Special Issue "Dietary Bioactives and Human Health"

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 April 2019).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Patrizia Riso
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Università degli Studi di Milano, Department of Food Environmental and Nutritional Sciences (DeFENS) – Division of Human Nutrition, Italy, 20133 Milan, Italy
Interests: food bioactives; bioavailability; metabolism; antioxidant protection; inflammation; endothelial function; intestinal permeability; in vitro studies; human studies
Dr. Cristian Del Bo'
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Università degli Studi di Milano, Department of Food Environmental and Nutritional Sciences (DeFENS) – Division of Human Nutrition, Italy, 20133 Milan, Italy
Interests: berries; polyphenols and metabolites; cruciferous; glucosinolates and derivatives; bioactives bioavailability and metabolism; oxidative stress; vascular function; mechanistic studies; human intervention studies

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Bioactive compounds in foods have been gaining interest for their potential role in the protection and promotion of human health, reducing numerous risk factors for chronic degenerative diseases. Compounds, such as polyphenols, carotenoids, and glucosinolates, can be involved in protection against oxidative stress, inflammation, vascular dysfunction, dysbiosis and metabolic dysregulation. The demonstration of such effects can be challenging since numerous factors (linked to food/diet characteristics, host and environment) may play a significant role. For this reason, reliable, science-based information is difficult to assemble, and often there is not a single compound–single effect relation.

Based on these premises, increasing knowledge on dietary bioactive efficacy in the protection and promotion there is a need of studies focused to demonstrate causality for bioactive compounds and/or their metabolites and human health.

This Special Issue of Nutrients encourages the submission of original research, or reviews of scientific literature, addressing the role of bioactives and bioactive-rich foods/dietary pattern in the modulation of metabolic and functional activities related to human health. In addition in vitro and animal models focused on understanding the potential mechanisms of action, as well as studies on the bioavailability and metabolism of bioactives with impacts on human health are welcome.

Prof. Patrizia Riso
Dr. Cristian Del Bo'
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Nutrients is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • dietary bioactives
  • mechanisms of action
  • health benefits
  • disease risk prevention

Published Papers (18 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
A Dietary Intervention of Bioactive Enriched Foods Aimed at Adults at Risk of Metabolic Syndrome: Protocol and Results from PATHWAY-27 Pilot Study
Nutrients 2019, 11(8), 1814; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11081814 - 06 Aug 2019
Abstract
Around a quarter of the global adult population have metabolic syndrome (MetS) and therefore increased risk of cardiovascular mortality and diabetes. Docosahexaenoic acid, oat beta-glucan and grape anthocyanins have been shown to be effective in reducing MetS risk factors when administered as isolated [...] Read more.
Around a quarter of the global adult population have metabolic syndrome (MetS) and therefore increased risk of cardiovascular mortality and diabetes. Docosahexaenoic acid, oat beta-glucan and grape anthocyanins have been shown to be effective in reducing MetS risk factors when administered as isolated compounds, but their effect when administered as bioactive-enriched foods has not been evaluated. Objective: The overall aim of the PATHWAY-27 project was to evaluate the effectiveness of bioactive-enriched food consumption on improving risk factors of MetS. A pilot study was conducted to assess which of five bioactive combinations provided within three different food matrices (bakery, dairy or egg) were the most effective in adult volunteers. The trial also evaluated the feasibility of production, consumer acceptability and gastrointestinal tolerance of the bioactive-enriched food. Method: The study included three monocentric, parallel-arm, double-blind, randomised, dietary intervention trials without a placebo. Each recruiting centre tested the five bioactive combinations within a single food matrix. Results: The study was completed by 167 participants (74 male, 93 female). The results indicated that specific bioactive/matrix combinations have effects on serum triglyceride or HDL-cholesterol level without adverse effects. Conclusion: The study evidenced that bioactive-enriched food offers a promising food-based strategy for MetS prevention, and highlighted the importance of conducting pilot studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Bioactives and Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Guava (Psidium guajava) Fruit Extract Prepared by Supercritical CO2 Extraction Inhibits Intestinal Glucose Resorption in a Double-Blind, Randomized Clinical Study
Nutrients 2019, 11(7), 1512; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11071512 - 03 Jul 2019
Abstract
Inhibition of intestinal glucose resorption can serve as an effective strategy for the prevention of an increase in blood glucose levels. We have recently shown that various extracts prepared from guava (Psidium guajava) inhibit sodium-dependent glucose cotransporter 1 (SGLT1)- and glucose [...] Read more.
