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Special Issue "Preventive Nutrition"

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (1 June 2019).

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Nicola Di Daniele

Department of Systems Medicine, UOC of Internal Medicine, Center of Hypertension and Nephrology Unit, University Hospital “Tor Vergata”, viale Oxford 81, 00133 Rome, Italy
Department of (Clinical Care) Medicinal Sciences, “Policlinico Tor Vergata” University Hospital, Rome, Italy
Website | E-Mail
Interests: clinical nutrition; arterial hypertension; Mediterranean Diet; metabolic syndrome; cardiovascular disease; chronic kidney disease; obesity

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Nutrients is planning a Special Issue focusing on “Preventive Nutrition”.

Never, as today, the great amount and choice of food available have led to a substantial change in lifestyle, favoring the global emergence of overweight- and obesity-related chronic degenerative diseases (CDD). The Word Health Organization (WHO) has strongly emphasized the main role of unhealthy eating habits in the onset of CDD associated with a sedentary lifestyle and smoking.

Nutrition is able to modify patients’ risk profile both in primary and in secondary prevention of CDD. Preventive Nutrition represents a branch of Science of Nutrition. Its aim is to prevent, delay, or reduce the increased global trend of CDD, prevent and slow the progression of CDD, and thus improve the well-being of the general population.

All experts in this field are invited to submit articles that highlight the beneficial role of preventive nutrition.

Prof. Dr. Nicola Di Daniele
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Nutrients is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Chronic Degenerative Disease
  • Mediterranean Diet
  • Lifestyle Changes
  • Primary and Secondary prevention
  • Obesity
  • Overweight

Published Papers (15 papers)

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Editorial

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Open AccessEditorial
The Role of Preventive Nutrition in Chronic Non-Communicable Diseases
Nutrients 2019, 11(5), 1074; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11051074
Received: 8 May 2019 / Accepted: 10 May 2019 / Published: 15 May 2019
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (173 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Over the last century, there has been a substantial change in the lifestyle and dietary habits of people worldwide [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Preventive Nutrition)

