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Nutrients, Volume 11, Issue 6 (June 2019) – 242 articles

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Cover Story (view full-size image) Over 20 years ago, the Harvard Nurses’ Health Study suggested women were at risk of type 2 diabetes [...] Read more.
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Open AccessReview
Dietary Glycemic Index and Load and the Risk of Type 2 Diabetes: Assessment of Causal Relations
Nutrients 2019, 11(6), 1436; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11061436 - 25 Jun 2019
Cited by 21 | Viewed by 4374
Abstract
While dietary factors are important modifiable risk factors for type 2 diabetes (T2D), the causal role of carbohydrate quality in nutrition remains controversial. Dietary glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) have been examined in relation to the risk of T2D in multiple [...] Read more.
While dietary factors are important modifiable risk factors for type 2 diabetes (T2D), the causal role of carbohydrate quality in nutrition remains controversial. Dietary glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) have been examined in relation to the risk of T2D in multiple prospective cohort studies. Previous meta-analyses indicate significant relations but consideration of causality has been minimal. Here, the results of our recent meta-analyses of prospective cohort studies of 4 to 26-y follow-up are interpreted in the context of the nine Bradford-Hill criteria for causality, that is: (1) Strength of Association, (2) Consistency, (3) Specificity, (4) Temporality, (5) Biological Gradient, (6) Plausibility, (7) Experimental evidence, (8) Analogy, and (9) Coherence. These criteria necessitated referral to a body of literature wider than prospective cohort studies alone, especially in criteria 6 to 9. In this analysis, all nine of the Hill’s criteria were met for GI and GL indicating that we can be confident of a role for GI and GL as causal factors contributing to incident T2D. In addition, neither dietary fiber nor cereal fiber nor wholegrain were found to be reliable or effective surrogate measures of GI or GL. Finally, our cost–benefit analysis suggests food and nutrition advice favors lower GI or GL and would produce significant potential cost savings in national healthcare budgets. The high confidence in causal associations for incident T2D is sufficient to consider inclusion of GI and GL in food and nutrient-based recommendations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Relationship between Glycemic Index and Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Nordic Seaweed and Diabetes Prevention: Exploratory Studies in KK-Ay Mice
Nutrients 2019, 11(6), 1435; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11061435 - 25 Jun 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1184
Abstract
Background: The global epidemic of type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a challenging health problem. Lifestyle changes, including nutrition therapy, areimportant for the prevention and management of T2D. Seaweeds contain several bioactive substances with potential health properties and may be a low-cost alternative functional [...] Read more.
Background: The global epidemic of type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a challenging health problem. Lifestyle changes, including nutrition therapy, areimportant for the prevention and management of T2D. Seaweeds contain several bioactive substances with potential health properties and may be a low-cost alternative functional food in the prevention of T2D. Objective: The aim of this study was to explore the preventive effects of dried Nordic seaweed species on diabetes in an animal model of T2D. Method: Fiftymale KK-Ay mice were randomly assigned to one of four diets: control diet (chow) or diets supplemented with Alaria esculenta (AE), Saccharina latissima (SL), or Palmaria palmata (PP). The effect of the interventions on the progression of T2D was monitored over 10 weeks and evaluated by circulating glucose, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), insulin, glucagon, and lipid levels. Results: The SL group had significantly lower bodyweight, lower HbA1c and insulin levels, as well as higher high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels after the 10-week intervention than the control group. At the end of the study, the control group had significantly higher HbA1c (p < 0.001) than all of the seaweed groups. Conclusion: All seaweed groups improved HbA1C compared to control and Saccharinalatissima seaweed had concomitantly beneficial effects on glycemic control and lipid levels in KK-Ay diabetic mice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health Benefits of the Nordic Diet)
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Open AccessArticle
Modelling the Effect of Compliance with Nordic Nutrition Recommendations on Cardiovascular Disease and Cancer Mortality in the Nordic Countries
Nutrients 2019, 11(6), 1434; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11061434 - 25 Jun 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1118
Abstract
The objective of this study is to estimate the number of deaths attributable to cardiovascular diseases and diet-related cancers that could be prevented or delayed in the Nordic countries, i.e., Sweden, Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Iceland, if adults adhere to the Nordic Nutrition [...] Read more.
The objective of this study is to estimate the number of deaths attributable to cardiovascular diseases and diet-related cancers that could be prevented or delayed in the Nordic countries, i.e., Sweden, Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Iceland, if adults adhere to the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations (NNR). A sex- and age-group specific epidemiological macro-simulation model was used to estimate the preventable deaths due to the differences between country specific actual intake and recommended intake of changes in food components. Data included in the model are a baseline scenario (actual dietary intake), a counterfactual scenario (recommended intake), and age-and sex-specific mortality for cardiovascular and diet-related cancer diseases, together with the total population risk of a specific year. Monte Carlo analyses with 5000 iterations were performed to produce the 95% uncertainty intervals. The model predicts that Iceland would benefit the most by adhering to the NNR, followed by Finland. In all the Nordic countries, the highest benefit would be achieved by adhering to the fruits and vegetable intakes, except Denmark, where a lower recommended intake of salt would provide the highest benefit. For men, fruits and vegetables could have saved more lives compared to other dietary components for all the Nordic countries, while for women, dietary fiber was the most prominent factor, except in Iceland. The Nordic Council should consider policies for promoting healthy eating according to the needs of each country. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health Benefits of the Nordic Diet)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Relationship between Nutrition and Alcohol Consumption with Blood Pressure: The ESTEBAN Survey
Nutrients 2019, 11(6), 1433; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11061433 - 25 Jun 2019
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1442
Abstract
Background: Dietary interventions are recommended for the prevention of hypertension. The aim of this study was to evaluate and quantify the relationship between alcohol consumption and the DASH (Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension) score with blood pressure (BP) stratified by gender. Methods: Cross-sectional [...] Read more.