Inhibition of intestinal glucose resorption can serve as an effective strategy for the prevention of an increase in blood glucose levels. We have recently shown that various extracts prepared from guava (Psidium guajava) inhibit sodium-dependent glucose cotransporter 1 (SGLT1)- and glucose transporter 2 (GLUT2)-mediated glucose transport in vitro (Caco-2 cells) and in vivo (C57BL/6N mice). However, the efficacy in humans remains to be confirmed. For this purpose, we conducted a parallelized, randomized clinical study with young healthy adults. Thirty-one volunteers performed an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in which the control group received a glucose solution and the intervention group received a glucose solution containing a guava fruit extract prepared by supercritical CO2 extraction. The exact same extract was used for our previous in vitro and in vivo experiments. Blood samples were collected prior to and up to two hours after glucose consumption to quantitate blood glucose and insulin levels. Our results show that, in comparison to the control group, consumption of guava fruit extract resulted in a significantly reduced increase in postprandial glucose response over the basal fasting plasma glucose levels after 30 min (Δ control 2.60 ± 1.09 mmol/L versus Δ intervention 1.96 ± 0.96 mmol/L; p = 0.039) and 90 min (Δ control 0.44 ± 0.74 mmol/L versus Δ intervention −0.18 ± 0.88 mmol/L; p = 0.023). In addition, we observed a slightly reduced, but non-significant insulin secretion (Δ control 353.82 ± 183.31 pmol/L versus Δ intervention 288.43 ± 126.19 pmol/L, p = 0.302). Interestingly, storage time and repeated freeze-thawing operations appeared to negatively influence the efficacy of the applied extract. Several analytical methods (HPLC-MS, GC-MS, and NMR) were applied to identify putative bioactive compounds in the CO2 extract used. We could assign several substances at relevant concentrations including kojic acid (0.33 mg/mL) and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (2.76 mg/mL). Taken together, this clinical trial and previous in vitro and in vivo experiments confirm the efficacy of our guava fruit extract in inhibiting intestinal glucose resorption, possibly in combination with reduced insulin secretion. Based on these findings, the development of food supplements or functional foods containing this extract appears promising for patients with diabetes and for the prevention of insulin resistance. Trial registration: 415-E/2319/15-2018 (Ethics Commissions of Salzburg). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Bioactives and Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Using the Pleiotropic Characteristics of Curcumin to Validate the Potential Application of a Novel Gene Expression Screening Platform
Nutrients 2019, 11(6), 1397; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11061397 - 21 Jun 2019
Abstract
Curcumin is a polyphenol derived from curcumin longa that exhibits anticancer and anti-inflammatory properties. The consumption of foods at supernutritional levels to obtain health benefits may paradoxically result in negative health outcomes. In the present study, multiple targeting characteristics of curcumin were analyzed [...] Read more.
Curcumin is a polyphenol derived from curcumin longa that exhibits anticancer and anti-inflammatory properties. The consumption of foods at supernutritional levels to obtain health benefits may paradoxically result in negative health outcomes. In the present study, multiple targeting characteristics of curcumin were analyzed using our gene expression screening system, which utilized the gene expression signatures of curcumin from human hepatocellular carcinoma and colorectal cancer cells to query gene expression databases and effectively identify the molecular actions of curcumin. In agreement with prediction, curcumin inhibited NF-κB and Aurora-A, and induced G2/M arrest and apoptosis. Curcumin-suppressed NF-κB was identified through inhibition of PLCG1, PIK3R1, and MALT1 in the CD4-T-cell-receptor-signaling NF-κB cascade pathway. The results suggest that our novel gene expression screening platform is an effective method of rapidly identifying unknown biological functions and side effects of compounds with potential nutraceutical benefits. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Bioactives and Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Preventive Effects and Mechanisms of Garlic on Dyslipidemia and Gut Microbiome Dysbiosis
Nutrients 2019, 11(6), 1225; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11061225 - 29 May 2019
Abstract
Garlic (Allium sativum L.) contains prebiotic components, fructans, antibacterial compounds, and organosulfur compounds. The complex ingredients of garlic seem to impart a paradoxical result on the gut microbiome. In this study, we used a mouse model to clarify the effects of whole [...] Read more.