Research

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Open AccessCommunication
Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: The Impact of Carbohydrate Quality in Diet
Nutrients 2019, 11(7), 1549; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11071549
Received: 27 May 2019 / Revised: 2 July 2019 / Accepted: 4 July 2019 / Published: 9 July 2019
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Abstract
Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is defined as “glucose intolerance that is first diagnosed during pregnancy”. Mothers with GDM and their infants may experience both short and long term complications. Dietary intervention is the first therapeutic strategy. If good glycaemic control is not achieved, [...] Read more.
Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is defined as “glucose intolerance that is first diagnosed during pregnancy”. Mothers with GDM and their infants may experience both short and long term complications. Dietary intervention is the first therapeutic strategy. If good glycaemic control is not achieved, insulin therapy is recommended. There is no consensus on which nutritional approach should be used in GDM. In the last few years, there has been growing evidence of the benefits of a low glycaemic index (LGI) diet on diabetes and cardiovascular disease. The effect of a LGI diet on GDM incidence has been investigated as well. Several studies observed a lower incidence of GDM in LGI diet arms, without adverse maternal and fetal outcomes. The main positive effect of the LGI diet was the reduction of 2-h post-prandial glucose (PPG). Several studies have also evaluated the effect of the LGI diet in GDM treatment. Overall, the LGI diet might have beneficial effects on certain outcomes, such as 2-h PPG, fasting plasma glucose and lipid profile in patients with GDM. Indeed, most studies observed a significant reduction in insulin requirement. Overall, according to current evidence, the LGI nutritional approach is safe and it might therefore be considered in clinical care for GDM. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Preventive Nutrition)
Open AccessArticle
Effects of a Personalized VLCKD on Body Composition and Resting Energy Expenditure in the Reversal of Diabetes to Prevent Complications
Nutrients 2019, 11(7), 1526; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11071526
Received: 30 May 2019 / Revised: 27 June 2019 / Accepted: 2 July 2019 / Published: 4 July 2019
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Abstract
The reversion of diabetes and the treatment of long-term obesity are difficult challenges. The failure mechanisms of rapid weight loss are mainly related to the wasting of lean mass. This single-arm study aims to evaluate the effects of a very low-calorie ketogenic diet [...] Read more.
The reversion of diabetes and the treatment of long-term obesity are difficult challenges. The failure mechanisms of rapid weight loss are mainly related to the wasting of lean mass. This single-arm study aims to evaluate the effects of a very low-calorie ketogenic diet (VLCKD) on body composition and resting energy expenditure in the short term reversal of diabetes mellitus Type 2. For eight weeks, subjects were administered a personalized VLCKD with protein intake based on lean mass and synthetic amino acidic protein supplementation. Each subject was assessed by anthropometry, Dual-energy X-ray Absorptiometry(DXA), bioimpedentiometric analysis (BIA), indirect calorimetry, and biochemical analysis. The main findings were the saving of lean mass, the reduction of abdominal fat mass, restored metabolic flexibility, the maintenance of resting energy expenditure, and the reversion of diabetes. These results highlight how the application of preventive, predictive, personalized, and participative medicine to nutrition may be promising for the prevention of diabetes and enhancement of obesity treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Preventive Nutrition)
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Open AccessArticle
Fruit and Vegetable Prescriptions for Pediatric Patients Living in Flint, Michigan: A Cross-Sectional Study of Food Security and Dietary Patterns at Baseline
Nutrients 2019, 11(6), 1423; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11061423
Received: 1 June 2019 / Revised: 18 June 2019 / Accepted: 19 June 2019 / Published: 25 June 2019
PDF Full-text (254 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Though fruit and vegetable consumption is essential for disease prevention and health maintenance, intake among children fails to meet dietary recommendations. Limited access to and the affordability of fresh produce, particularly among low-income youth, are barriers to adequate intake. To address these challenges, [...] Read more.