Background: Dietary interventions are recommended for the prevention of hypertension. The aim of this study was to evaluate and quantify the relationship between alcohol consumption and the DASH (Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension) score with blood pressure (BP) stratified by gender. Methods: Cross-sectional analyses were performed using data from 2105 adults from the ESTEBAN survey, a representative sample of the French population. Pearson correlation analyses were used to assess the correlation between the DASH score and alcohol with BP. Regressions were adjusted by age, treatment, socio-economic level, tobacco, exercise, Body mass index (BMI), and cardiovascular risk factors and diseases. Results: The DASH score was negatively correlated with systolic (SBP) and diastolic BP (DBP) (p < 0.0001). Alcohol was positively associated with increased BP only in men. The worst quintile of the DASH score was associated with an 1.8 mmHg increase in SBP and an 0.6 mmHg increase in SBP compared to the greatest quintile in men and with a 1.5 mmHg increase in SBP and an 0.4 mmHg increase in SBP in women. Male participants in the worst quintile of alcohol consumption showed an increase of 3.0 mmHg in SBP and 0.8 mmHg in DBP compared to those in the greatest quintile. Conclusion: A high DASH score and a reduction in alcohol consumption could be effective nutritional strategies for the prevention of hypertension. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutritional Therapy for High Blood Pressure)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Differential Effects of Dry vs. Wet Heating of β-Lactoglobulin on Formation of sRAGE Binding Ligands and sIgE Epitope Recognition
Nutrients 2019, 11(6), 1432; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11061432 - 25 Jun 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1187
Abstract
The effect of glycation and aggregation of thermally processed β-lactoglobulin (BLG) on binding to sRAGE and specific immunoglobulin E (sIgE) from cow milk allergic (CMA) patients were investigated. BLG was heated under dry conditions (water activity < 0.7) and wet conditions (in phosphate [...] Read more.
The effect of glycation and aggregation of thermally processed β-lactoglobulin (BLG) on binding to sRAGE and specific immunoglobulin E (sIgE) from cow milk allergic (CMA) patients were investigated. BLG was heated under dry conditions (water activity < 0.7) and wet conditions (in phosphate buffer at pH 7.4) at low temperature (<73 °C) and high temperatures (>90 °C) in the presence or absence of the milk sugar lactose. Nε-(carboxymethyl)-l-lysine (CML) western blot and glycation staining were used to directly identify glycation structures on the protein fractions on SDS-PAGE. Western blot was used to specify sRAGE and sIgE binding fractions. sRAGE binding was highest under wet-heated BLG independent of the presence of the milk sugar lactose. Under wet heating, high-molecular-weight aggregates were most potent and did not require the presence of CML to generate sRAGE binding ligands. In the dry system, sRAGE binding was observed only in the presence of lactose. sIgE binding affinity showed large individual differences and revealed four binding profiles. Dependent on the individual, sIgE binding decreased or increased by wet heating independent of the presence of lactose. Dry heating required the presence of lactose to show increased binding to aggregates in most individuals. This study highlights an important role of heating condition-dependent protein aggregation and glycation in changing the immunogenicity and antigenicity of cow’s milk BLG. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cow's Milk and Allergy) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessReview
Potential Factors Influencing the Effects of Anthocyanins on Blood Pressure Regulation in Humans: A Review
Nutrients 2019, 11(6), 1431; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11061431 - 25 Jun 2019
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1322
Abstract
Dietary intake of anthocyanins (ACNs) is associated with a reduced risk of cardiovascular and coronary heart disease. While the anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and lipid-lowering effects of ACN consumption have been consistently reported, their effect(s) on blood pressure regulation is less consistent and results from [...] Read more.
Dietary intake of anthocyanins (ACNs) is associated with a reduced risk of cardiovascular and coronary heart disease. While the anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and lipid-lowering effects of ACN consumption have been consistently reported, their effect(s) on blood pressure regulation is less consistent and results from human studies are mixed. The objective of this review is attempting to identify potential patterns which may explain the variability in results related to blood pressure. To do so, we review 66 human intervention trials testing the effects on blood pressure of purified ACN or ACN-rich extracts, or whole berries, berry juices, powders, purees and whole phenolic extracts, from berries that are rich in ACN and have ACNs as predominant bioactives. Several factors appear to be involved on the mixed results reported. In particular, the baseline characteristics of the population in terms of blood pressure and total flavonoid intake, the dose and duration of the intervention, the differential effects of individual ACN and their synergistic effects with other phytochemicals, the ACN content and bioavailability from the food matrix, and individual differences in ACN absorption and metabolism related to genotype and microbiota enterotypes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Anthocyanins and Human Health)
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Open AccessCommunication
Population Approaches Targeting Metabolic Syndrome Focusing on Japanese Trials
Nutrients 2019, 11(6), 1430; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11061430 - 25 Jun 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1134
Abstract
The clinical importance of assessment of metabolic syndrome lies in the selection of individuals with multiple risk factors based on visceral fat accumulation, and helping them to reduce visceral fat. Behavioral modification by population approach is important, which adds support to the personal [...] Read more.
The clinical importance of assessment of metabolic syndrome lies in the selection of individuals with multiple risk factors based on visceral fat accumulation, and helping them to reduce visceral fat. Behavioral modification by population approach is important, which adds support to the personal approach. The complexity of visceral fat accumulation requires multicomponent and multilevel intervention. Preparation of food and physical environments could be useful strategies for city planners. Furthermore, actions on various frameworks, including organizational, community, and policy levels, have been recently reported. There are universal public health screening programs and post-screening health educational systems in Japan, and diseases management programs in Germany. Understanding one’s own health status is important for motivation for lifestyle modification. The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommends that primary care practitioners screen all adults for obesity and offer behavioral interventions and intensive counseling. Established evidence-based guidelines for behavioral counseling are needed within the primary care setting. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Does Beef Protein Supplementation Improve Body Composition and Exercise Performance? A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials
Nutrients 2019, 11(6), 1429; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11061429 - 25 Jun 2019
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3334
Abstract
Protein supplementation might improve body composition and exercise performance. Supplements containing whey protein (WP) have received the most attention, but other protein sources such as beef protein (BP) are gaining popularity. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials that [...] Read more.