Garlic (Allium sativum L.) contains prebiotic components, fructans, antibacterial compounds, and organosulfur compounds. The complex ingredients of garlic seem to impart a paradoxical result on the gut microbiome. In this study, we used a mouse model to clarify the effects of whole garlic on the gut microbiome. C57BL/6N male mice were fed with or without whole garlic in normal diet (ND) or in high-fat diet (HFD) for 12 weeks. Supplementation with whole garlic attenuated HFD-enhanced ratio of serum GPT/GOT (glutamic-pyruvic transaminase/glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase), levels of T-Cho (total cholesterol) and LDLs (low-density lipoproteins), and index of homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), but had no significant effect in the levels of serum HDL-c (high density lipoprotein cholesterol), TG (total triacylglycerol), and glucose. Moreover, garlic supplementation meliorated the HFD-reduced ratio of villus height/crypt depth, cecum weight, and the concentration of cecal organic acids. Finally, gut microbiota characterization by high throughput 16S rRNA gene sequencing revealed that whole garlic supplementation increased the α-diversity of the gut microbiome, especially increasing the relative abundance of f_Lachnospiraceae and reducing the relative abundance of g_Prevotella. Taken together, our data demonstrated that whole garlic supplementation could meliorate the HFD-induced dyslipidemia and disturbance of gut microbiome. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Bioactives and Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Activity-Guided Fractionation of Red Fruit Extracts for the Identification of Compounds Influencing Glucose Metabolism
Nutrients 2019, 11(5), 1166; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11051166 - 24 May 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
An activity-guided search for compounds influencing glucose metabolism in extracts from aronia (Aronia melanocarpa, A.), pomegranate (Punica granatum L., P.), and red grape (Vitis vinifera, RG) was carried out. The three extracts were fractionated by means of [...] Read more.
An activity-guided search for compounds influencing glucose metabolism in extracts from aronia (Aronia melanocarpa, A.), pomegranate (Punica granatum L., P.), and red grape (Vitis vinifera, RG) was carried out. The three extracts were fractionated by means of membrane chromatography to separate the anthocyanins from other noncolored phenolic compounds (copigments). In addition, precipitation with hexane was performed to isolate the polymers (PF). The anthocyanin and copigment fractions (AF, CF) of aronia, pomegranate, and red grape were furthermore fractionated with high-performance countercurrent chromatography (HPCCC) and the subfractions were characterized by HPLC-PDA-MS/MS analyses. Each of the (sub-)fractions was examined by in vitro-tests, i.e., the inhibition of the activity of α-amylase and α-glucosidase. On the basis of this screening, several potent inhibitors of the two enzymes could be identified, which included flavonols (e.g., quercetin), ellagitannins (e.g., pedunculagin), and anthocyanins (e.g., delphinidin-3-glucoside and petunidin-3-glucoside). In the α-glucosidase assay all of the examined fractions and subfractions of the fruit extracts were more active than the positive control acarbose. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Bioactives and Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Circulating Salicylic Acid and Metabolic Profile after 1-Year Nutritional–Behavioral Intervention in Children with Obesity
Nutrients 2019, 11(5), 1091; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11051091 - 16 May 2019
Abstract
Objectives and Study: Salicylic acid (SA), a phenolic compound produced by plants, may play a beneficial role on health. A pilot study showed that children with obesity had lower serum SA than normal-weight children. The aim of this trial was to evaluate the [...] Read more.