Though fruit and vegetable consumption is essential for disease prevention and health maintenance, intake among children fails to meet dietary recommendations. Limited access to and the affordability of fresh produce, particularly among low-income youth, are barriers to adequate intake. To address these challenges, researchers and pediatricians in Flint, Michigan, expanded a successful fruit and vegetable prescription program that provides one $15 prescription for fresh fruits and vegetables to every child at every office visit. Vendors include the downtown farmers’ market and a local mobile market. This study describes baseline characteristics, dietary patterns, food access, and food security among 261 caregiver–child dyads enrolled August 2018–March 2019. The child-reported mean daily intake of vegetables (0.72 cups ± 0.77), dairy products (1.33 cups ± 1.22), and whole grains (0.51 ounces ± 0.49) were well below recommendations. Furthermore, 53% of children and 49% of caregivers who completed the food security module indicated low or very low food security. However, there were no statistically significant differences in the child consumption of fruits and vegetables between households that reported high versus low food security (p > 0.05). Results validate and raise deep concerns about poor dietary patterns and food insecurity issues facing Flint children, many of whom continue to battle with an ongoing drinking water crisis. Additional poverty-mitigating efforts, such as fruit and vegetable prescription programs, are necessary to address these gaps. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Preventive Nutrition)
Open AccessArticle
Mussel Consumption as a “Food First” Approach to Improve Omega-3 Status
Nutrients 2019, 11(6), 1381; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11061381
Received: 21 May 2019 / Revised: 11 June 2019 / Accepted: 14 June 2019 / Published: 19 June 2019
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Abstract
Numerous United Kingdom and European Union expert panels recommend that the general adult population consumes ~250 mg of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) per day through the consumption of one portion of oily fish per week. The long-chain omega-3 fatty acids [...] Read more.
Numerous United Kingdom and European Union expert panels recommend that the general adult population consumes ~250 mg of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) per day through the consumption of one portion of oily fish per week. The long-chain omega-3 fatty acids EPA and DHA are only found in appreciable amounts in marine organisms. Increasing oily fish consumption conflicts with sustaining fisheries, so alternative dietary sources of EPA and DHA must be explored. Mussels are high in omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and a good source of essential amino acids. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the impact of introducing mussels as a protein source in the lunchtime meal three times per week for two weeks on the omega-3 status of free-living participants. Following an initial two-week monitoring period, 12 participants (eight male and four female) attended the nutrition laboratory three times per week for two weeks. Each participant received a personalised lunch constituting one-third of their typical daily calorie consumption with ~20% of the calories supplied as cooked mussels. A portion of cooked mussels from each feeding occasion was tested for total omega-3 content. The mean ± SD mussel EPA + DHA content was 518.9 ± 155.7 mg/100 g cooked weight, meaning that each participant received on average 709.2 ± 252.6 mg of EPA + DHA per meal or 304.0 ± 108.2 mg of EPA + DHA per day. Blood spot analysis revealed a significant increase in the omega-3 index (week 1 = 4.27 ± 0.81; week 4 = 5.07 ± 1.00) and whole blood EPA content during the study (%EPA week 1 = 0.70 ± 0.0.35; %EPA week 4 = 0.98 ± 0.35). Consuming mussels three times per week for two weeks as the protein source in a personalised lunchtime meal is sufficient to moderately improve the omega-3 index and whole blood DHA + EPA content in young healthy adults. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Preventive Nutrition)
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Open AccessArticle
Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Pomegranate Peel Extracts on In Vitro Human Intestinal Caco-2 Cells and Ex Vivo Porcine Colonic Tissue Explants
Nutrients 2019, 11(3), 548; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11030548
Received: 6 February 2019 / Revised: 24 February 2019 / Accepted: 26 February 2019 / Published: 5 March 2019
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (2135 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The aim of this study was to determine the anti-inflammatory potential of pomegranate peel extracts (PPE) prepared from waste material of pomegranate juice production both in vitro on Caco-2 cells and ex vivo using porcine colonic tissue explants. Caco-2 cells were stimulated in [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to determine the anti-inflammatory potential of pomegranate peel extracts (PPE) prepared from waste material of pomegranate juice production both in vitro on Caco-2 cells and ex vivo using porcine colonic tissue explants. Caco-2 cells were stimulated in vitro by TNF and colonic tissue explants were stimulated ex vivo with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Both tissues were co-treated with PPE at 0, 1.0, 2.5, 5.0, 10 and 25 μg/mL. The secretion of CXCL8 in the supernatant of both experiments was determined by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and the relative expression of inflammatory cytokines were evaluated in the colonic tissue by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (QPCR). The 2.5 to 25 μg/mL of PPE suppressed CXCL8 (p < 0.001) in the Caco-2 cells, whereas CXCL8 production was suppressed by only 5 and 25 μg/mL (p < 0.01) of PPE in the colonic explants. The 5 μg/mL of PPE also suppressed the expression of IL1A (p < 0.05), IL6 (p < 0.01) and CXCL8 (p < 0.05) in LPS challenged colonic tissues compared to controls. In conclusion, the 5 μg/mL of PPE consistently elicits strong anti-inflammatory activity. These results support the potential of bioactive compounds from the waste peel of pomegranate in terms of their anti-inflammatory activity in cells and tissues of the gastrointestinal tract. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Preventive Nutrition)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Health Effects of Phenolic Compounds Found in Extra-Virgin Olive Oil, By-Products, and Leaf of Olea europaea L.