Protein supplementation might improve body composition and exercise performance. Supplements containing whey protein (WP) have received the most attention, but other protein sources such as beef protein (BP) are gaining popularity. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials that compared the effects of exercise training combined with BP, WP or no protein supplementation (NP), on body composition or exercise performance. Secondary endpoints included intervention effects on total protein intake and hematological parameters. Seven studies (n = 270 participants) were included. No differences were found between BP and WP for total protein intake (standardized mean difference (SMD) = 0.04, p = 0.892), lean body mass (LBM) (SMD = −0.01, p = 0.970) or fat mass (SMD = 0.07, p = 0.760). BP significantly increased total daily protein intake (SMD = 0.68, p < 0.001), LBM (SMD = 0.34, p = 0.049) and lower-limb muscle strength (SMD = 0.40, p = 0.014) compared to NP, but no significant differences were found between both conditions for fat mass (SMD = 0.15, p = 0.256), upper-limb muscle strength (SMD = 0.16, p = 0.536) or total iron intake (SMD = 0.29, p = 0.089). In summary, BP provides similar effects to WP on protein intake and body composition and, compared to NP, might be an effective intervention to increase total daily protein intake, LBM and lower-limb muscle strength. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition Support for Athletic Performance) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
No Interaction between Polymorphisms Related to Vitamin A Metabolism and Vitamin A Intake in Relation to Colorectal Cancer in a Prospective Danish Cohort
Nutrients 2019, 11(6), 1428; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11061428 - 25 Jun 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1069
Abstract
Although vitamin A is essential for gut immune cell trafficking (paramount for the intestinal immune system), epidemiological studies on the role of vitamin A in colorectal cancer (CRC) aetiology are conflicting. By using functional polymorphisms, gene–environment (GxE) interaction analyses may identify the biological [...] Read more.
Although vitamin A is essential for gut immune cell trafficking (paramount for the intestinal immune system), epidemiological studies on the role of vitamin A in colorectal cancer (CRC) aetiology are conflicting. By using functional polymorphisms, gene–environment (GxE) interaction analyses may identify the biological effects (or “mechanism of action”) of environmental factors on CRC aetiology. Potential interactions between dietary or supplemental vitamin A intake and genetic variation in the vitamin A metabolic pathway genes related to risk of CRC were studied. We used a nested case-cohort design within the Danish “Diet, Cancer and Health” cohort, with prospectively collected lifestyle information from 57,053 participants, and the Cox proportional hazard models and likelihood ratio test. No statistically significant associations between the selected polymorphisms and CRC, and no statistically significant interactions between vitamin A intake and the polymorphisms were found. In conclusion, no support of an involvement of vitamin A in CRC aetiology was found. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Health Biomarkers in Adults Are More Closely Linked to Diet Quality Attributes Than to Plant-Based Diet Categorization
Nutrients 2019, 11(6), 1427; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11061427 - 25 Jun 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1398
Abstract
Although plant-based diets are promoted for healthy outcomes, these diets are not synonymous with high-quality diets. Plant-based diets can include highly processed, less healthful foods, including savory snacks, pastries, and sugary fruit drinks. This cross-sectional study examined the diet quality of vegetarian and [...] Read more.
Although plant-based diets are promoted for healthy outcomes, these diets are not synonymous with high-quality diets. Plant-based diets can include highly processed, less healthful foods, including savory snacks, pastries, and sugary fruit drinks. This cross-sectional study examined the diet quality of vegetarian and omnivorous adults, matched for gender, age, and adiposity, and related diet quality to standard health biomarkers. Diet quality was assessed using the Rapid Eating and Activity Assessment for Participants Short Version questionnaire. Participants (17 vegetarians and 16 omnivores; 28.2 ± 8.9 years; 22.5 ± 2.7 kg/m2) were non-smokers and healthy by self-report. The median duration of adherence to the vegetarian diet was 27 months. Physical activity level and diet quality did not differ significantly between diet groups. Moreover, health biomarkers did not differ by diet groups. When participants were regrouped by low versus high diet quality, health biomarkers differed significantly between groups for fasting insulin, HOMA-IR, triglyceride (TG)/HDL ratio, and blood folate, with more favorable levels in the group with high diet quality. These data suggest that health biomarkers more closely align with diet quality attributes than with plant-based diet categorization. Thus, messaging focused on healthy diet attributes may lead to better health outcomes than the simple promotion of plant-based diets. Full article
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Open AccessReview
In Search of Panacea—Review of Recent Studies Concerning Nature-Derived Anticancer Agents
Nutrients 2019, 11(6), 1426; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11061426 - 25 Jun 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1599
Abstract
Cancers are one of the leading causes of deaths affecting millions of people around the world, therefore they are currently a major public health problem. The treatment of cancer is based on surgical resection, radiotherapy, chemotherapy or immunotherapy, much of which is often [...] Read more.
Cancers are one of the leading causes of deaths affecting millions of people around the world, therefore they are currently a major public health problem. The treatment of cancer is based on surgical resection, radiotherapy, chemotherapy or immunotherapy, much of which is often insufficient and cause serious, burdensome and undesirable side effects. For many years, assorted secondary metabolites derived from plants have been used as antitumor agents. Recently, researchers have discovered a large number of new natural substances which can effectively interfere with cancer cells’ metabolism. The most famous groups of these compounds are topoisomerase and mitotic inhibitors. The aim of the latest research is to characterize natural compounds found in many common foods, especially by means of their abilities to regulate cell cycle, growth and differentiation, as well as epigenetic modulation. In this paper, we focus on a review of recent discoveries regarding nature-derived anticancer agents. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Mixed Spices at Culinary Doses Have Prebiotic Effects in Healthy Adults: A Pilot Study
Nutrients 2019, 11(6), 1425; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11061425 - 25 Jun 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1680
Abstract
Spices were used as food preservatives prior to the advent of refrigeration, suggesting the possibility of effects on microbiota. Previous studies have shown prebiotic activities in animals and in vitro, but there has not been a demonstration of prebiotic or postbiotic effects at [...] Read more.
Spices were used as food preservatives prior to the advent of refrigeration, suggesting the possibility of effects on microbiota. Previous studies have shown prebiotic activities in animals and in vitro, but there has not been a demonstration of prebiotic or postbiotic effects at culinary doses in humans. In this randomized placebo-controlled study, we determined in twenty-nine healthy adults the effects on the gut microbiota of the consumption daily of capsules containing 5 g of mixed spices at culinary doses by comparison to a matched control group consuming a maltodextrin placebo capsule. The 16S ribosomal RNA sequencing data were used for microbial characterization. Spice consumption resulted in a significant reduction in Firmicutes abundance (p < 0.033) and a trend of enrichment in Bacteroidetes (p < 0.097) compared to placebo group. Twenty-six operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were different between the spice and placebo groups after intervention. Furthermore, there was a significant negative correlation between fecal short-chain fatty acid propionate concentration and Firmicutes abundance in spice intervention group (p < 0.04). The production of individual fecal short-chain fatty acid was not significantly changed by spice consumption in this study. Mixed spices consumption significantly modified gut microbiota, suggesting a prebiotic effect of spice consumption at culinary doses. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
In Vitro Interactions of Dietary Fibre Enriched Food Ingredients with Primary and Secondary Bile Acids
Nutrients 2019, 11(6), 1424; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11061424 - 25 Jun 2019
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1358
Abstract
Dietary fibres are reported to interact with bile acids, preventing their reabsorption and promoting their excretion into the colon. We used a method based on in vitro digestion, dialysis, and kinetic analysis to investigate how dietary fibre enriched food ingredients affect the release [...] Read more.
