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Special Issue "Nutritional Status, Nutritional Habits and Their Underlying Mechanisms on Neurodegenerative Diseases"

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (1 June 2019).

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Dr. Catherine Féart

INSERM, Bordeaux Population Health Research Center, University of Bordeaux, Bordeaux, France
Website | E-Mail
Interests: epidemiological studies of the association of nutritional factors with health outcomes (mainly geriatric syndromes); health effects of diet and dietary patterns among the elderly; interactions between dietary components in relation to health outcomes (mainly brain and cognitive aging)

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

I have been recently invited to serve as Guest Editor for a Special Issue of the journal Nutrients on the subject of “Nutritional Status, Nutritional Habits and Their Underlying Mechanisms on Neurodegenerative Diseases". It is my pleasure to invite you to submit an invited feature article on this topic. The article may be either a full paper or a communication based on your own research in this area, or may be a focused review article on some aspect of the subject.

The relationships between nutrition and neurodegenerative diseases are highly complex and should benefit from a better characterization of nutritional habits, from a long-term assessment of nutritional exposure in the silent prodromal phase of diseases, from innovative approaches (exploratory approaches) to assess nutritional exposure, from an overview of changes of nutritional status over time, but also, from research on early biomarkers of neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer and Parkinson diseases, and from a better understanding of underlying mechanisms linking nutrition and neurodegenerative diseases.

A better understanding of these complex associations would help to design efficient nutritional interventions, and public health recommendations, to definitively help delay the onset of neurodegenerative diseases in our aging world.

Dr. Catherine Féart
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Nutrients is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • nutritional epidemiology
  • dietary patterns
  • foods
  • nutrients
  • nutritional status
  • mechanisms
  • metabolomic
  • lipidomic
  • proteomic
  • gut microbiota
  • aging
  • neurodegenerative diseases
  • dementia
  • Alzheimer's disease
  • vascular dementia
  • Parkinson's disease
  • disability
  • population-based data sets
  • patients database

