Next Article in Journal
Barriers and Facilitators to Weight and Lifestyle Management in Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: General Practitioners’ Perspectives
Previous Article in Journal
Bioequivalence Studies of Vitamin D Gummies and Tablets in Healthy Adults: Results of a Cross-Over Study
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessReview

Carbohydrate Restriction in Type 1 Diabetes: A Realistic Therapy for Improved Glycaemic Control and Athletic Performance?

1
School of Kinesiology and Health Science, York University, Toronto, ON M3J 1P3, Canada
2
Independent Researcher, Toronto, ON M3J 1P3, Canada
3
Research Institute for Sport and Exercise Sciences, Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool, L3 3AF, UK
4
LMC Diabetes & Endocrinology, 1929 Bayview Avenue, Toronto, ON M4G 3E8, Canada
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2019, 11(5), 1022; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11051022
Received: 12 April 2019 / Revised: 30 April 2019 / Accepted: 3 May 2019 / Published: 7 May 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet and Exercise in Type 1 Diabetes)
  |  
PDF [1378 KB, uploaded 7 May 2019]
  |     |  

Abstract

Around 80% of individuals with Type 1 diabetes (T1D) in the United States do not achieve glycaemic targets and the prevalence of comorbidities suggests that novel therapeutic strategies, including lifestyle modification, are needed. Current nutrition guidelines suggest a flexible approach to carbohydrate intake matched with intensive insulin therapy. These guidelines are designed to facilitate greater freedom around nutritional choices but they may lead to higher caloric intakes and potentially unhealthy eating patterns that are contributing to the high prevalence of obesity and metabolic syndrome in people with T1D. Low carbohydrate diets (LCD; <130 g/day) may represent a means to improve glycaemic control and metabolic health in people with T1D. Regular recreational exercise or achieving a high level of athletic performance is important for many living with T1D. Research conducted on people without T1D suggests that training with reduced carbohydrate availability (often termed “train low”) enhances metabolic adaptation compared to training with normal or high carbohydrate availability. However, these “train low” practices have not been tested in athletes with T1D. This review aims to investigate the known pros and cons of LCDs as a potentially effective, achievable, and safe therapy to improve glycaemic control and metabolic health in people with T1D. Secondly, we discuss the potential for low, restricted, or periodised carbohydrate diets in athletes with T1D. View Full-Text
Keywords: type 1 diabetes; low carbohydrate diet; carbohydrate; exercise training; insulin; glycaemia; train low; hypoglycaemia; very low carbohydrate diet; carbohydrate periodisation type 1 diabetes; low carbohydrate diet; carbohydrate; exercise training; insulin; glycaemia; train low; hypoglycaemia; very low carbohydrate diet; carbohydrate periodisation
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material

SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Scott, S.N.; Anderson, L.; Morton, J.P.; Wagenmakers, A.J.M.; Riddell, M.C. Carbohydrate Restriction in Type 1 Diabetes: A Realistic Therapy for Improved Glycaemic Control and Athletic Performance? Nutrients 2019, 11, 1022.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Nutrients EISSN 2072-6643 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top