Dietary fibres are reported to interact with bile acids, preventing their reabsorption and promoting their excretion into the colon. We used a method based on in vitro digestion, dialysis, and kinetic analysis to investigate how dietary fibre enriched food ingredients affect the release of primary and secondary bile acids as related to viscosity and adsorption. As the main bile acids abundant in humans interactions with glyco- and tauroconjugated cholic acid, chenodesoxycholic acid and desoxycholic acid were analysed. Viscous interactions were detected for apple, barley, citrus, lupin, pea, and potato derived ingredients, which slowed the bile acid release rate by up to 80%. Adsorptive interactions of up to 4.7 μmol/100 mg DM were significant in barley, oat, lupin, and maize preparations. As adsorption directly correlated to the hydrophobicity of the bile acids the hypothesis of a hydrophobic linkage between bile acids and dietary fibre is supported. Delayed diffusion in viscous fibre matrices was further associated with the micellar properties of the bile acids. As our results indicate changes in the bile acid pool size and composition due to interactions with dietary fibre rich ingredients, the presented method and results could add to recent fields of bile acid research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Fiber and Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Fruit and Vegetable Prescriptions for Pediatric Patients Living in Flint, Michigan: A Cross-Sectional Study of Food Security and Dietary Patterns at Baseline
Nutrients 2019, 11(6), 1423; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11061423 - 25 Jun 2019
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1018
Abstract
Though fruit and vegetable consumption is essential for disease prevention and health maintenance, intake among children fails to meet dietary recommendations. Limited access to and the affordability of fresh produce, particularly among low-income youth, are barriers to adequate intake. To address these challenges, [...] Read more.
Though fruit and vegetable consumption is essential for disease prevention and health maintenance, intake among children fails to meet dietary recommendations. Limited access to and the affordability of fresh produce, particularly among low-income youth, are barriers to adequate intake. To address these challenges, researchers and pediatricians in Flint, Michigan, expanded a successful fruit and vegetable prescription program that provides one $15 prescription for fresh fruits and vegetables to every child at every office visit. Vendors include the downtown farmers’ market and a local mobile market. This study describes baseline characteristics, dietary patterns, food access, and food security among 261 caregiver–child dyads enrolled August 2018–March 2019. The child-reported mean daily intake of vegetables (0.72 cups ± 0.77), dairy products (1.33 cups ± 1.22), and whole grains (0.51 ounces ± 0.49) were well below recommendations. Furthermore, 53% of children and 49% of caregivers who completed the food security module indicated low or very low food security. However, there were no statistically significant differences in the child consumption of fruits and vegetables between households that reported high versus low food security (p > 0.05). Results validate and raise deep concerns about poor dietary patterns and food insecurity issues facing Flint children, many of whom continue to battle with an ongoing drinking water crisis. Additional poverty-mitigating efforts, such as fruit and vegetable prescription programs, are necessary to address these gaps. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Preventive Nutrition)
Open AccessArticle
Acute Caffeine Ingestion did not Enhance Punch Performance in Professional Mixed-Martial Arts Athletes
Nutrients 2019, 11(6), 1422; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11061422 - 25 Jun 2019
Viewed by 1060
Abstract
Mixed martial arts (MMA) is a combat sport where competitors utilize strikes (punches, kicks, knees, and elbows) and submission techniques to defeat opponents in a cage or ring. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of acute caffeine ingestion on [...] Read more.
Mixed martial arts (MMA) is a combat sport where competitors utilize strikes (punches, kicks, knees, and elbows) and submission techniques to defeat opponents in a cage or ring. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of acute caffeine ingestion on punching performance by professional MMA athletes. The study used a double-blind, counterbalanced, crossover design. Eleven professional MMA competitors (27.6 ± 4.3 years and 83.5 ± 7.8 kg of body weight) ingested a dose of caffeine (5 mg·kg−1) or placebo 60 min prior to three sets of punching. Each set consisted of 15 s, at which participants were asked to perform straight punches with maximum strength and frequency with his dominant arm. After each set, a 45 s recovery time was applied. Using a force transducer attached to a cushioned plate, the punch frequency, and mean and maximal punch force was measured. The readiness to invest in both physical (RTIPE) and mental (RTIME) effort was assessed prior to the protocol, and the rating of perceived exertion (RPE) was recorded after. Caffeine ingestion did not result in increased punching frequency, mean and maximum punch force, RTIPE, RTIME, and RPE when compared to the placebo condition. Based on these results, acute caffeine ingestion did not improve punching performance in professional MMA athletes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism)
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Open AccessCommunication
Dietary Support in Elderly Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease
Nutrients 2019, 11(6), 1421; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11061421 - 24 Jun 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1153
Abstract
Ageing of the human population has become a big challenge for health care systems worldwide. On the other hand, the number of elderly patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is also increasing. Considering the unique clinical characteristics of this subpopulation, including many comorbidities [...] Read more.
Ageing of the human population has become a big challenge for health care systems worldwide. On the other hand, the number of elderly patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is also increasing. Considering the unique clinical characteristics of this subpopulation, including many comorbidities and polypharmacy, the current therapeutic guidelines for the management of IBD should be individualized and applied with caution. This is why the role of non-pharmacological treatments is of special significance. Since both IBD and older age are independent risk factors of nutritional deficiencies, appropriate dietary support should be an important part of the therapeutic approach. In this review paper we discuss the interrelations between IBD, older age, and malnutrition. We also present the current knowledge on the utility of different diets in the management of IBD. Considering the limited data on how to support IBD therapy by nutritional intervention, we focus on the Mediterranean and Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension diets, which seem to be the most beneficial in this patient group. We also discuss some new findings on their hypothetical anti-inflammatory influence on the course of IBD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition in Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD)) Printed Edition available
Open AccessArticle
A Novel Nutritional Index Serves as A Useful Prognostic Indicator in Cardiac Critical Patients Requiring Mechanical Circulatory Support
Nutrients 2019, 11(6), 1420; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11061420 - 24 Jun 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 905
Abstract
Background: A poor nutritional status has been gathering intense clinical interest recently as it has been suggested to associate with adverse outcomes in patients in the intensive care unit (ICU). However, there is still no established nutritional index dominantly used in clinical practice. [...] Read more.