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessCommunication
Metabolic Endotoxemia: A Potential Underlying Mechanism of the Relationship between Dietary Fat Intake and Risk for Cognitive Impairments in Humans?
Nutrients 2019, 11(8), 1887; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11081887
Received: 31 May 2019 / Revised: 17 July 2019 / Accepted: 9 August 2019 / Published: 13 August 2019
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Abstract
(1) Background: Nutrition is a major lifestyle factor that can prevent the risk of cognitive impairment and dementia. Diet-induced metabolic endotoxemia has been proposed as a major root cause of inflammation and these pathways emerge as detrimental factors of healthy ageing. The aim [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Nutrition is a major lifestyle factor that can prevent the risk of cognitive impairment and dementia. Diet-induced metabolic endotoxemia has been proposed as a major root cause of inflammation and these pathways emerge as detrimental factors of healthy ageing. The aim of this paper was to update research focusing on the relationship between a fat-rich diet and endotoxemia, and to discuss the potential role of endotoxemia in cognitive performances. (2) Methods: We conducted a non-systematic literature review based on the PubMed database related to fat-rich meals, metabolic endotoxemia and cognitive disorders including dementia in humans. A total of 40 articles out of 942 in the first screening met the inclusion criteria. (3) Results: Evidence suggested that a fat-rich diet, depending on its quality, quantity and concomitant healthy food components, could influence metabolic endotoxemia. Since only heterogeneous cross-sectional studies are available, it remains unclear to what extent endotoxemia could be associated or not with cognitive disorders and dementia. (4) Conclusions: A fat-rich diet has the capability to provide significant increases in circulating endotoxins, which highlights nutritional strategies as a promising area for future research on inflammatory-associated diseases. The role of endotoxemia in cognitive disorders and dementia remains unclear and deserves further investigation. Full article
Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Nutrient Patterns, Cognitive Function, and Decline in Older Persons: Results from the Three-City and NuAge Studies
Nutrients 2019, 11(8), 1808; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11081808
Received: 15 July 2019 / Revised: 22 July 2019 / Accepted: 23 July 2019 / Published: 5 August 2019
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Abstract
Dietary patterns, or the combination of foods and beverages intake, have been associated with better cognitive function in older persons. To date, no study has investigated the link between a posteriori nutrient patterns based on food intake, and cognitive decline in longitudinal analyses. [...] Read more.
Dietary patterns, or the combination of foods and beverages intake, have been associated with better cognitive function in older persons. To date, no study has investigated the link between a posteriori nutrient patterns based on food intake, and cognitive decline in longitudinal analyses. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between nutrient patterns and cognitive function and decline in two longitudinal cohorts of older persons from France and Canada. The study sample was composed of participants from the Three-City study (3C, France) and the Quebec Longitudinal Study on Nutrition and Successful Aging (NuAge, Quebec, Canada). Both studies estimated nutritional intakes at baseline, and carried out repeated measures of global cognitive function for 1,388 and 1,439 individuals, respectively. Nutrient patterns were determined using principal component analysis methodology in the two samples, and their relation with cognitive function and decline was estimated using linear mixed models. In 3C, a healthy nutrient pattern, characterized by higher intakes of plant-based foods, was associated with a higher global cognitive function at baseline, as opposed to a Western nutrient pattern, which was associated with lower cognitive performance. In NuAge, we also found a healthy nutrient pattern and a Western pattern, although no association was observed with either of these patterns in the Canadian cohort. No association between any of the nutrient patterns and cognitive decline was observed in either cohort. There is a need for longitudinal cohorts focusing on nutrient patterns with substantial follow-up, in order to evaluate more accurately associations between nutrition and cognition in older persons. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Body Weight Variation Patterns as Predictors of Cognitive Decline over a 5 Year Follow-Up among Community-Dwelling Elderly (MAPT Study)
Nutrients 2019, 11(6), 1371; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11061371
Received: 14 May 2019 / Revised: 6 June 2019 / Accepted: 7 June 2019 / Published: 18 June 2019
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Abstract
This study aimed to analyze associations between weight variation patterns and changes in cognitive function and hippocampal volume among non-demented, community-dwelling elderly. Sample was formed of 1394 adults >70 years (63.9% female), all volunteers from the Multidomain Alzheimer Preventive Trial (MAPT). Weight loss [...] Read more.
This study aimed to analyze associations between weight variation patterns and changes in cognitive function and hippocampal volume among non-demented, community-dwelling elderly. Sample was formed of 1394 adults >70 years (63.9% female), all volunteers from the Multidomain Alzheimer Preventive Trial (MAPT). Weight loss was defined as ≥5% of body weight decrease in the first year of follow-up; weight gain as ≥5% of weight increase; and stability if <5% weight variation. Cognition was examined by a Z-score combining four tests. Measures were assessed at baseline, 6, 12, 24, 36, 48, and 60 months of follow-up. Hippocampal volume was evaluated with magnetic resonance imaging in 349 subjects in the first year and at 36 months. Mixed models were performed. From the 1394 participants, 5.5% (n = 76) presented weight loss, and 9.0% (n = 125) presented weight gain. Cognitive Z-score decreased among all groups after 5 years, but decline was more pronounced among those who presented weight loss (adjusted between-group mean difference vs. stable: −0.24, 95%CI: −0.41 to −0.07; p = 0.006). After 3 years, hippocampal atrophy was observed among all groups, but no between-group differences were found. In conclusion, weight loss ≥5% in the first year predicted higher cognitive decline over a 5 year follow-up among community-dwelling elderly, independently of body mass index. Full article
Open AccessArticle
The Association of Body Mass Index and Body Composition with Pain, Disease Activity, Fatigue, Sleep and Anxiety in Women with Fibromyalgia
Nutrients 2019, 11(5), 1193; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11051193
Received: 22 April 2019 / Revised: 14 May 2019 / Accepted: 22 May 2019 / Published: 27 May 2019
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Abstract
