuts (control group; n = 40). At baseline and the end of the intervention, participants answered 15 questions contained in the validated International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF), and peripheral levels of nitric oxide (NO) and E-selectin were measured, as surrogated markers of erectile endothelial function. Anthropometrical characteristics, and seminogram and blood biochemical parameters did not differ between intervention groups at baseline. Compared to the control group, a significant increase in the orgasmic function (p-value = 0.037) and sexual desire (p-value = 0.040) was observed during the nut intervention. No significant differences in changes between groups were shown in peripheral concentrations of NO and E-selectin. Including nuts in a regular diet significantly improved auto-reported orgasmic function and sexual desire. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Micronutrients and Human Fertility)
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Open AccessArticle
Body Weight Variation Patterns as Predictors of Cognitive Decline over a 5 Year Follow-Up among Community-Dwelling Elderly (MAPT Study)
Nutrients 2019, 11(6), 1371; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11061371 (registering DOI)
Received: 14 May 2019 / Revised: 6 June 2019 / Accepted: 7 June 2019 / Published: 18 June 2019
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Abstract
This study aimed to analyze associations between weight variation patterns and changes in cognitive function and hippocampal volume among non-demented, community-dwelling elderly. Sample was formed of 1394 adults >70 years (63.9% female), all volunteers from the Multidomain Alzheimer Preventive Trial (MAPT). Weight loss [...] Read more.
This study aimed to analyze associations between weight variation patterns and changes in cognitive function and hippocampal volume among non-demented, community-dwelling elderly. Sample was formed of 1394 adults >70 years (63.9% female), all volunteers from the Multidomain Alzheimer Preventive Trial (MAPT). Weight loss was defined as ≥5% of body weight decrease in the first year of follow-up; weight gain as ≥5% of weight increase; and stability if <5% weight variation. Cognition was examined by a Z-score combining four tests. Measures were assessed at baseline, 6, 12, 24, 36, 48, and 60 months of follow-up. Hippocampal volume was evaluated with magnetic resonance imaging in 349 subjects in the first year and at 36 months. Mixed models were performed. From the 1394 participants, 5.5% (n = 76) presented weight loss, and 9.0% (n = 125) presented weight gain. Cognitive Z-score decreased among all groups after 5 years, but decline was more pronounced among those who presented weight loss (adjusted between-group mean difference vs. stable: −0.24, 95%CI: −0.41 to −0.07; p = 0.006). After 3 years, hippocampal atrophy was observed among all groups, but no between-group differences were found. In conclusion, weight loss ≥5% in the first year predicted higher cognitive decline over a 5 year follow-up among community-dwelling elderly, independently of body mass index. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Waist Circumference and Abdominal Volume Index Can Predict Metabolic Syndrome in Adolescents, but only When the Criteria of the International Diabetes Federation are Employed for the Diagnosis
Nutrients 2019, 11(6), 1370; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11061370 (registering DOI)
Received: 27 May 2019 / Revised: 11 June 2019 / Accepted: 14 June 2019 / Published: 18 June 2019
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Abstract
We previously reported, using the diagnostic criteria of the International Diabetes Federation (IDF), that waist circumference (WC) and abdominal volume index (AVI) were capable of predicting metabolic syndrome (MetS) in adolescents. This study was aimed at confirming this finding when other diagnostic criteria [...] Read more.
We previously reported, using the diagnostic criteria of the International Diabetes Federation (IDF), that waist circumference (WC) and abdominal volume index (AVI) were capable of predicting metabolic syndrome (MetS) in adolescents. This study was aimed at confirming this finding when other diagnostic criteria are used. A cross-sectional study was performed on 981 Spanish adolescents (13.2 ± 1.2 years). MetS was diagnosed by eight different criteria. Ten anthropometric indexes were calculated and receiver-operator curves (ROC) were created to determine their discriminatory capacity for MetS. Of all diagnostic criteria, the ones proposed by the IDF showed the highest mean values for weight, WC and systolic blood pressure in boys and girls with MetS, and the lowest for glucose and triglycerides in boys. ROC analysis showed that only WC, AVI and body roundness index (BRI) achieved area under the curve (AUC) values above 0.8 in boys, and that fat content, body mass index (BMI), WC, AVI, BRI and pediatric body adiposity index (BAIp) showed AUC values above 0.8 in girls. Importantly, this occurred only when diagnosis was carried out using the IDF criteria. We confirm that WC and AVI can predict MetS in adolescents but only when the IDF’s diagnostic criteria are employed. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Nordic Diet and Inflammation—A Review of Observational and Intervention Studies
Nutrients 2019, 11(6), 1369; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11061369 (registering DOI)
Received: 11 April 2019 / Revised: 7 June 2019 / Accepted: 14 June 2019 / Published: 18 June 2019
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Abstract
Low-grade inflammation (LGI) has been suggested to be involved in the development of chronic diseases. Healthy dietary patterns, such as the Mediterranean diet (MD), may decrease the markers of LGI. Healthy Nordic diet (HND) has many similarities with MD, but its effects on [...] Read more.