Objectives and Study: Salicylic acid (SA), a phenolic compound produced by plants, may play a beneficial role on health. A pilot study showed that children with obesity had lower serum SA than normal-weight children. The aim of this trial was to evaluate the effect of a 1-year nutritional–behavioral intervention on serum SA levels and to study a possible association between SA levels and metabolic profile changes in children with obesity. Methods: This was an interventional longitudinal observational uncontrolled cohort study. Forty-nine children with obesity, aged >6 years were evaluated. BMI (body mass index) z-scores were calculated. Fasting blood samples were analyzed for lipids, insulin, and glucose. The most significant metabolic variables were calculated. Serum SA was measured using a gas chromatography–mass spectrometry method. The 1-year intervention was based on the promotion of a balanced and normocaloric diet, in accordance with the national guidelines for treatment of childhood obesity. Additionally, behavioral education, based on the revised CALO-RE (Coventry, Aberdeen, and London-REfined) taxonomy, was performed. Results: At the end of intervention, children showed an increase in serum SA levels (mean (Standard Deviation, SD) 0.06 (0.02) vs. 0.09 (0.05) µmol/L; p < 0.001), a reduction of BMI z-score (3.14 (0.79) vs. 3.02 (0.82); p < 0.001), TyG index (4.52 (0.20) vs. 4.48 (0.23); p < 0.001), AIP (atherogenic index of plasma) (0.36 (0.21) vs. 0.27 (0.25); p < 0.001), and triglycerides/HDL (high density lipoprotein) cholesterol (2.57 (1.28) vs. 2.18 (1.22); p < 0.001) ratio. No statistically significant change in HOMA-IR (homeostasis model assessment index) was observed (4.20 (3.29) vs. 4.03 (2.28)). An association between the longitudinal variation of serum SA and HOMA-IR was found (correlation coefficient: −0.338, p = 0.02). Conclusion: Nutritional–behavioral intervention may improve the circulating SA and the metabolic profile in children with obesity. Serum SA could influence mainly glucose metabolism. Further larger studies are needed to evaluate whether a nutritional intervention based on specific advice regarding the quantity and type of fruit and vegetables (FV) consumption could provide benefits in terms of metabolic syndrome. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Bioactives and Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle
γ-Oryzanol Improves Cognitive Function and Modulates Hippocampal Proteome in Mice
Nutrients 2019, 11(4), 753; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11040753 - 31 Mar 2019
Abstract
Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is the richest source of γ-oryzanol, a compound endowed with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. γ-Oryzanol has been demonstrated to cross the blood-brain barrier in intact form and exert beneficial effects on brain function. This study aimed to clarify [...] Read more.
Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is the richest source of γ-oryzanol, a compound endowed with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. γ-Oryzanol has been demonstrated to cross the blood-brain barrier in intact form and exert beneficial effects on brain function. This study aimed to clarify the effects of γ-oryzanol in the hippocampus in terms of cognitive function and protein expression. Adult mice were administered with γ-oryzanol 100 mg/kg or vehicle (control) once a day for 21 consecutive days following which cognitive behavior and hippocampal proteome were investigated. Cognitive tests using novel object recognition and Y-maze showed that long-term consumption of γ-oryzanol improves cognitive function in mice. To investigate the hippocampal proteome modulated by γ-oryzanol, 2D-difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) was performed. Interestingly, we found that γ-oryzanol modulates quantitative changes of proteins involved in synaptic plasticity and neuronal trafficking, neuroprotection and antioxidant activity, and mitochondria and energy metabolism. These findings suggested γ-oryzanol as a natural compound able to maintain and reinforce brain function. Although more intensive studies are needed, we propose γ-oryzanol as a putative dietary phytochemical for preserving brain reserve, the ability to tolerate age-related changes, thereby preventing clinical symptoms or signs of neurodegenerative diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Bioactives and Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Procyanidin—Cell Wall Interactions within Apple Matrices Decrease the Metabolization of Procyanidins by the Human Gut Microbiota and the Anti-Inflammatory Effect of the Resulting Microbial Metabolome In Vitro
Nutrients 2019, 11(3), 664; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11030664 - 19 Mar 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
B-type oligomeric procyanidins in apples constitute an important source of polyphenols in the human diet. Their role in health is not known, although it is suggested that they generate beneficial bioactive compounds upon metabolization by the gut microbiota. During apple processing, procyanidins interact [...] Read more.
B-type oligomeric procyanidins in apples constitute an important source of polyphenols in the human diet. Their role in health is not known, although it is suggested that they generate beneficial bioactive compounds upon metabolization by the gut microbiota. During apple processing, procyanidins interact with cell-wall polysaccharides and form stable complexes. These interactions need to be taken into consideration in order to better assess the biological effects of fruit constituents. Our objectives were to evaluate the impact of these interactions on the microbial metabolization of cell walls and procyanidins, and to investigate the potential anti-inflammatory activity of the resulting metabolome, in addition to analyzing the taxonomical changes which the microbiota undergo. In vitro fermentation of three model apple matrices with microbiota from 4 healthy donors showed that the binding of procyanidins to cell-wall polysaccharides, whether covalently or non-covalently, substantially reduced procyanidin degradation. Although cell wall-unbound procyanidins negatively affected carbohydrate fermentation, they generated more hydroxyphenylvaleric acid than bound procyanidins, and increased the abundance of Adlercreutzia and Gordonibacter genera. The best results in terms of production of anti-inflammatory bioactive metabolites were observed from the apple matrix with no bonds between procyanidins and cell wall polysaccharides, although the matrix with non-covalent bonds was not far behind. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of Cell Concentration on the Persistence in the Human Intestine of Four Probiotic Strains Administered through a Multispecies Formulation
Nutrients 2019, 11(2), 285; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11020285 - 29 Jan 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Studies devoted to evaluating the outcome of different doses of probiotics are very limited, especially for multistrain formulations. In this context, we performed an intervention study that aimed to compare the effect of the administration of two doses (7 billion and 70 billion [...] Read more.