The link between fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) and obesity has not been thoroughly investigated. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships among body mass index (BMI) and body composition parameters, including fat mass, fat mass percentage, and visceral fat, as well [...] Read more.
The link between fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) and obesity has not been thoroughly investigated. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships among body mass index (BMI) and body composition parameters, including fat mass, fat mass percentage, and visceral fat, as well as FMS features, such as tender point count (TPC), pain, disease activity, fatigue, sleep quality, and anxiety, in a population of FMS women and healthy controls. A total of seventy-three women with FMS and seventy-three healthy controls, matched on weight, were included in this cross-sectional study. We used a body composition analyzer to measure fat mass, fat mass percentage, and visceral fat. Tender point count (TPC) was measured by algometry pressure. The disease severity was measured with the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ-R) and self-reported global pain was evaluated with the visual analog scale (VAS). To measure the quality of sleep, fatigue, and anxiety we used the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Questionnaire (PSQI), the Spanish version of the multidimensional fatigue inventory (MFI), and the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), respectively. Of the women in this study, 38.4% and 31.5% were overweight and obese, respectively. Significant differences in FIQ-R.1 (16.82 ± 6.86 vs. 20.66 ± 4.71, p = 0.030), FIQ-R.3 (35.20 ± 89.02 vs. 40.33 ± 5.60, p = 0.033), and FIQ-R total score (63.87 ± 19.12 vs. 75.94 ± 12.25, p = 0.017) among normal-weight and overweight FMS were observed. Linear analysis regression revealed significant associations between FIQ-R.2 (β(95% CI) = 0.336, (0.027, 0.645), p = 0.034), FIQ-R.3 (β(95% CI) = 0.235, (0.017, 0.453), p = 0.035), and FIQ-R total score (β(95% CI) = 0.110, (0.010, 0.209), p = 0.032) and BMI in FMS women after adjusting for age and menopause status. Associations between sleep latency and fat mass percentage in FMS women (β(95% CI) = 1.910, (0.078, 3.742), p = 0.041) and sleep quality and visceral fat in healthy women (β(95% CI) = 2.614, (2.192, 3.036), p = 0.008) adjusted for covariates were also reported. The higher BMI values are associated with poor FIQ-R scores and overweight and obese women with FMS have higher symptom severity. The promotion of an optimal BMI might contribute to ameliorate some of the FMS symptoms. Full article
Open AccessArticle
U-Shaped Relationship between Serum Leptin Concentration and Cognitive Performance in Older Asian Adults
Nutrients 2019, 11(3), 660; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11030660
Received: 27 December 2018 / Revised: 4 March 2019 / Accepted: 11 March 2019 / Published: 19 March 2019
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Abstract
The role of leptin (a hormone related to fat mass) in cognition remains equivocal. Our objective was to investigate the relationship between circulating leptin concentration and cognition in older adults, accounting for potential confounders. We categorized 1061 community-dwelling older participants ≥60 years (mean [...] Read more.
The role of leptin (a hormone related to fat mass) in cognition remains equivocal. Our objective was to investigate the relationship between circulating leptin concentration and cognition in older adults, accounting for potential confounders. We categorized 1061 community-dwelling older participants ≥60 years (mean ± SD, 70.6 ± 6.4 years; 41.6% female) from the Singapore Kidney Eye Study according to quintiles of leptin concentration (≤2.64; 2.64–5.1; 5.2–8.6; 8.7–17.96; ≥18 ng/mL). Cognition was assessed using the total and domain scores of the Abbreviated Mental Test (AMT). Age, gender, body mass index, mean arterial pressure, smoking, alcohol, education, memory complaint, anxiodepressive disorders, circulating concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D, glycosylated hemoglobin, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and estimated glomerular filtration rate were used as potential confounders. Participants within the lowest (Q1) and highest (Q5) leptin quintiles exhibited lower (i.e., worse) mean total AMT scores compared to those within the intermediate quintiles (Q2, Q3, and Q4). Compared to Q3 as the reference, Q1 and Q5 were associated with decreased total AMT score (respectively, β = −0.53 p = 0.018; β = −0.60 p = 0.036). Compared to Q3, Q5 was also associated with decreased subscores on anterograde (β = −0.19 p = 0.020) and retrograde episodic memories (β = −0.18 p = 0.039). We found a non-linear U-shaped relationship between circulating leptin and cognition, with both lower and higher concentrations of leptin being associated with more severe cognitive impairment in community-dwelling older Asians. Full article
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Nutritional Risk Factors, Microbiota and Parkinson’s Disease: What Is the Current Evidence?
Nutrients 2019, 11(8), 1896; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11081896
Received: 7 July 2019 / Revised: 31 July 2019 / Accepted: 7 August 2019 / Published: 14 August 2019
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Abstract
Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a frequent neurodegenerative disease among elderly people. Genetic and underlying environmental factors seem to be involved in the pathogenesis of PD related to degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the striatum. In previous experimental researches oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, homocysteine, [...] Read more.
Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a frequent neurodegenerative disease among elderly people. Genetic and underlying environmental factors seem to be involved in the pathogenesis of PD related to degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the striatum. In previous experimental researches oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, homocysteine, and neuroinflammation have been reported as potential mechanisms. Among environmental factors, nutrition is one of the most investigated areas as it is a potentially modifiable factor. The purpose of this review is to provide current knowledge regarding the relation between diet and PD risk. We performed a comprehensive review including the most relevant studies from the year 2000 onwards including prospective studies, nested case-control studies, and meta-analysis. Among dietary factors we focused on specific nutrients and food groups, alcoholic beverages, uric acid, and dietary patterns. Furthermore, we included studies on microbiota as recent findings have shown a possible impact on neurodegeneration. As a conclusion, there are still many controversies regarding the relationship between PD and diet which, beside methodological differences among studies, may be due to underlying genetic and gender-specific factors. However, some evidence exists regarding a potential protective effect of uric acid, poly-unsaturated fatty acids, coffee, and tea but mainly in men, whereas dairy products, particularly milk, might increase PD risk through contaminant mediated effect. Full article
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