Low-grade inflammation (LGI) has been suggested to be involved in the development of chronic diseases. Healthy dietary patterns, such as the Mediterranean diet (MD), may decrease the markers of LGI. Healthy Nordic diet (HND) has many similarities with MD, but its effects on LGI are less well known. Both of these dietary patterns emphasize the abundant use of fruits and vegetables (and berries in HND), whole grain products, fish, and vegetable oil (canola oil in HND and olive oil in MD), but restrict the use of saturated fat and red and processed meat. The aim of this narrative review is to summarize the results of studies, which have investigated the associations or effects of HND on the markers of LGI. Altogether, only two publications of observational studies and eight publications of intervention trials were found through the literature search. Both observational studies reported an inverse association between the adherence to HND and concentration of high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP). A significant decrease in the concentration of hsCRP was reported in two out of four intervention studies measuring hsCRP. Single intervention studies reported the beneficial effects on interleukin 1Ra and Cathepsin S. Current evidence suggests the beneficial effects on LGI with HND, but more carefully controlled studies are needed to confirm the anti-inflammatory effects of the HND. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health Benefits of the Nordic Diet)
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Open AccessArticle
Association of Folate and Vitamins Involved in the 1-Carbon Cycle with Polymorphisms in the Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase Gene (MTHFR) and Global DNA Methylation in Patients with Colorectal Cancer
Nutrients 2019, 11(6), 1368; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11061368 (registering DOI)
Received: 29 April 2019 / Revised: 30 May 2019 / Accepted: 4 June 2019 / Published: 18 June 2019
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Abstract
Folate, vitamin B2, vitamin B6, vitamin B12, choline, and betaine are nutrients involved in the 1-carbon cycle that can alter the levels of DNA methylation and influence genesis and/or tumor progression. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the association of [...] Read more.
Folate, vitamin B2, vitamin B6, vitamin B12, choline, and betaine are nutrients involved in the 1-carbon cycle that can alter the levels of DNA methylation and influence genesis and/or tumor progression. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the association of folate and vitamins involved in the 1-carbon cycle and MTHFR polymorphisms in global DNA methylation in patients with colorectal cancer gene. The study included 189 patients with colorectal adenocarcinoma answering a clinical evaluation questionnaire and the Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) validated for patients with colon and rectal cancer. Blood samples were collected for evaluation of MTHFR gene polymorphisms in global DNA methylation in blood and in tumor. The values for serum folate were positively correlated with the equivalent total dietary folate (total DFE) (rho = 0.51, p = 0.03) and global DNA methylation (rho = 0.20, p = 0.03). Individuals aged over 61 years (p = 0.01) in clinicopathological staging III and IV (p = 0.01) and with + heterozygous mutated homozygous genotypes for the MTHFR A1298C gene had higher levels of global DNA methylation (p = 0.04). The association between dietary intake of folate, serum folate, and tumor stage were predictive of global DNA methylation in patients’ blood. The levels of serum folate, the dietary folate and the status of DNA methylation can influence clinicopathological staging. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Cancer: From Prevention to Survivorship)
Open AccessArticle
Influence of Diets with Varying Essential/Nonessential Amino Acid Ratios on Mouse Lifespan
Nutrients 2019, 11(6), 1367; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11061367 (registering DOI)
Received: 27 March 2019 / Revised: 20 May 2019 / Accepted: 13 June 2019 / Published: 18 June 2019
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Abstract
An adequate intake of essential (EAA) and non-essential amino acids (NEAA) is crucial to preserve cell integrity and whole-body metabolism. EAA introduced with diet may be insufficient to meet the organismal needs, especially under increased physiological requirements or in pathological conditions, and may [...] Read more.
An adequate intake of essential (EAA) and non-essential amino acids (NEAA) is crucial to preserve cell integrity and whole-body metabolism. EAA introduced with diet may be insufficient to meet the organismal needs, especially under increased physiological requirements or in pathological conditions, and may condition lifespan. We therefore examined the effects of iso-caloric and providing the same nitrogenous content diets, any diet containing different stoichiometric blends of EAA/NEAA, on mouse lifespan. Three groups of just-weaned male Balb/C mice were fed exclusively with special diets with varying EAA/NEAA ratios, ranging from 100%/0% to 0%/100%. Three additional groups of mice were fed with different diets, two based on casein as alimentary proteins, one providing the said protein, one reproducing the amino acidic composition of casein, and the third one, the control group, was fed by a standard laboratory diet. Mouse lifespan was inversely correlated with the percentage of NEAA introduced with each diet. Either limiting EAA, or exceeding NEAA, induced rapid and permanent structural modifications on muscle and adipose tissue, independently of caloric intake. These changes significantly affected food and water intake, body weight, and lifespan. Dietary intake of varying EAA/NEAA ratios induced changes in several organs and profoundly influenced murine lifespan. The balanced content of EAA provided by dietary proteins should be considered as the preferable means for “optimal” nutrition and the elevated or unbalanced intake of NEAA provided by food proteins may negatively affect the health and lifespan of mice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition for Musculoskeletal Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Water-Soluble Extract from Actinidia arguta (Siebold & Zucc.) Planch. ex Miq. and Perilla frutescens (L.) Britton, ACTPER, Ameliorates a Dry Skin-Induced Itch in a Mice Model and Promotes Filaggrin Expression by Activating the AhR Signaling in HaCaT Cells
Nutrients 2019, 11(6), 1366; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11061366 (registering DOI)
Received: 8 May 2019 / Revised: 10 June 2019 / Accepted: 17 June 2019 / Published: 18 June 2019
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Abstract
With a complex etiology involving multiple factors, the condition known as itch is a primary symptom of many skin diseases. Current treatment methods are ineffective for addressing itches caused by dry skin, for example. We developed a botanical extract, ACTPER, made from a [...] Read more.