Studies devoted to evaluating the outcome of different doses of probiotics are very limited, especially for multistrain formulations. In this context, we performed an intervention study that aimed to compare the effect of the administration of two doses (7 billion and 70 billion bacterial cells) of a multistrain probiotic formulation on the persistence of the four probiotic strains that were present in the product in the fecal samples collected from healthy subjects. The overall persistence of the probiotic strains was significantly higher for the 70 billion formulation than for the 7 billion formulation. Furthermore, probiotic strains were detected earlier and for longer for the 70 billion formulation compared to those for the 7 billion formulation. All probiotic strains were recovered alive from the 70 billion preparation, whereas recovery was not possible in a few fecal samples upon administration of the 7 billion preparation. In addition, the overall number of viable probiotic cells recovered on day 14 (i.e., the last day of consumption) was significantly higher for the 70 billion formulation than that for the 7 billion formulation. Finally, we found that the viability of the probiotic cells was stable over the course of the trial independent of volunteers’ handling, demonstrating good manufacturing of the product. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that strains belonging to different taxa may coexist in the human gastrointestinal tract upon ingestion of a multispecies probiotic formulation. Moreover, this study suggests that higher doses of bacterial cells in probiotic formulations may permit a higher, earlier, and longer recovery of the probiotics in the feces of healthy adults. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Bioactives and Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Short-Term Hemodynamic Effects of Modern Wheat Products Substitution in Diet with Ancient Wheat Products: A Cross-Over, Randomized Clinical Trial
Nutrients 2018, 10(11), 1666; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10111666 - 04 Nov 2018
Cited by 5
Abstract
Recent evidence suggests that bioactive compounds isolated from cereals and legumes could exert some metabolic and vascular effects in humans. Due to the recent identification of a non-specific lipid transfer protein (nsLTP2) in wheat with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity, we aimed to comparatively [...] Read more.
Recent evidence suggests that bioactive compounds isolated from cereals and legumes could exert some metabolic and vascular effects in humans. Due to the recent identification of a non-specific lipid transfer protein (nsLTP2) in wheat with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity, we aimed to comparatively test the hemodynamic and metabolic effects of ancient wheat foodstuffs (made of organic KAMUT® khorasan wheat) or modern wheat ones, made of a mixture of organic modern commercial durum (T. durum) varieties and soft wheat (T. aestivum), with different nsLTP2 content. Thus, we carried out a randomized, cross-over clinical trial on 63 non-diabetic healthy volunteers (aged 40–70 years) with systolic blood pressure (SBP) 130–139 mmHg and/or diastolic blood pressure (DBP) 85–90 mmHg (pre-hypertensive/borderline high pressure subjects). Each treatment period lasted four weeks. After ancient wheat foodstuffs intake, subjects experienced a significant improvement in triglycerides (−9.8% vs. baseline and −14.5% versus modern wheat), fasting plasma glucose (−4.3% versus baseline and −31.6% versus modern wheat), diurnal SBP (−3.1% vs. baseline and –30.2% vs. modern wheat) and nocturnal SBP (−3.2% vs. baseline and −36.8% vs. modern wheat), and pulse volume change (+4.2% vs. baseline and +2.3% vs. modern wheat) (p < 0.05 vs. baseline and versus modern wheat foodstuffs intake). Therefore, our findings show that substituting modern wheat products in diet with ancient wheat ones, might exert a mild improvement in 24-h SBP and endothelial reactivity in pre-hypertensive healthy subjects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Bioactives and Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Main Human Urinary Metabolites after Genipap (Genipa americana L.) Juice Intake
Nutrients 2018, 10(9), 1155; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10091155 - 24 Aug 2018
Abstract
Genipap (Genipa americana L.) is a native fruit from Amazonia that contains bioactive compounds with a wide range of bioactivities. However, the response to genipap juice ingestion in the human exposome has never been studied. To identify biomarkers of genipap exposure, the [...] Read more.