Nutrients 2019, 11(8), 1776; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11081776
Received: 14 July 2019 / Revised: 26 July 2019 / Accepted: 28 July 2019 / Published: 1 August 2019
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Abstract
Olea europaea L. fruit is a peculiar vegetal matrix containing high levels of fatty acids (98–99% of the total weight of extra-virgin olive oil, EVOO) and low quantities (1–2%) of phenolics, phytosterols, tocopherols, and squalene. Among these minor components, phenolics are relevant molecules [...] Read more.
Olea europaea L. fruit is a peculiar vegetal matrix containing high levels of fatty acids (98–99% of the total weight of extra-virgin olive oil, EVOO) and low quantities (1–2%) of phenolics, phytosterols, tocopherols, and squalene. Among these minor components, phenolics are relevant molecules for human health. This review is focused on their beneficial activity, in particular of hydroxytyrosol (HT), oleuropein (OLE), oleocanthal (OLC), and lignans found in EVOO, olive oil by-products and leaves. Specifically, the cardioprotective properties of the Mediterranean diet (MD) related to olive oil consumption, and the biological activities of polyphenols recovered from olive oil by-products and leaves were described. Recent European projects such as EPIC (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition) and EPICOR (long-term follow-up of antithrombotic management patterns in acute coronary syndrome patients) have demonstrated the functional and preventive activities of EVOO showing the relation both between cancer and nutrition and between consumption of EVOO, vegetables, and fruit and the incidence of coronary heart disease. The data reported in this review demonstrate that EVOO, one of the pillars of the MD, is the main product of Olea europaea L. fruits; leaves and by-products are secondary but precious products from which bioactive compounds can be recovered by green technologies and reused for food, agronomic, nutraceutical, and biomedical applications according to the circular economy strategy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Preventive Nutrition)
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Open AccessReview
The Modern Western Diet Rich in Advanced Glycation End-Products (AGEs): An Overview of Its Impact on Obesity and Early Progression of Renal Pathology
Nutrients 2019, 11(8), 1748; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11081748
Received: 31 May 2019 / Revised: 15 July 2019 / Accepted: 25 July 2019 / Published: 30 July 2019
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Abstract
Advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) are an assorted group of molecules formed through covalent bonds between a reduced sugar and a free amino group of proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids. Glycation alters their structure and function, leading to impaired cell function. They can be [...] Read more.
Advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) are an assorted group of molecules formed through covalent bonds between a reduced sugar and a free amino group of proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids. Glycation alters their structure and function, leading to impaired cell function. They can be originated by physiological processes, when not counterbalanced by detoxification mechanisms, or derive from exogenous sources such as food, cigarette smoke, and air pollution. Their accumulation increases inflammation and oxidative stress through the activation of various mechanisms mainly triggered by binding to their receptors (RAGE). So far, the pathogenic role of AGEs has been evidenced in inflammatory and chronic diseases such as chronic kidney disease, cardiovascular disease, and diabetic nephropathy. This review focuses on the AGE-induced kidney damage, by describing the molecular players involved and investigating its link to the excess of body weight and visceral fat, hallmarks of obesity. Research regarding interventions to reduce AGE accumulation has been of great interest and a nutraceutical approach that would help fighting chronic diseases could be a very useful tool for patients’ everyday lives. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Preventive Nutrition)
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview
Role of Personalized Nutrition in Chronic-Degenerative Diseases
Nutrients 2019, 11(8), 1707; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11081707
Received: 30 May 2019 / Revised: 15 July 2019 / Accepted: 20 July 2019 / Published: 24 July 2019