With a complex etiology involving multiple factors, the condition known as itch is a primary symptom of many skin diseases. Current treatment methods are ineffective for addressing itches caused by dry skin, for example. We developed a botanical extract, ACTPER, made from a mixture of Actinidia arguta and Perilla frutescens, which have traditionally been used to treat itch. The quality of ACTPER as a research agent was controlled in our experiment by cell-based bioassays, as well as by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), using two chemical markers. In the acetone-induced dry skin mice model, the oral administration of ACTPER alleviated dry skin-related skin properties and itching behavior. The RNA and protein expression of the filament aggregating protein (filaggrin) gene, a key factor involved in the regulation of skin barrier function, was significantly increased, as measured by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and immunofluorescence assay. To understand the underlying mechanism(s) at the molecular level, HaCaT cells, a human keratinocyte-derived cell line, were treated with various concentrations of ACTPER. We found that the protein expression of filaggrin was indeed upregulated by ACTPER in a dose dependent manner. Data from experiments involving the reporter plasmid containing the xenobiotic response element (XRE), and the chemical antagonist for the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), indicated that the ACTPER-mediated upregulation of filaggrin was controlled through the activation of the AhR signaling pathway. The molecular docking simulation study predicted that ACTPER might contain chemical compounds that bind directly to AhR. Taken together, our results suggest that ACTPER may provide the platform, based upon which a variety of safe and effective therapeutic agents can be developed to treat itch. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Different and Unequal: A Qualitative Evaluation of Salient Factors Influencing Energy Intake in Adults with Overweight and Obesity
Nutrients 2019, 11(6), 1365; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11061365 (registering DOI)
Received: 3 May 2019 / Revised: 5 June 2019 / Accepted: 14 June 2019 / Published: 18 June 2019
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Abstract
Environmental factors such as food availability and variety can function as cues for overeating in individuals susceptible to overweight or obesity, but relatively little is known about other types of environmental factors that may also be important. This qualitative study compared and contrasted [...] Read more.
Environmental factors such as food availability and variety can function as cues for overeating in individuals susceptible to overweight or obesity, but relatively little is known about other types of environmental factors that may also be important. This qualitative study compared and contrasted categories of internal and external cues through focus groups and key informant interviews with 24 adults (26 to 77 years old) in the United States who had a body mass index within the healthy range (21.6 ± 2.5 kg/m2) or had overweight or obesity (29.1 ± 3.6 kg/m2). Five domains of external factors influencing food intake were identified: (a) Environmental cues including food availability and variety; (b) normative expectations for dietary intake; (c) food palatability; (d) overt social pressures to overeat; and (e) perceived social expectations around eating. All external domains were noted by participants with overweight or obesity to be challenging, and solutions to avoid overeating were lacking; however, overt social pressures and perceived social expectations appeared to be especially problematic. By explicitly defining different domains of external factors that challenge healthy weight regulation, this study identifies specific targets to address in interventions for healthy weight management. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Silver Ions as a Tool for Understanding Different Aspects of Copper Metabolism
Nutrients 2019, 11(6), 1364; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11061364
Received: 1 May 2019 / Revised: 8 June 2019 / Accepted: 12 June 2019 / Published: 17 June 2019
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Abstract
In humans, copper is an important micronutrient because it is a cofactor of ubiquitous and brain-specific cuproenzymes, as well as a secondary messenger. Failure of the mechanisms supporting copper balance leads to the development of neurodegenerative, oncological, and other severe disorders, whose treatment [...] Read more.
In humans, copper is an important micronutrient because it is a cofactor of ubiquitous and brain-specific cuproenzymes, as well as a secondary messenger. Failure of the mechanisms supporting copper balance leads to the development of neurodegenerative, oncological, and other severe disorders, whose treatment requires a detailed understanding of copper metabolism. In the body, bioavailable copper exists in two stable oxidation states, Cu(I) and Cu(II), both of which are highly toxic. The toxicity of copper ions is usually overcome by coordinating them with a wide range of ligands. These include the active cuproenzyme centers, copper-binding protein motifs to ensure the safe delivery of copper to its physiological location, and participants in the Cu(I) ↔ Cu(II) redox cycle, in which cellular copper is stored. The use of modern experimental approaches has allowed the overall picture of copper turnover in the cells and the organism to be clarified. However, many aspects of this process remain poorly understood. Some of them can be found out using abiogenic silver ions (Ag(I)), which are isoelectronic to Cu(I). This review covers the physicochemical principles of the ability of Ag(I) to substitute for copper ions in transport proteins and cuproenzyme active sites, the effectiveness of using Ag(I) to study copper routes in the cells and the body, and the limitations associated with Ag(I) remaining stable in only one oxidation state. The use of Ag(I) to restrict copper transport to tumors and the consequences of large-scale use of silver nanoparticles for human health are also discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Trace Minerals)
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Open AccessArticle
The Role of Physiological Vitamin C Concentrations on Key Functions of Neutrophils Isolated from Healthy Individuals
Nutrients 2019, 11(6), 1363; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11061363
Received: 9 May 2019 / Revised: 28 May 2019 / Accepted: 6 June 2019 / Published: 17 June 2019
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Abstract
Vitamin C (ascorbate) is important for neutrophil function and immune health. Studies showing improved immune function have primarily used cells from scorbutic animals or from individuals with infectious conditions or immune cell disorders. Few studies have focused on the requirements of neutrophils from [...] Read more.