Genipap (Genipa americana L.) is a native fruit from Amazonia that contains bioactive compounds with a wide range of bioactivities. However, the response to genipap juice ingestion in the human exposome has never been studied. To identify biomarkers of genipap exposure, the untargeted metabolomics approach in human urine was applied. Urine samples from 16 healthy male volunteers, before and after drinking genipap juice, were analyzed by liquid chromatography–high-resolution mass spectrometry. XCMS package was used for data processing in the R environment and t-tests were applied on log-transformed and Pareto-scaled data to select the significant metabolites. The principal component analysis (PCA) score plots showed a clear distinction between experimental groups. Thirty-three metabolites were putatively annotated and the most discriminant were mainly related to the metabolic pathways of iridoids and phenolic derivatives. For the first time, the bioavailability of genipap iridoids after human consumption is reported. Dihydroxyhydrocinnamic acid, (1R,6R)-6-hydroxy-2-succinylcyclohexa-2,4-diene-1-carboxylate, hydroxyhydrocinnamic acid, genipic acid, 12-demethylated-8-hydroxygenipinic acid, 3(7)-dehydrogenipinic acid, genipic acid glucuronide, nonate, and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetate may be considered biomarkers of genipap consumption. Human exposure to genipap reveals the production of derivative forms of bioactive compounds such as genipic and genipinic acid. These findings suggest that genipap consumption triggers effects on metabolic signatures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Bioactives and Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of Chlorogenic Acid-Enriched and Hydroxyhydroquinone-Reduced Coffee on Postprandial Fat Oxidation and Antioxidative Capacity in Healthy Men: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Crossover Trial
Nutrients 2018, 10(4), 525; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10040525 - 23 Apr 2018
Cited by 1
Abstract
Chlorogenic acids (CGAs) reduce blood pressure and body fat, and enhance fat metabolism. In roasted coffee, CGAs exist together with the oxidant component hydroxyhydroquinone (HHQ). HHQ counteracts the antihypertensive effects of CGA, but its effects on CGA-induced fat oxidation (FOX) are unknown. Here [...] Read more.
Chlorogenic acids (CGAs) reduce blood pressure and body fat, and enhance fat metabolism. In roasted coffee, CGAs exist together with the oxidant component hydroxyhydroquinone (HHQ). HHQ counteracts the antihypertensive effects of CGA, but its effects on CGA-induced fat oxidation (FOX) are unknown. Here we assessed the effects of CGA-enriched and HHQ-reduced coffee on FOX. Fifteen healthy male volunteers (age: 38 ± 8 years (mean ± SD); BMI: 22.4 ± 1.5 kg/m2) participated in this crossover study. Subjects consumed the test beverage (coffee) containing the same amount of CGA with HHQ (CGA-HHQ(+)) or without HHQ (CGA-HHQ(−)) for four weeks. Postprandial FOX and the ratio of the biological antioxidant potential (BAP) to the derivatives of reactive oxygen metabolites (d-ROMs) as an indicator of oxidative stress were assessed. After the four-week intervention, postprandial FOX and the postprandial BAP/d-ROMs ratio were significantly higher in the CGA-HHQ(−) group compared with the CGA-HHQ(+) group (4 ± 23 mg/min, group effect: p = 0.040; 0.27 ± 0.74, group effect: p = 0.007, respectively). In conclusion, reducing the amount of HHQ facilitated the postprandial FOX effects of CGA in coffee. Our findings also suggest that the mechanism underlying the inhibition of FOX by HHQ is related to postprandial oxidative stress. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Bioactives and Human Health)

Review

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Open AccessReview
Dietary Factors and Modulation of Bacteria Strains of Akkermansia muciniphila and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii: A Systematic Review
Nutrients 2019, 11(7), 1565; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11071565 - 11 Jul 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
Akkermansia muciniphila and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii are highly abundant human gut microbes in healthy individuals, and reduced levels are associated with inflammation and alterations of metabolic processes involved in the development of type 2 diabetes. Dietary factors can influence the abundance of A. muciniphila [...] Read more.