Background: A poor nutritional status has been gathering intense clinical interest recently as it has been suggested to associate with adverse outcomes in patients in the intensive care unit (ICU). However, there is still no established nutritional index dominantly used in clinical practice. We have previously proposed a novel nutritional index, which can be calculated using serum levels of triglycerides, total cholesterol, and body weight (TCBI). In this study, to expand the application of TCBI for critical patients, we investigated the usefulness of TCBI to predict prognosis in hemodynamically unstable patients with percutaneously implantable mechanical circulatory support (MCS) devices in the ICU. Patients and Methods: This is a retrospective analysis of a multicenter registry consisting of three Juntendo University hospitals in Japan involving patients who received MCS devices, including intra-aortic balloon pumping (IABP) with or without veno-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VA-ECMO), between 2012 and 2016 (n = 439). The median follow-up period was 298 days. Results: Spearman’s correlation coefficient between TCBI and the geriatric nutritional risk index (GNRI) was 0.44 (p < 0.0001), indicating a moderate positive correlation for these two variables. Unadjusted Kaplan–Meier analysis demonstrated reduced risks of all-cause and cardiovascular mortalities in patients with higher tertiles of TCBI. Furthermore, adjusted multivariate Cox proportional hazard analyses revealed that the highest tertile TCBI was an independent predictor for the reduced risk of all-cause mortality (hazard ratio (HR): 0.22, 95% confidence interval: 0.10–0.48, p < 0.0001) and cardiovascular mortality (0.20, 0.09–0.45, p < 0.0001). Conclusion: A novel and simple to calculate nutritional index, TCBI, can be applicable as a prognostic indicator in hemodynamically unstable patients requiring MCS devices. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Pathways from Food Insecurity to Health Outcomes among California University Students
Nutrients 2019, 11(6), 1419; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11061419 - 24 Jun 2019
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1393
Abstract
The prevalence of food insecurity (FI) among college students is alarmingly high, yet the impact on student health has not been well investigated. The aim of the current study was to examine the simultaneous relationships between food insecurity and health-related outcomes including body [...] Read more.
The prevalence of food insecurity (FI) among college students is alarmingly high, yet the impact on student health has not been well investigated. The aim of the current study was to examine the simultaneous relationships between food insecurity and health-related outcomes including body mass index (BMI) and overall health in a college student population. Randomly sampled students in the University of California 10 campus system were invited to participate in an online survey in spring 2015. The analytic sample size was 8705 graduate and undergraduate students. Data were collected on FI in the past year, daily servings of fruits and vegetables (FV), number of days in the past week of enough sleep and moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA), height and weight, self-rated health, and student characteristics. Using path analysis, mediated pathways between FI, BMI, and poor health were examined through FV intake, number of days of MVPA and enough sleep. Analyses controlled for student characteristics. Mean BMI was 23.6 kg/m2 (SD, 5.0), and average self-rated health was good. FI was directly and indirectly related to higher BMI and poor health through three pathways. First, FI was related to fewer days of enough sleep, which in turn was related to increased BMI and poor health. Second, FI was related to fewer days of MVPA, which in turn was related to increased BMI and poor health. Third, FI was related to fewer daily servings of FV, which in turn was related to poor health. FI is associated with poor health behaviors among college students, which may contribute to higher weight status and poor health. These findings highlight the importance of food security for a healthy college experience. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Nutritional Quality of Breakfast Consumed by the Low-Income Population in Brazil: A Nationwide Cross-Sectional Survey
Nutrients 2019, 11(6), 1418; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11061418 - 24 Jun 2019
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 765
Abstract
Objective: This study aimed to characterize the nutritional quality of breakfast consumed by the low-income Brazilian population. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted with a sample of 1547 low-income individuals attending 36 Community Restaurants (CRs) in Brazil. Food consumption was analyzed by the [...] Read more.
Objective: This study aimed to characterize the nutritional quality of breakfast consumed by the low-income Brazilian population. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted with a sample of 1547 low-income individuals attending 36 Community Restaurants (CRs) in Brazil. Food consumption was analyzed by the frequency of food groups presented in the 24 h recall for three days. The nutritional consumption consisted of the analysis of the total energetic value (TEV) and the macronutrients, fibers, monounsaturated fatty acids, saturated fatty acids, trans fatty acids, calcium, and sodium. The nutrients were evaluated considering the percentage of contribution concerning the daily recommendation of consumption. Results: Among the 4641 breakfasts expected to be consumed and reported, 17.2% (n = 797) of the consumers did not consume breakfast. Therefore, we analyzed the 3844 breakfasts. The analysis of food groups showed a high consumption of dairy and cereals, and low consumption of fruits, roots/tubers, and meat/eggs. The percentages of energy contribution of the macronutrients in the TEV were adequate for a balanced diet. The mean intake of monounsaturated fatty acids was low, and the contribution percentages of saturated fatty acids and trans fatty acids were within the recommendations. The mean fiber intake of the breakfast was low, agreeing with the result of low fruit consumption. Calcium intake covered 73.49% of that expected for this meal, and sodium intake was adequate in breakfast. Conclusion: The individuals studied consumed a nutritionally balanced breakfast. Although dairy was one of the most consumed groups, calcium consumption was low, indicating the need to consume higher portions of food sources of this nutrient. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Improving Nutrition Care, Delivery, and Intakes Among Hospitalised Patients: A Mixed Methods, Integrated Knowledge Translation Study
Nutrients 2019, 11(6), 1417; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11061417 - 24 Jun 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1074
Abstract
Malnutrition is a common and complex problem in hospitals. This study used an integrated knowledge translation approach to develop, implement, and evaluate a multifaceted, tailored intervention to improve nutrition care, delivery, and intake among acute medical inpatients. This observational, pre-post study was conducted [...] Read more.