Vitamin C (ascorbate) is important for neutrophil function and immune health. Studies showing improved immune function have primarily used cells from scorbutic animals or from individuals with infectious conditions or immune cell disorders. Few studies have focused on the requirements of neutrophils from healthy adults. Therefore, we have investigated the role of vitamin C, at concentrations equivalent to those obtained in plasma from oral intakes (i.e., 50–200 µmol/L), on key functions of neutrophils isolated from healthy individuals. Cells were either pre-loaded with dehydroascorbic acid, which is rapidly reduced intracellularly to ascorbate, or the cells were activated in the presence of extracellular ascorbate. We measured the effects of enhanced ascorbate uptake on the essential functions of chemotaxis, oxidant production, programmed cell death and neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) formation. We found that neutrophils isolated from healthy individuals already had replete ascorbate status (0.35 nmol/106 cells), therefore they did not uptake additional ascorbate. However, they readily took up dehydroascorbic acid, thus significantly increasing their intracellular ascorbate concentrations, although this was found to have no additional effect on superoxide production or chemotaxis. Interestingly, extracellular ascorbate appeared to enhance directional mobilityin the presence of the chemoattractant formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP). Stimulation of the cells in the presence of ascorbate significantly increased intracellular ascorbate concentrations and, although this exhibited a non-significant increase in phosphatidylserine exposure, NET formation was significantly attenuated. Our findings demonstrate the ability of neutrophils to regulate their uptake of ascorbate from the plasma of healthy humans to maintain an optimal level within the cell for proper functioning. Higher oral intakes, however, may help reduce tissue damage and inflammatory pathologies associated with NET formation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamin C: From Bench to Bedside)
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Open AccessReview
The Effect of Electrolytes on Blood Pressure: A Brief Summary of Meta-Analyses
Nutrients 2019, 11(6), 1362; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11061362
Received: 29 May 2019 / Revised: 12 June 2019 / Accepted: 13 June 2019 / Published: 17 June 2019
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Abstract
Nutrition is known to exert an undeniable impact on blood pressure with especially salt (sodium chloride), but also potassium, playing a prominent role. The aim of this review was to summarize meta-analyses studying the effect of different electrolytes on blood pressure or risk [...] Read more.
Nutrition is known to exert an undeniable impact on blood pressure with especially salt (sodium chloride), but also potassium, playing a prominent role. The aim of this review was to summarize meta-analyses studying the effect of different electrolytes on blood pressure or risk for hypertension, respectively. Overall, 32 meta-analyses evaluating the effect of sodium, potassium, calcium and magnesium on human blood pressure or hypertension risk were included after literature search. Most of the meta-analyses showed beneficial blood pressure lowering effects with the extent of systolic blood pressure reduction ranging between −0.7 (95% confidence interval: −2.6 to 1.2) to −8.9 (−14.1 to −3.7) mmHg for sodium/salt reduction, −3.5 (−5.2 to −1.8) to −9.5 (−10.8 to −8.1) mmHg for potassium, and −0.2 (−0.4 to −0.03) to −18.7 (−22.5 to −15.0) mmHg for magnesium. The range for diastolic blood pressure reduction was 0.03 (−0.4 to 0.4) to −5.9 (−9.7 to −2.1) mmHg for sodium/salt reduction, −2 (−3.1 to −0.9) to −6.4 (−7.3 to −5.6) mmHg for potassium, and −0.3 (−0.5 to −0.03) to −10.9 (−13.1 to −8.7) mmHg for magnesium. Moreover, sufficient calcium intake was found to reduce the risk of gestational hypertension. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrients Intake and Hypertension)
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Open AccessReview
Mechanisms Underlying the Anti-Depressive Effects of Regular Tea Consumption
Nutrients 2019, 11(6), 1361; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11061361
Received: 8 May 2019 / Revised: 3 June 2019 / Accepted: 11 June 2019 / Published: 17 June 2019
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Abstract
This article is a comprehensive review of the literature pertaining to the antidepressant effects and mechanisms of regular tea consumption. Meta-data supplemented with recent observational studies were first analyzed to assess the association between tea consumption and depression risk. The literature reported risk [...] Read more.
This article is a comprehensive review of the literature pertaining to the antidepressant effects and mechanisms of regular tea consumption. Meta-data supplemented with recent observational studies were first analyzed to assess the association between tea consumption and depression risk. The literature reported risk ratios (RR) were 0.69 with 95% confidence intervals of 0.62–0.77. Next, we thoroughly reviewed human trials, mouse models, and in vitro experiments to determine the predominant mechanisms underlying the observed linear relationship between tea consumption and reduced risk of depression. Current theories on the neurobiology of depression were utilized to map tea-mediated mechanisms of antidepressant activity onto an integrated framework of depression pathology. The major nodes within the network framework of depression included hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis hyperactivity, inflammation, weakened monoaminergic systems, reduced neurogenesis/neuroplasticity, and poor microbiome diversity affecting the gut–brain axis. We detailed how each node has subsystems within them, including signaling pathways, specific target proteins, or transporters that interface with compounds in tea, mediating their antidepressant effects. A major pathway was found to be the ERK/CREB/BDNF signaling pathway, up-regulated by a number of compounds in tea including teasaponin, L-theanine, EGCG and combinations of tea catechins and their metabolites. Black tea theaflavins and EGCG are potent anti-inflammatory agents via down-regulation of NF-κB signaling. Multiple compounds in tea are effective modulators of dopaminergic activity and the gut–brain axis. Taken together, our findings show that constituents found in all major tea types, predominantly L-theanine, polyphenols and polyphenol metabolites, are capable of functioning through multiple pathways simultaneously to collectively reduce the risk of depression. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polyphenol-Rich Foods for Human Health and Disease)
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Open AccessArticle
Consumption of a Specially-Formulated Mixture of Essential Amino Acids Promotes Gain in Whole-Body Protein to a Greater Extent than a Complete Meal Replacement in Older Women with Heart Failure
Nutrients 2019, 11(6), 1360; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11061360
Received: 3 April 2019 / Revised: 11 June 2019 / Accepted: 14 June 2019 / Published: 17 June 2019
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Abstract
Heart failure in older individuals is normally associated with a high body mass index and relatively low lean body mass due to, in part, a resistance to the normal anabolic effect of dietary protein. In this study we have investigated the hypothesis that [...] Read more.