Akkermansia muciniphila and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii are highly abundant human gut microbes in healthy individuals, and reduced levels are associated with inflammation and alterations of metabolic processes involved in the development of type 2 diabetes. Dietary factors can influence the abundance of A. muciniphila and F. prausnitzii, but the evidence is not clear. We systematically searched PubMed and Embase to identify clinical trials investigating any dietary intervention in relation to A. muciniphila and F. prausnitzii. Overall, 29 unique trials were included, of which five examined A. muciniphila, 19 examined F. prausnitzii, and six examined both, in a total of 1444 participants. A caloric restriction diet and supplementation with pomegranate extract, resveratrol, polydextrose, yeast fermentate, sodium butyrate, and inulin increased the abundance of A. muciniphila, while a diet low in fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides, and polyols decreased the abundance of A. muciniphila. For F. prausnitzii, the main studied intervention was prebiotics (e.g. fructo-oligosaccharides, inulin type fructans, raffinose); seven studies reported an increase after prebiotic intervention, while two studies reported a decrease, and four studies reported no difference. Current evidence suggests that some dietary factors may influence the abundance of A. muciniphila and F. prausnitzii. However, more research is needed to support these microflora strains as targets of microbiome shifts with dietary intervention and their use as medical nutrition therapy in prevention and management of chronic disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Bioactives and Human Health)
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Open AccessReview
Microalgal Derivatives as Potential Nutraceutical and Food Supplements for Human Health: A Focus on Cancer Prevention and Interception
Nutrients 2019, 11(6), 1226; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11061226 - 29 May 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
Epidemiological studies are providing strong evidence on beneficial health effects from dietary measures, leading scientists to actively investigate which foods and which specific agents in the diet can prevent diseases. Public health officers and medical experts should collaborate toward the design of disease [...] Read more.
Epidemiological studies are providing strong evidence on beneficial health effects from dietary measures, leading scientists to actively investigate which foods and which specific agents in the diet can prevent diseases. Public health officers and medical experts should collaborate toward the design of disease prevention diets for nutritional intervention. Functional foods are emerging as an instrument for dietary intervention in disease prevention. Functional food products are technologically developed ingredients with specific health benefits. Among promising sources of functional foods and chemopreventive diets of interest, microalgae are gaining worldwide attention, based on their richness in high-value products, including carotenoids, proteins, vitamins, essential amino acids, omega-rich oils and, in general, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant compounds. Beneficial effects of microalgae on human health and/or wellness could in the future be useful in preventing or delaying the onset of cancer and cardiovascular diseases. During the past decades, microalgal biomass was predominately used in the health food market, with more than 75% of the annual microalgal biomass production being employed for the manufacture of powders, tablets, capsules or pastilles. In this review, we report and discuss the present and future role of microalgae as marine sources of functional foods/beverages for human wellbeing, focusing on perspectives in chemoprevention. We dissected this topic by analyzing the different classes of microalgal compounds with health outputs (based on their potential chemoprevention activities), the biodiversity of microalgal species and how to improve their cultivation, exploring the perspective of sustainable food from the sea. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Bioactives and Human Health)
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Open AccessReview
Role of Berry Anthocyanins and Phenolic Acids on Cell Migration and Angiogenesis: An Updated Overview
Nutrients 2019, 11(5), 1075; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11051075 - 15 May 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Cell migration is a critical process that is highly involved with normal and pathological conditions such as angiogenesis and wound healing. Important members of the RHO GTPase family are capable of controlling cytoskeleton conformation and altering motility characteristics of cells. There is a [...] Read more.
Cell migration is a critical process that is highly involved with normal and pathological conditions such as angiogenesis and wound healing. Important members of the RHO GTPase family are capable of controlling cytoskeleton conformation and altering motility characteristics of cells. There is a well-known relationship between small GTPases and the PI3K/AKT pathway. Endothelial cell migration can lead to angiogenesis, which is highly linked to wound healing processes. Phenolics, flavonoids, and anthocyanins are major groups of phytochemicals and are abundant in many natural products. Their antioxidant, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, angiogenenic, neuroprotective, hepatoprotective, and cardioprotective properties have been extensively documented. This comprehensive review focuses on the in vitro and in vivo role of berry extracts and single anthocyanin and phenolic acid compounds on cell migration and angiogenesis. We aim to summarize the most recent published studies focusing on the experimental model, type of berry extract, source, dose/concentration and overall effect(s) of berry extracts, anthocyanins, and phenolic acids on the above processes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Bioactives and Human Health)
Open AccessReview
Conjugated Linoleic Acid Effects on Cancer, Obesity, and Atherosclerosis: A Review of Pre-Clinical and Human Trials with Current Perspectives
Nutrients 2019, 11(2), 370; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11020370 - 11 Feb 2019
Cited by 9
Abstract
Obesity and its comorbidities, including type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease, are straining our healthcare system, necessitating the development of novel strategies for weight loss. Lifestyle modifications, such as exercise and caloric restriction, have proven effective against obesity in the short term, yet [...] Read more.