PDF Full-text (1002 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Human nutrition is a branch of medicine based on foods biochemical interactions with the human body. The phenotypic transition from health to disease status can be attributed to changes in genes and/or protein expression. For this reason, a new discipline has been developed [...] Read more.
Human nutrition is a branch of medicine based on foods biochemical interactions with the human body. The phenotypic transition from health to disease status can be attributed to changes in genes and/or protein expression. For this reason, a new discipline has been developed called “-omic science”. In this review, we analyzed the role of “-omics sciences” (nutrigenetics, nutrigenomics, proteomics and metabolomics) in the health status and as possible therapeutic tool in chronic degenerative diseases. In particular, we focused on the role of nutrigenetics and the relationship between eating habits, changes in the DNA sequence and the onset of nutrition-related diseases. Moreover, we examined nutrigenomics and the effect of nutrients on gene expression. We perused the role of proteomics and metabolomics in personalized nutrition. In this scenario, we analyzed also how dysbiosis of gut microbiota can influence the onset and progression of chronic degenerative diseases. Moreover, nutrients influencing and regulating gene activity, both directly and indirectly, paves the way for personalized nutrition that plays a key role in the prevention and treatment of chronic degenerative diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Preventive Nutrition)
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Open AccessReview
The Sex–Gender Effects in the Road to Tailored Botanicals
Nutrients 2019, 11(7), 1637; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11071637
Received: 27 May 2019 / Revised: 10 July 2019 / Accepted: 10 July 2019 / Published: 17 July 2019
PDF Full-text (1229 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Phenols are a wide family of phytochemicals that are characterized by large chemical diversity and are considered to bioactive molecules of foods, beverages, and botanicals. Although they have a multitude of biological actions, their beneficial effects are rarely evidenced in clinical research with [...] Read more.
Phenols are a wide family of phytochemicals that are characterized by large chemical diversity and are considered to bioactive molecules of foods, beverages, and botanicals. Although they have a multitude of biological actions, their beneficial effects are rarely evidenced in clinical research with high scientific rigor. This may occur due to the presence of numerous confounders, such as the modulation of phenol bioavailability, which can be regulated by microbiota, age, sex-gender. Sex-gender is an important determinant of health and well-being, and has an impact on environmental and occupational risks, access to health care, disease prevalence, and treatment outcomes. In addition, xenobiotic responses may be strongly influenced by sex-gender. This review describes how sex–gender differentially influences the activities of phenols also in some critical periods of women life such as pregnancy and lactation, considering also the sex of fetuses and infants. Thus, sex–gender is a variable that must be carefully considered and should be used to propose directions for future research on the road to tailored medicine and nutrition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Preventive Nutrition)
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Open AccessReview
Natural Hydrogen Sulfide Donors from Allium sp. as a Nutraceutical Approach in Type 2 Diabetes Prevention and Therapy
Nutrients 2019, 11(7), 1581; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11071581
Received: 2 June 2019 / Revised: 30 June 2019 / Accepted: 10 July 2019 / Published: 12 July 2019
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Abstract
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) is a socially relevant chronic disease with high prevalence worldwide. DM may lead to several vascular, macrovascular, and microvascular complications (cerebrovascular, coronary artery, and peripheral arterial diseases, retinopathy, neuropathy, and nephropathy), often accelerating the progression of atherosclerosis. Dietary [...] Read more.
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) is a socially relevant chronic disease with high prevalence worldwide. DM may lead to several vascular, macrovascular, and microvascular complications (cerebrovascular, coronary artery, and peripheral arterial diseases, retinopathy, neuropathy, and nephropathy), often accelerating the progression of atherosclerosis. Dietary therapy is generally considered to be the first step in the treatment of diabetic patients. Among the current therapeutic options, such as insulin therapy and hypoglycemic drugs, in recent years, attention has been shifting to the effects and properties—that are still not completely known—of medicinal plants as valid and inexpensive therapeutic supports with limited side effects. In this review, we report the relevant effects of medicinal plants and nutraceuticals in diabetes. In particular, we paid attention to the organosulfur compounds (OSCs) present in plant extracts that due to their antioxidant, hypoglycemic, anti-inflammatory, and immunomodulatory effects, can contribute as cardioprotective agents in type 2 DM. OSCs derived from garlic (Allium sp.), due to their properties, can represent a valuable support to the diet in type 2 DM, as outlined in this manuscript based on both in vitro and in vivo studies. Moreover, a relevant characteristic of garlic OSCs is their ability to produce the gasotransmitter H2S, and many of their effects can be explained by this property. Indeed, in recent years, several studies have demonstrated the relevant effects of endogenous and exogenous H2S in human DM, including by in vitro and in vivo experiments and clinical trials; therefore, here, we summarize the effects and the underlying molecular mechanisms of H2S and natural H2S donors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Preventive Nutrition)