Heart failure in older individuals is normally associated with a high body mass index and relatively low lean body mass due to, in part, a resistance to the normal anabolic effect of dietary protein. In this study we have investigated the hypothesis that consumption of a specially-formulated composition of essential amino acids (HiEAAs) can overcome anabolic resistance in individuals with heart failure and stimulate the net gain of body protein to a greater extent than a commercially popular protein-based meal replacement beverage with greater caloric but lower essential amino acid (EAA) content (LoEAA). A randomized cross-over design was used. Protein kinetics were determined using primed continuous infusions of L-(2H5)phenylalanine and L-(2H2)tyrosine in the basal state and for four hours following consumption of either beverage. Both beverages induced positive net protein balance (i.e., anabolic response). However, the anabolic response was more than two times greater with the HiEAA than the LoEAA (p < 0.001), largely through a greater suppression of protein breakdown (p < 0.001). Net protein accretion (g) was also greater in the HiEAA when data were normalized for either amino acid or caloric content (p < 0.001). We conclude that a properly formulated EAA mixture can elicit a greater anabolic response in individuals with heart failure than a protein-based meal replacement. Since heart failure is often associated with obesity, the minimal caloric value of the HiEAA formulation is advantageous. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Dissimilar Impact of a Mediterranean Diet and Physical Activity on Anthropometric Indices: A Cross-Sectional Study from the ILERVAS Project
Nutrients 2019, 11(6), 1359; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11061359
Received: 13 May 2019 / Revised: 11 June 2019 / Accepted: 14 June 2019 / Published: 17 June 2019
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Abstract
There is a close relationship between lifestyle behaviors and excess adiposity. Although body mass index (BMI) is the most used approach to estimate excess weight, other anthropometric indices have been developed to measure total body and abdominal adiposity. However, little is known about [...] Read more.
There is a close relationship between lifestyle behaviors and excess adiposity. Although body mass index (BMI) is the most used approach to estimate excess weight, other anthropometric indices have been developed to measure total body and abdominal adiposity. However, little is known about the impact of physical activity and adherence to a Mediterranean diet on these indices. Here we report the results of a cross-sectional study with 6672 middle-aged subjects with low to moderate cardiovascular risk from the Ilerda Vascular (ILERVAS) project. The participants’ adherence to physical activity (International Physical Activity Questionnaire short form) and MedDiet (Mediterranean Diet Adherence Screener) was evaluated. Measures of total adiposity (BMI, Clínica Universidad de Navarra-Body Adiposity Estimator (CUN-BAE), and Deurenberg’s formula), central adiposity (waist and neck circumferences, conicity index, waist to height ratio, Bonora’s equation, A body adiposity index, and body roundness index), and lean body mass (Hume formula) were assessed. Irrespective of sex, lower indices of physical activity were associated with higher values of total body fat and central adiposity. This result was constant regardless of the indices used to estimate adiposity. However, the association between MedDiet and obesity indices was much less marked and more dependent on sex than that observed for physical activity. Lean body mass was influenced by neither physical activity nor MedDiet adherence. No joint effect between physical activity and MedDiet to lower estimated total or central adiposity indices was shown. In conclusion, physical activity is related to lower obesity indices in a large cohort of middle-aged subjects. MedDiet showed a slight impact on estimated anthropometric indices, with no joint effect when considering both lifestyle variables. ClinTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03228459. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Maternal and Infant Factors Associated with Human Milk Oligosaccharides Concentrations According to Secretor and Lewis Phenotypes
Nutrients 2019, 11(6), 1358; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11061358
Received: 11 April 2019 / Revised: 1 June 2019 / Accepted: 4 June 2019 / Published: 17 June 2019
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Abstract
Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) are multifunctional carbohydrates naturally present in human milk that act as prebiotics, prevent pathogen binding and infections, modulate the immune system and may support brain development in infants. HMOs composition is very individualized and differences in HMOs concentrations may [...] Read more.
Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) are multifunctional carbohydrates naturally present in human milk that act as prebiotics, prevent pathogen binding and infections, modulate the immune system and may support brain development in infants. HMOs composition is very individualized and differences in HMOs concentrations may affect the infant’s health. HMOs variability can be partially explained by the activity of Secretor (Se) and Lewis (Le) genes in the mother, but non-genetic maternal factors may also be involved. In this cross-sectional, observational study, 78 single human milk samples ranging from 17 to 76 days postpartum (median: 32 days, IQR: 25–46 days) were collected from breastfeeding Brazilian women, analyzed for 16 representative HMOs by liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry and associations between maternal and infant factors with HMOs concentrations were investigated. HMOs concentrations presented a high variability even in women with the same SeLe phenotype and associations with maternal allergic disease, time postpartum and with infant’s weight, weight gain and sex. Overall, we present unprecedented data on HMOs concentrations from breastfeeding Brazilian women and novel associations of maternal allergic disease and infant’s sex with HMOs concentrations. Differences in HMOs composition attributed to maternal SeLe phenotype do not impact infant growth, but higher concentrations of specific HMOs may protect against excessive weight gain. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Role of Diet in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Prevention and Treatment
Nutrients 2019, 11(6), 1357; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11061357
Received: 29 April 2019 / Revised: 11 June 2019 / Accepted: 14 June 2019 / Published: 16 June 2019
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Abstract
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide and a growing healthcare problem. Identification of modifiable risk factors for prevention and treatment of COPD is urgent, and the scientific community has begun to pay close attention [...] Read more.