Malnutrition is a common and complex problem in hospitals. This study used an integrated knowledge translation approach to develop, implement, and evaluate a multifaceted, tailored intervention to improve nutrition care, delivery, and intake among acute medical inpatients. This observational, pre-post study was conducted in a medical ward at a public hospital in Australia. The intervention was co-developed with key stakeholders and targeted three levels: individuals (nutrition intake magnets at patient bedsides), the ward (multidisciplinary hospital staff training), and the organisation (foodservice system changes). Observational data were collected pre- and post-intervention on patient demographics, food intakes, and the mealtime environment. Data were entered into SPSS and analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Ethical approval was gained through the hospital and university ethics committees. A total of 207 patients were observed; 116 pre- and 91 post-intervention. After intervention implementation, patients’ mean energy and protein intakes (in proportion to their estimated requirements) were significantly higher and the number of patients eating adequately doubled (p < 0.05). In summary, a multifaceted, pragmatic intervention, tailored to the study context and developed and implemented alongside hospital staff and patients, seemed to be effective in improving nutrition practices and patient nutrition intakes on an acute medical ward. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Identifying Dietary Strategies to Improve Nutrient Adequacy among Ethiopian Infants and Young Children Using Linear Modelling
Nutrients 2019, 11(6), 1416; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11061416 - 24 Jun 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1135
Abstract
Nutrient adequacy of young children’s diet and best possible strategies to improve nutrient adequacy were assessed. Data from the Ethiopian National Food Consumption Survey were analysed using Optifood (software for linear programming) to identify nutrient gaps in diets for children (6–8, 9–11 and [...] Read more.
Nutrient adequacy of young children’s diet and best possible strategies to improve nutrient adequacy were assessed. Data from the Ethiopian National Food Consumption Survey were analysed using Optifood (software for linear programming) to identify nutrient gaps in diets for children (6–8, 9–11 and 12–23 months), and to formulate feasible Food-Based Dietary Recommendations (FBDRs) in four regions which differ in culture and food practices. Alternative interventions including a local complementary food, micronutrient powders (MNPs), Small quantity Lipid-based Nutrient Supplement (Sq-LNS) and combinations of these were modelled in combination with the formulated FBDRs to compare their relative contributions. Risk of inadequate and excess nutrient intakes was simulated using the Estimated Average Requirement cut-point method and the full probability approach. Optimized local diets did not provide adequate zinc in all regions and age groups, iron for infants <12 months of age in all regions, and calcium, niacin, thiamine, folate, vitamin B12 and B6 in some regions and age-groups. The set of regional FBDRs, considerably different for four regions, increased nutrient adequacy but some nutrients remained sub-optimal. Combination of regional FBDRs with daily MNP supplementation for 6–12 months of age and every other day for 12–23 months of age, closed the identified nutrient gaps without leading to a substantial increase in the risk of excess intakes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Complementary Feeding in Infants)
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Open AccessArticle
Increasing the Dose and/or Repeating Faecal Microbiota Transplantation (FMT) Increases the Response in Patients with Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS)
Nutrients 2019, 11(6), 1415; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11061415 - 24 Jun 2019
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1354
Abstract
Background: Faecal microbiome transplantation (FMT) appears to be an effective method for treating irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) patients. However, it is not clear if a high transplant dose and/or repeating FMT are/is needed to ensure a response. The present study was undertaken to [...] Read more.
Background: Faecal microbiome transplantation (FMT) appears to be an effective method for treating irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) patients. However, it is not clear if a high transplant dose and/or repeating FMT are/is needed to ensure a response. The present study was undertaken to clarify this matter. Methods: Ten IBS patients who did not respond to a 30-g transplant subsequently received a 60-g transplant into the duodenum via a gastroscope. The patients provided faecal samples before and 1 month after FMT. They completed five questionnaires measuring symptoms, fatigue and quality of life at baseline and then at 2 weeks, 1 month and 3 months after FMT. The dysbiosis index (DI) was measured using the GA-map Dysbiosis Test®. Results: Seven patients (70%) responded to the 60-g transplant, with significant clinical improvements in the abdominal symptoms, fatigue and quality of life in 57%, 80% and 67% of these patients. The 60-g transplant also reduced the DI. Conclusion: FMT is an effective treatment for IBS. A high-dose transplant and/or repeated FMT increase the response rate and the intensity of the effects of FMT. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutritional Management of Gastrointestinal Diseases and Disorders)
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Open AccessArticle
Association between Parent and Child Dietary Sodium and Potassium Intakes: Aomori Prefectural Health and Nutrition Survey, 2016
Nutrients 2019, 11(6), 1414; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11061414 - 23 Jun 2019
Viewed by 803
Abstract
This study investigated the association between parent and child sodium and potassium intakes using data from the 2016 Aomori Prefectural Health and Nutrition Survey. We analyzed one day dietary record data of 103 mothers, 94 fathers, 51 children aged 1–3 years, 39 children [...] Read more.
This study investigated the association between parent and child sodium and potassium intakes using data from the 2016 Aomori Prefectural Health and Nutrition Survey. We analyzed one day dietary record data of 103 mothers, 94 fathers, 51 children aged 1–3 years, 39 children aged 4–6 years, 91 children aged 7–14 years, and 56 children aged 15–19 years. We also examined the association of sodium and potassium intake between co-habiting grandparents and their grandchildren. After adjusting for covariates, the total daily sodium intake in mothers was positively associated with that in children for every age group. Potassium intakes by the mothers during breakfast and dinner were positively associated with those in children aged 1–3, 4–6, and 7–14 years. The associations in sodium and potassium intakes between fathers and children were weaker. In addition, these associations were similar to those between the sodium intakes of grandchildren and their grandparents. The association between mother and child sodium and potassium intakes at breakfast and dinner was related to the consumption of similar foods, which suggests the importance of home environment in influencing total dietary sodium and potassium intake in Japanese people. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Temporal Change in Biomarkers of Bone Turnover Following Late Evening Ingestion of a Calcium-Fortified, Milk-Based Protein Matrix in Postmenopausal Women with Osteopenia
Nutrients 2019, 11(6), 1413; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11061413 - 23 Jun 2019
Viewed by 1112
Abstract
The diurnal rhythm of bone remodeling suggests nocturnal dietary intervention to be most effective. This study investigated the effect of bedtime ingestion of a calcium-fortified, milk-derived protein matrix (MBPM) or maltodextrin (CON) on acute (0–4 h) blood and 24-h urinary change in biomarkers [...] Read more.