Obesity and its comorbidities, including type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease, are straining our healthcare system, necessitating the development of novel strategies for weight loss. Lifestyle modifications, such as exercise and caloric restriction, have proven effective against obesity in the short term, yet obesity persists because of the high predilection for weight regain. Therefore, alternative approaches to achieve long term sustainable weight loss are urgently needed. Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), a fatty acid found naturally in ruminant animal food products, has been identified as a potential anti-obesogenic agent, with substantial efficacy in mice, and modest efficacy in obese human populations. Originally described as an anti-carcinogenic fatty acid, in addition to its anti-obesogenic effects, CLA has now been shown to possess anti-atherosclerotic properties. This review summarizes the pre-clinical and human studies conducted using CLA to date, which collectively suggest that CLA has efficacy against cancer, obesity, and atherosclerosis. In addition, the potential mechanisms for the many integrative physiological effects of CLA supplementation will be discussed in detail, including an introduction to the gut microbiota as a potential mediator of CLA effects on obesity and atherosclerosis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Bioactives and Human Health)
Open AccessReview
Flavonoids, Potential Bioactive Compounds, and Non-Shivering Thermogenesis
Nutrients 2018, 10(9), 1168; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10091168 - 25 Aug 2018
Cited by 7
Abstract
Obesity results from the body having either high energy intake or low energy expenditure. Based on this energy equation, scientists have focused on increasing energy expenditure to prevent abnormal fat accumulation. Activating the human thermogenic system that regulates body temperature, particularly non-shivering thermogenesis [...] Read more.
Obesity results from the body having either high energy intake or low energy expenditure. Based on this energy equation, scientists have focused on increasing energy expenditure to prevent abnormal fat accumulation. Activating the human thermogenic system that regulates body temperature, particularly non-shivering thermogenesis in either brown or white adipose tissue, has been suggested as a promising solution to increase energy expenditure. Together with the increasing interest in understanding the mechanism by which plant-derived dietary compounds prevent obesity, flavonoids were recently shown to have the potential to regulate non-shivering thermogenesis. In this article, we review the latest research on flavonoid derivatives that increase energy expenditure through non-shivering thermogenesis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Bioactives and Human Health)
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Open AccessReview
Dietary Neurotransmitters: A Narrative Review on Current Knowledge
Nutrients 2018, 10(5), 591; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10050591 - 13 May 2018
Cited by 10
Abstract
Foods are natural sources of substances that may exert crucial effects on the nervous system in humans. Some of these substances are the neurotransmitters (NTs) acetylcholine (ACh), the modified amino acids glutamate and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), and the biogenic amines dopamine, serotonin (5-HT), [...] Read more.
Foods are natural sources of substances that may exert crucial effects on the nervous system in humans. Some of these substances are the neurotransmitters (NTs) acetylcholine (ACh), the modified amino acids glutamate and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), and the biogenic amines dopamine, serotonin (5-HT), and histamine. In neuropsychiatry, progressive integration of dietary approaches in clinical routine made it necessary to discern the more about some of these dietary NTs. Relevant books and literature from PubMed and Scopus databases were searched for data on food sources of Ach, glutamate, GABA, dopamine, 5-HT, and histamine. Different animal foods, fruits, edible plants, roots, and botanicals were reported to contain NTs. These substances can either be naturally present, as part of essential metabolic processes and ecological interactions, or derive from controlled/uncontrolled food technology processes. Ripening time, methods of preservation and cooking, and microbial activity further contributes to NTs. Moreover, gut microbiota are considerable sources of NTs. However, the significance of dietary NTs intake needs to be further investigated as there are no significant data on their bioavailability, neuronal/non neuronal effects, or clinical implications. Evidence-based interventions studies should be encouraged. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Bioactives and Human Health)
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