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide and a growing healthcare problem. Identification of modifiable risk factors for prevention and treatment of COPD is urgent, and the scientific community has begun to pay close attention to diet as an integral part of COPD management, from prevention to treatment. This review summarizes the evidence from observational and clinical studies regarding the impact of nutrients and dietary patterns on lung function and COPD development, progression, and outcomes, with highlights on potential mechanisms of action. Several dietary options can be considered in terms of COPD prevention and/or progression. Although definitive data are lacking, the available scientific evidence indicates that some foods and nutrients, especially those nutraceuticals endowed with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties and when consumed in combinations in the form of balanced dietary patterns, are associated with better pulmonary function, less lung function decline, and reduced risk of COPD. Knowledge of dietary influences on COPD may provide health professionals with an evidence-based lifestyle approach to better counsel patients toward improved pulmonary health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Respiratory Disease and Nutrition)
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Open AccessReview
Glycine Metabolism and Its Alterations in Obesity and Metabolic Diseases
Nutrients 2019, 11(6), 1356; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11061356
Received: 10 May 2019 / Revised: 7 June 2019 / Accepted: 12 June 2019 / Published: 16 June 2019
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Abstract
Glycine is the proteinogenic amino-acid of lowest molecular weight, harboring a hydrogen atom as a side-chain. In addition to being a building-block for proteins, glycine is also required for multiple metabolic pathways, such as glutathione synthesis and regulation of one-carbon metabolism. Although generally [...] Read more.
Glycine is the proteinogenic amino-acid of lowest molecular weight, harboring a hydrogen atom as a side-chain. In addition to being a building-block for proteins, glycine is also required for multiple metabolic pathways, such as glutathione synthesis and regulation of one-carbon metabolism. Although generally viewed as a non-essential amino-acid, because it can be endogenously synthesized to a certain extent, glycine has also been suggested as a conditionally essential amino acid. In metabolic disorders associated with obesity, type 2 diabetes (T2DM), and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLDs), lower circulating glycine levels have been consistently observed, and clinical studies suggest the existence of beneficial effects induced by glycine supplementation. The present review aims at synthesizing the recent advances in glycine metabolism, pinpointing its main metabolic pathways, identifying the causes leading to glycine deficiency—especially in obesity and associated metabolic disorders—and evaluating the potential benefits of increasing glycine availability to curb the progression of obesity and obesity-related metabolic disturbances. This study focuses on the importance of diet, gut microbiota, and liver metabolism in determining glycine availability in obesity and associated metabolic disorders. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Protein Metabolism and Glucose Homeostasis)
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Open AccessReview
Systematic Review on Polyphenol Intake and Health Outcomes: Is there Sufficient Evidence to Define a Health-Promoting Polyphenol-Rich Dietary Pattern?
Nutrients 2019, 11(6), 1355; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11061355
Received: 18 April 2019 / Revised: 31 May 2019 / Accepted: 3 June 2019 / Published: 16 June 2019
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Abstract
Growing evidence support association between polyphenol intake and reduced risk for chronic diseases, even if there is a broad debate about the effective amount of polyphenols able to exert such protective effect. The present systematic review provides an overview of the last 10-year [...] Read more.
Growing evidence support association between polyphenol intake and reduced risk for chronic diseases, even if there is a broad debate about the effective amount of polyphenols able to exert such protective effect. The present systematic review provides an overview of the last 10-year literature on the evaluation of polyphenol intake and its association with specific disease markers and/or endpoints. An estimation of the mean total polyphenol intake has been performed despite the large heterogeneity of data reviewed. In addition, the contribution of dietary sources was considered, suggesting tea, coffee, red wine, fruit and vegetables as the main products providing polyphenols. Total flavonoids and specific subclasses, but not total polyphenols, have been apparently associated with a low risk of diabetes, cardiovascular events and all-cause mortality. However, large variability in terms of methods for the evaluation and quantification of polyphenol intake, markers and endpoints considered, makes it still difficult to establish an evidence-based reference intake for the whole class and subclass of compounds. Nevertheless, the critical mass of data available seem to strongly suggest the protective effect of a polyphenol-rich dietary pattern even if further well targeted and methodologically sound research should be encouraged in order to define specific recommendations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Food, Nutrition and Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Exploring the Relationship between School Gardens, Food Literacy and Mental Well-Being in Youth Using Photovoice
Nutrients 2019, 11(6), 1354; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11061354
Received: 18 April 2019 / Revised: 28 May 2019 / Accepted: 11 June 2019 / Published: 16 June 2019
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Abstract
The goal of the project was to gain an understanding of the relationships between secondary school youth experiences in school gardens and their mental well-being. Over the course of five months, sixteen youths participated in a photovoice research project in which they expressed [...] Read more.