The diurnal rhythm of bone remodeling suggests nocturnal dietary intervention to be most effective. This study investigated the effect of bedtime ingestion of a calcium-fortified, milk-derived protein matrix (MBPM) or maltodextrin (CON) on acute (0–4 h) blood and 24-h urinary change in biomarkers of bone remodeling in postmenopausal women with osteopenia. In CON, participants received 804 ± 52 mg calcium, 8.2 ± 3.2 µg vitamin D and 1.3 ± 0.2 g/kg BM protein per day. MBPM increased calcium intake to 1679 ± 196 mg, vitamin D to 9.2 ± 3.1 µg and protein to 1.6 ± 0.2 g/kg BM. Serum C-terminal cross-linked telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX) and procollagen type 1 amino-terminal propeptide (P1NP), and urinary N-telopeptide cross-links of type I collagen (NTX), pyridinoline (PYD) and deoxypyridinoline (DPD) was measured. Analyzed by AUC and compared to CON, a −32% lower CTX (p = 0.011, d = 0.83) and 24% (p = 0.52, d = 0.2) increase in P1NP was observed for MBPM. Mean total 24 h NTX excreted in MBPM was −10% (p = 0.035) lower than CON. Urinary PYD and DPD were unaffected by treatment. This study demonstrates the acute effects of bedtime ingestion of a calcium-fortified, milk-based protein matrix on bone remodeling. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutritional Status and Bone Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Ethanol Extract of Illicium henryi Attenuates LPS-Induced Acute Kidney Injury in Mice via Regulating Inflammation and Oxidative Stress
Nutrients 2019, 11(6), 1412; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11061412 - 23 Jun 2019
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1368
Abstract
The root bark of Illicium henryi has been used in traditional Chinese medicine to treat various diseases. Its ethanol extract (EEIH) was found to contain a large number of phenols and possess in vitro antioxidant activities. The present study aimed to investigate its [...] Read more.
The root bark of Illicium henryi has been used in traditional Chinese medicine to treat various diseases. Its ethanol extract (EEIH) was found to contain a large number of phenols and possess in vitro antioxidant activities. The present study aimed to investigate its protective effect against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute kidney injury (AKI) in mice. BALB/c mice were intraperitoneally pretreated with EEIH for five days, and then LPS injection was applied to induce AKI. Blood samples and kidney tissues were collected and used for histopathology, biochemical assay, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), and Western blot analyses. EEIH not only significantly dose-dependently attenuated histological damage and reduced renal myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity (from 9.77 ± 0.73 to 0.84 ± 0.30 U/g tissue) but also decreased serum creatinine (from 55.60 ± 2.70 to 27.20 ± 2.39 µmol/L) and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) (from 29.95 ± 1.96 to 16.12 ± 1.24 mmol/L) levels in LPS-treated mice. EEIH also markedly dose-dependently inhibited mRNA expression and production of TNF-α (from 140.40 ± 5.15 to 84.74 ± 5.65 pg/mg), IL-1β (from 135.54 ± 8.20 to 77.15 ± 5.34 pg/mg), IL-6 (from 168.74 ± 7.23 to 119.16 ± 9.35 pg/mg), and COX-2 in renal tissue of LPS-treated mice via downregulating mRNA and protein expressions of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and phosphorylation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) p65. Moreover, EEIH significantly dose-dependently reduced malondialdehyde (MDA) (from 5.43 ± 0.43 to 2.80 ± 0.25 nmol/mg prot) and NO (from 1.01 ± 0.05 to 0.24 ± 0.05 µmol/g prot) levels and increased superoxide dismutase (SOD) (from 22.32 ± 2.92 to 47.59 ± 3.79 U/mg prot) and glutathione (GSH) (from 6.57 ± 0.53 to 16.89 ± 0.68 µmol/g prot) levels in renal tissue induced by LPS through upregulating mRNA expression of nuclear factor erythroid 2 related factor 2 (Nrf2). Furthermore, EEIH inhibited LPS-induced intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production from RAW264.7 cells in a concentration-dependent manner. These results suggest that EEIH has protective effects against AKI in mice through regulating inflammation and oxidative stress. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Bioaccesibility, Metabolism, and Excretion of Lipids Composing Spent Coffee Grounds
Nutrients 2019, 11(6), 1411; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11061411 - 23 Jun 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1140
Abstract
The bioaccessibility, metabolism, and excretion of lipids composing spent coffee grounds (SCGs) were investigated. An analysis of mycotoxins and an acute toxicity study in rats were performed for safety evaluation. Total fat, fatty acids, and diterpenes (cafestol and kahweol) were determined in SCGs [...] Read more.
The bioaccessibility, metabolism, and excretion of lipids composing spent coffee grounds (SCGs) were investigated. An analysis of mycotoxins and an acute toxicity study in rats were performed for safety evaluation. Total fat, fatty acids, and diterpenes (cafestol and kahweol) were determined in SCGs and their digests obtained in vitro. A pilot repeated intake study was carried out in Wistar rats using a dose of 1 g SCGs/kg b.w. for 28 days. Fat metabolism was evaluated by analysis of total fat, cholesterol, and histology in liver. The dietary fiber effect of SCGs was measured radiographically. The absence of mycotoxins and toxicity was reported in SCGs. A total of 77% of unsaturated fatty acids and low amounts of kahweol (7.09 µg/g) and cafestol (414.39 µg/g) were bioaccessible after in vitro digestion. A significantly lower (p < 0.1) accumulation of lipids in the liver and a higher excretion of these in feces was found in rats treated with SCGs for 28 days. No lipid droplets or liver damage were observed by histology. SCGs acutely accelerated intestinal motility in rats. SCGs might be considered a sustainable, safe, and healthy food ingredient with potential for preventing hepatic steatosis due to their effect as dietary fiber with a high fat-holding capacity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Lipids and Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle
The Consumption of Nuts is Associated with Better Dietary and Lifestyle Patterns in Polish Adults: Results of WOBASZ and WOBASZ II Surveys
Nutrients 2019, 11(6), 1410; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11061410 - 22 Jun 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1113
Abstract
In recent years, the concept of the health benefits of synergistic dietary patterns as opposed to individual foods or food constituents has been developed. The aim of this study was to determine whether nut consumption is associated with healthier nutrition and lifestyle. The [...] Read more.
