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Letter published on 7 November 2019, see Nutrients 2019, 11(11), 2700.
Review

Carbohydrate Restriction in Type 1 Diabetes: A Realistic Therapy for Improved Glycaemic Control and Athletic Performance?

1
School of Kinesiology and Health Science, York University, Toronto, ON M3J 1P3, Canada
2
Independent Researcher, Toronto, ON M3J 1P3, Canada
3
Research Institute for Sport and Exercise Sciences, Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool, L3 3AF, UK
4
LMC Diabetes & Endocrinology, 1929 Bayview Avenue, Toronto, ON M4G 3E8, Canada
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2019, 11(5), 1022; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11051022
Received: 12 April 2019 / Revised: 30 April 2019 / Accepted: 3 May 2019 / Published: 7 May 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet and Exercise in Type 1 Diabetes)
Around 80% of individuals with Type 1 diabetes (T1D) in the United States do not achieve glycaemic targets and the prevalence of comorbidities suggests that novel therapeutic strategies, including lifestyle modification, are needed. Current nutrition guidelines suggest a flexible approach to carbohydrate intake matched with intensive insulin therapy. These guidelines are designed to facilitate greater freedom around nutritional choices but they may lead to higher caloric intakes and potentially unhealthy eating patterns that are contributing to the high prevalence of obesity and metabolic syndrome in people with T1D. Low carbohydrate diets (LCD; <130 g/day) may represent a means to improve glycaemic control and metabolic health in people with T1D. Regular recreational exercise or achieving a high level of athletic performance is important for many living with T1D. Research conducted on people without T1D suggests that training with reduced carbohydrate availability (often termed “train low”) enhances metabolic adaptation compared to training with normal or high carbohydrate availability. However, these “train low” practices have not been tested in athletes with T1D. This review aims to investigate the known pros and cons of LCDs as a potentially effective, achievable, and safe therapy to improve glycaemic control and metabolic health in people with T1D. Secondly, we discuss the potential for low, restricted, or periodised carbohydrate diets in athletes with T1D. View Full-Text
Keywords: type 1 diabetes; low carbohydrate diet; carbohydrate; exercise training; insulin; glycaemia; train low; hypoglycaemia; very low carbohydrate diet; carbohydrate periodisation type 1 diabetes; low carbohydrate diet; carbohydrate; exercise training; insulin; glycaemia; train low; hypoglycaemia; very low carbohydrate diet; carbohydrate periodisation
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MDPI and ACS Style

Scott, S.N.; Anderson, L.; Morton, J.P.; Wagenmakers, A.J.M.; Riddell, M.C. Carbohydrate Restriction in Type 1 Diabetes: A Realistic Therapy for Improved Glycaemic Control and Athletic Performance? Nutrients 2019, 11, 1022. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11051022

AMA Style

Scott SN, Anderson L, Morton JP, Wagenmakers AJM, Riddell MC. Carbohydrate Restriction in Type 1 Diabetes: A Realistic Therapy for Improved Glycaemic Control and Athletic Performance? Nutrients. 2019; 11(5):1022. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11051022

Chicago/Turabian Style

Scott, Sam N., Lorraine Anderson, James P. Morton, Anton J.M. Wagenmakers, and Michael C. Riddell 2019. "Carbohydrate Restriction in Type 1 Diabetes: A Realistic Therapy for Improved Glycaemic Control and Athletic Performance?" Nutrients 11, no. 5: 1022. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11051022

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