The goal of the project was to gain an understanding of the relationships between secondary school youth experiences in school gardens and their mental well-being. Over the course of five months, sixteen youths participated in a photovoice research project in which they expressed their personal experiences about food and gardening through photography and writing. The aspects of secondary school youths’ life experiences affected by exposure to school gardens and their impact upon their well-being were identified. The youth explicitly associated relaxation with the themes of love and connectedness, growing food, garden as a place, cooking, and food choices. They were able to demonstrate and develop food literacy competency because of their engagement with the gardening and cooking activities. Youth clubs or groups were identified as a key enabler for connection with other youth and adults. Youth shared their food literacy experiences, observing that their engagement improved some aspect of their mental well-being. Through the photovoice process, the youth identified how their involvement in green spaces enabled connections with others, and highlighted aspects of personal health and personal growth, all of which contribute to their mental well-being. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet and Mental Health)
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Open AccessReview
Impairment between Oxidant and Antioxidant Systems: Short- and Long-term Implications for Athletes’ Health
Nutrients 2019, 11(6), 1353; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11061353
Received: 19 May 2019 / Revised: 6 June 2019 / Accepted: 11 June 2019 / Published: 15 June 2019
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Abstract
The role of oxidative stress, an imbalance between reactive oxygen species production (ROS) and antioxidants, has been described in several patho-physiological conditions, including cardiovascular, neurological diseases and cancer, thus impacting on individuals’ lifelong health. Diet, environmental pollution, and physical activity can play a [...] Read more.
The role of oxidative stress, an imbalance between reactive oxygen species production (ROS) and antioxidants, has been described in several patho-physiological conditions, including cardiovascular, neurological diseases and cancer, thus impacting on individuals’ lifelong health. Diet, environmental pollution, and physical activity can play a significant role in the oxidative balance of an organism. Even if physical training has proved to be able to counteract the negative effects caused by free radicals and to provide many health benefits, it is also known that intensive physical activity induces oxidative stress, inflammation, and free radical-mediated muscle damage. Indeed, variations in type, intensity, and duration of exercise training can activate different patterns of oxidant–antioxidant balance leading to different responses in terms of molecular and cellular damage. The aim of the present review is to discuss (1) the role of oxidative status in athletes in relation to exercise training practice, (2) the implications for muscle damage, (3) the long-term effect for neurodegenerative disease manifestations, (4) the role of antioxidant supplementations in preventing oxidative damages. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Influences of Calorie Intake on Aging)
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Open AccessArticle
Subjective Hunger, Gastric Upset, and Sleepiness in Response to Altered Meal Timing during Simulated Shiftwork
Nutrients 2019, 11(6), 1352; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11061352
Received: 9 May 2019 / Revised: 14 June 2019 / Accepted: 14 June 2019 / Published: 15 June 2019
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Abstract
Shiftworkers report eating during the night when the body is primed to sleep. This study investigated the impact of altering food timing on subjective responses. Healthy participants (n = 44, 26 male, age Mean ± SD = 25.0 ± 2.9 years, BMI [...] Read more.
Shiftworkers report eating during the night when the body is primed to sleep. This study investigated the impact of altering food timing on subjective responses. Healthy participants (n = 44, 26 male, age Mean ± SD = 25.0 ± 2.9 years, BMI = 23.82 ± 2.59kg/m2) participated in a 7-day simulated shiftwork protocol. Participants were randomly allocated to one of three eating conditions. At 00:30, participants consumed a meal comprising 30% of 24 h energy intake (Meal condition; n = 14, 8 males), a snack comprising 10% of 24 h energy intake (Snack condition; n = 14; 8 males) or did not eat during the night (No Eating condition; n = 16, 10 males). Total 24 h individual energy intake and macronutrient content was constant across conditions. During the night, participants reported hunger, gut reaction, and sleepiness levels at 21:00, 23:30, 2:30, and 5:00. Mixed model analyses revealed that the snack condition reported significantly more hunger than the meal group (p < 0.001) with the no eating at night group reporting the greatest hunger (p < 0.001). There was no difference in desire to eat between meal and snack groups. Participants reported less sleepiness after the snack compared to after the meal (p < 0.001) or when not eating during the night (p < 0.001). Gastric upset did not differ between conditions. A snack during the nightshift could alleviate hunger during the nightshift without causing fullness or increased sleepiness. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sleep, Nutrition, and Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Preparation and Identification of Novel Antihypertensive Peptides from the In Vitro Gastrointestinal Digestion of Marine Cobia Skin Hydrolysates
Nutrients 2019, 11(6), 1351; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11061351
Received: 4 May 2019 / Revised: 3 June 2019 / Accepted: 13 June 2019 / Published: 15 June 2019
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Abstract
This research focuses on cobia skin hydrolysates and their antihypertensive effects via the inhibitory activities of angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE). Marine fish Cobia (Rachycentron canadum) skin was hydrolysed for 5 h using Protamex and Protease N to obtain the cobia skin [...] Read more.
This research focuses on cobia skin hydrolysates and their antihypertensive effects via the inhibitory activities of angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE). Marine fish Cobia (Rachycentron canadum) skin was hydrolysed for 5 h using Protamex and Protease N to obtain the cobia skin protein hydrolysates PX-5 and PN-5, respectively. The soluble protein and peptide contents of the PX-5 were 612 and 270 mg/g, respectively, and for the PN-5, 531 and 400 mg/g, respectively. The IC50 of PX-5 and PN-5 on ACE was 0.221 and 0.291 mg/mL, respectively. Increasing the IC50 from 0.221 to 0.044 mg/mL by simulated gastrointestinal digestion (PX-5G) reduced the ACE-inhibitory capacity of PX-5. Using gel filtration chromatography, the PX-5G was fractioned into eight fractions. The molecular weight of the fifth fraction from PX-5G was between 630 and 450 Da, and the highest inhibitory efficiency ratio on ACE was 1552.4%/mg/mL. We identified four peptide sequences: Trp-Ala-Ala, Ala-Trp-Trp, Ile-Trp-Trp, and Trp-Leu, with IC50 values for ACE of 118.50, 9.40, 0.51, and 26.80 μM, respectively. At a dose of 600 mg PX-5 powder/kg body weight, in spontaneously hypertensive rats PX-5’s antihypertensive effect significantly reduced systolic and diastolic blood pressure by 21.9 and 15.5 mm Hg, respectively, after 4 h of oral gavage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effect of Bioactive Peptides on Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Dietary Fiber in Bilberry Ameliorates Pre-Obesity Events in Rats by Regulating Lipid Depot, Cecal Short-Chain Fatty Acid Formation and Microbiota Composition
Nutrients 2019, 11(6), 1350; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11061350
Received: 8 May 2019 / Revised: 5 June 2019 / Accepted: 11 June 2019 / Published: 15 June 2019
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Abstract
Obesity is linked to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and risk factors associated to metabolic syndrome. Bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus) that contains easily fermentable fiber may strengthen the intestinal barrier function, attenuate inflammation and modulate gut microbiota composition, thereby prevent obesity development. In [...] Read more.