In recent years, the concept of the health benefits of synergistic dietary patterns as opposed to individual foods or food constituents has been developed. The aim of this study was to determine whether nut consumption is associated with healthier nutrition and lifestyle. The research was based on complete data obtained during two Polish National Multi-Centre Health Examination Surveys—WOBASZ (2003–2005) and WOBASZ II (2013–2014). Of the 12,946 participants who completed dietary assessments, 299 subjects reported consuming any quantity of whole nuts. A control group of 1184 non-nut consumers from both surveys was randomly selected for the study, with age, gender, study (WOBASZ, WOBASZ II), educational level, and season-related interactions taken into account. In this study, nut consumption was associated with favorable food and lifestyle choices, excluding smoking. Better dietary quality consisted of having a higher Healthy Diet Indicator score, an increased intake of polyphenols and antioxidants, lower intake of red meat, but higher of poultry and fruit, more frequent consumption of antiatherogenic food products, and less frequent consumption of processed meats. There was also greater interest in special diets, such as weight-loss diet. In addition, nut eaters were more physically active in their leisure time. While limited by 24-h recall of nut intake and possible misclassification of nut/non-nut consumer status, this research supports the synergistic health-promoting attitudes of those who were classified as nut consumers. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of Long-Term Physical Activity and Diet on Skin Glycation and Achilles Tendon Structure
Nutrients 2019, 11(6), 1409; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11061409 - 22 Jun 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1683
Abstract
Advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) accumulate with aging and have been associated with tissue modifications and metabolic disease. Regular exercise has several health benefits, and the purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of regular long-term exercise and diet on skin autofluorescence [...] Read more.
Advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) accumulate with aging and have been associated with tissue modifications and metabolic disease. Regular exercise has several health benefits, and the purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of regular long-term exercise and diet on skin autofluorescence (SAF) as a measure of glycation and on Achilles tendon structure. In connection with the 2017 European Masters Athletics Championships Stadia, high-level male athletes (n = 194) that had regularly trained for more than 10 years were recruited, in addition to untrained controls (n = 34). SAF was non-invasively determined using an AGE Reader. Achilles tendon thickness and vascular Doppler activity were measured by ultrasonography, and diet was assessed by a questionnaire. There was no significant difference in SAF between the athletes and controls. However, greater duration of exercise was independently associated with lower SAF. Diet also had an effect, with a more “Western” diet in youth being associated with increased SAF. Furthermore, our data demonstrated that greater Achilles tendon thickness was associated with aging and training. Together, our data indicate that long-term exercise may yield a modest reduction in glycation and substantially increase Achilles tendon size, which may protect against injury. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Advanced Glycation End Products and Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle
The Influence of the Duration of Breastfeeding on the Infant’s Metabolic Epigenome
Nutrients 2019, 11(6), 1408; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11061408 - 22 Jun 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2606
Abstract
Nutrition in the postnatal period is associated with metabolic programming. One of the presumed underlying mechanisms involves epigenetic modifications (e.g., DNA methylation). Breastfeeding has an unknown impact on DNA methylation at a young age. Within the Maternal Nutrition and Offspring’s Epigenome (MANOE) study, [...] Read more.
Nutrition in the postnatal period is associated with metabolic programming. One of the presumed underlying mechanisms involves epigenetic modifications (e.g., DNA methylation). Breastfeeding has an unknown impact on DNA methylation at a young age. Within the Maternal Nutrition and Offspring’s Epigenome (MANOE) study, we assessed the effect of breastfeeding duration on infant growth and buccal methylation in obesity-related genes (n = 101). A significant difference was found between infant growth and buccal RXRA and LEP methylation at 12 months of breastfeeding. For RXRA CpG2 methylation, a positive association was found with duration of breastfeeding (slope = 0.217; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.03, 0.330; p < 0.001). For RXRA CpG3 and CpG, mean methylation levels were significantly lower when children were breastfed for 4–6 months compared to non-breastfed children (only CpG3), and those breastfed for 7–9 months, 10–12 months, or 1–3 months. On the other hand, higher LEP CpG3 methylation was observed when mothers breastfed 7–9 months (6.1%) as compared to breastfeeding for 1–3 months (4.3%; p = 0.007) and 10–12 months (4.6%; p = 0.04). In addition, we observed that infant weight was significantly lower when children were breastfed for 10–12 months. Breastfeeding duration was associated with epigenetic variations in RXRA and LEP at 12 months and with infant biometry/growth. Our results support the hypothesis that breastfeeding could induce epigenetic changes in infants. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Adaptation and Validation of Alternative Healthy Eating Index in Hemodialysis Patients (AHEI-HD) and Its Association with all-Cause Mortality: A Multi-Center Follow-Up Study
Nutrients 2019, 11(6), 1407; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11061407 - 21 Jun 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2520
Abstract
A valid diet quality assessment scale has not been investigated in hemodialysis patients. We aimed to adapt and validate the alternative healthy eating index in hemodialysis patients (AHEI-HD), and investigate its associations with all-cause mortality. A prospective study was conducted on 370 hemodialysis [...] Read more.
A valid diet quality assessment scale has not been investigated in hemodialysis patients. We aimed to adapt and validate the alternative healthy eating index in hemodialysis patients (AHEI-HD), and investigate its associations with all-cause mortality. A prospective study was conducted on 370 hemodialysis patients from seven hospital-based dialysis centers. Dietary data (using three independent 24-hour dietary records), clinical and laboratory parameters were collected. The construct and criterion validity of original AHEI-2010 with 11 items and the AHEI-HD with 16 items were examined. Both scales showed reasonable item-scale correlations and satisfactory discriminant validity. The AHEI-HD demonstrated a weaker correlation with energy intake compared with AHEI-2010. Principle component analysis yielded the plateau scree plot line in AHEI-HD but not in AHEI-2010. In comparison with patients in lowest diet quality (tertile 1), those in highest diet quality (tertile 3) had significantly lower risk for death, with a hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) of HR: 0.40; 95%CI: 0.18 – 0.90; p = 0.028, as measured by AHEI-2010, and HR: 0.37; 95%CI: 0.17–0.82; p = 0.014 as measured by AHEI-HD, respectively. In conclusion, AHEI-HD was shown to have greater advantages than AHEI-2010. AHEI-HD was suggested for assessments of diet quality in hemodialysis patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Targeted Nutrition in Chronic Disease)
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