Obesity is linked to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and risk factors associated to metabolic syndrome. Bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus) that contains easily fermentable fiber may strengthen the intestinal barrier function, attenuate inflammation and modulate gut microbiota composition, thereby prevent obesity development. In the current study, liver lipid metabolism, fat depot, cecal and serum short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) and gut microbiome were evaluated in rats fed bilberries in a high-fat (HFD + BB) or low-fat (LFD + BB) setting for 8 weeks and compared with diets containing equal amount of fiber resistant to fermentation (cellulose, HFD and LFD). HFD fed rats did not obtain an obese phenotype but underwent pre-obesity events including increased liver index, lipid accumulation and increased serum cholesterol levels. This was linked to shifts of cecal bacterial community and reduction of major SCFAs. Bilberry inclusion improved liver metabolism and serum lipid levels. Bilberry inclusion under either LFD or HFD, maintained microbiota homeostasis, stimulated interscapular-brown adipose tissue depot associated with increased mRNA expression of uncoupling protein-1; enhanced SCFAs in the cecum and circulation; and promoted butyric acid and butyrate-producing bacteria. These findings suggest that bilberry may serve as a preventative dietary measure to optimize microbiome and associated lipid metabolism during or prior to HFD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Fiber and Human Health)
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Open AccessReview
Dietary Sulfur Amino Acid Restriction and the Integrated Stress Response: Mechanistic Insights
Nutrients 2019, 11(6), 1349; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11061349
Received: 14 May 2019 / Revised: 7 June 2019 / Accepted: 11 June 2019 / Published: 15 June 2019
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Abstract
Dietary sulfur amino acid restriction, also referred to as methionine restriction, increases food intake and energy expenditure and alters body composition in rodents, resulting in improved metabolic health and a longer lifespan. Among the known nutrient-responsive signaling pathways, the evolutionary conserved integrated stress [...] Read more.
Dietary sulfur amino acid restriction, also referred to as methionine restriction, increases food intake and energy expenditure and alters body composition in rodents, resulting in improved metabolic health and a longer lifespan. Among the known nutrient-responsive signaling pathways, the evolutionary conserved integrated stress response (ISR) is a lesser-understood candidate in mediating the hormetic effects of dietary sulfur amino acid restriction (SAAR). A key feature of the ISR is the concept that a family of protein kinases phosphorylates eukaryotic initiation factor 2 (eIF2), dampening general protein synthesis to conserve cellular resources. This slowed translation simultaneously allows for preferential translation of genes with special sequence features in the 5′ leader. Among this class of mRNAs is activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4), an orchestrator of transcriptional control during nutrient stress. Several ATF4 gene targets help execute key processes affected by SAAR such as lipid metabolism, the transsulfuration pathway, and antioxidant defenses. Exploration of the canonical ISR demonstrates that eIF2 phosphorylation is not necessary for ATF4-driven changes in the transcriptome during SAAR. Additional research is needed to clarify the regulation of ATF4 and its gene targets during SAAR. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Amino Acid Nutrition and Metabolism in Health and Disease)
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Open AccessArticle
Glutamine, but not Branched-Chain Amino Acids, Restores Intestinal Barrier Function during Activity-Based Anorexia
Nutrients 2019, 11(6), 1348; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11061348
Received: 16 May 2019 / Revised: 11 June 2019 / Accepted: 13 June 2019 / Published: 15 June 2019
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Abstract
Background: During activity-based anorexia (ABA) in mice, enhanced paracellular permeability and reduced protein synthesis have been shown in the colon while the gut–brain axis has received increasing attention in the regulation of intestinal and mood disorders that frequently occur during anorexia nervosa, a [...] Read more.
Background: During activity-based anorexia (ABA) in mice, enhanced paracellular permeability and reduced protein synthesis have been shown in the colon while the gut–brain axis has received increasing attention in the regulation of intestinal and mood disorders that frequently occur during anorexia nervosa, a severe eating disorder for which there is no specific treatment. In the present study, we assessed the effects of oral glutamine (Gln) or branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) supplementation during ABA to target intestinal functions, body composition and feeding behavior. Methods: C57BL/6 male mice were randomized in Control (CTRL) and ABA groups. After ABA induction, mice received, or not, either 1% Gln or 2.5% BCAA (Leu, Ile, Val) for one week in drinking water. Results: Neither Gln nor BCAA supplementation affected body weight and body composition, while only Gln supplementation slightly increased food intake. ABA mice exhibited increased paracellular permeability and reduced protein synthesis in the colonic mucosa. Oral Gln restored colonic paracellular permeability and protein synthesis and increased the mucin-2 mRNA level, whereas BCAA did not affect colonic parameters. Conclusion: In conclusion, oral Gln specifically improves colonic response during ABA. These data should be further confirmed in AN patients. Full article
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