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Open AccessReview
Nutrition and Breast Cancer: A Literature Review on Prevention, Treatment and Recurrence
Nutrients 2019, 11(7), 1514; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11071514
Received: 7 May 2019 / Revised: 28 June 2019 / Accepted: 1 July 2019 / Published: 3 July 2019
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Abstract
Breast cancer (BC) is the second most common cancer worldwide and the most commonly occurring malignancy in women. There is growing evidence that lifestyle factors, including diet, body weight and physical activity, may be associated with higher BC risk. However, the effect of [...] Read more.
Breast cancer (BC) is the second most common cancer worldwide and the most commonly occurring malignancy in women. There is growing evidence that lifestyle factors, including diet, body weight and physical activity, may be associated with higher BC risk. However, the effect of dietary factors on BC recurrence and mortality is not clearly understood. Here, we provide an overview of the current evidence obtained from the PubMed databases in the last decade, assessing dietary patterns, as well as the consumption of specific food-stuffs/food-nutrients, in relation to BC incidence, recurrence and survival. Data from the published literature suggest that a healthy dietary pattern characterized by high intake of unrefined cereals, vegetables, fruit, nuts and olive oil, and a moderate/low consumption of saturated fatty acids and red meat, might improve overall survival after diagnosis of BC. BC patients undergoing chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy experience a variety of symptoms that worsen patient quality of life. Studies investigating nutritional interventions during BC treatment have shown that nutritional counselling and supplementation with some dietary constituents, such as EPA and/or DHA, might be useful in limiting drug-induced side effects, as well as in enhancing therapeutic efficacy. Therefore, nutritional intervention in BC patients may be considered an integral part of the multimodal therapeutic approach. However, further research utilizing dietary interventions in large clinical trials is required to definitively establish effective interventions in these patients, to improve long-term survival and quality of life. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Preventive Nutrition)
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Open AccessReview
Which Diet for Calcium Stone Patients: A Real-World Approach to Preventive Care
Nutrients 2019, 11(5), 1182; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11051182
Received: 4 April 2019 / Revised: 13 May 2019 / Accepted: 23 May 2019 / Published: 27 May 2019
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Abstract
Kidney stone disease should be viewed as a systemic disorder, associated with or predictive of hypertension, insulin resistance, chronic kidney disease and cardiovascular damage. Dietary and lifestyle changes represent an important strategy for the prevention of kidney stone recurrences and cardiovascular damage. A [...] Read more.
Kidney stone disease should be viewed as a systemic disorder, associated with or predictive of hypertension, insulin resistance, chronic kidney disease and cardiovascular damage. Dietary and lifestyle changes represent an important strategy for the prevention of kidney stone recurrences and cardiovascular damage. A full screening of risk factors for kidney stones and for cardiovascular damage should be recommended in all cases of calcium kidney stone disease, yet it is rarely performed outside of stone specialist clinics. Many patients have a history of kidney stone disease while lacking a satisfactory metabolic profile. Nonetheless, in a real-world clinical practice a rational management of kidney stone patients is still possible. Different scenarios, with different types of dietary approaches based on diagnosis accuracy level can be envisaged. The aim of this review is to give patient-tailored dietary suggestions whatever the level of clinical and biochemistry evaluation. This can help to deliver a useful recommendation, while avoiding excessive dietary restrictions especially when they are not based on a specific diagnosis, and therefore potentially useless or even harmful. We focused our attention on calcium stones and the different scenarios we may find in the daily clinical practice, including the case of patients who reported renal colic episodes and/or passed stones with no information on stone composition, urinary risk factors or metabolic cardiovascular risk factors; or the case of patients with partial and incomplete information; or the case of patients with full information on stone composition, urinary risk factors and metabolic cardiovascular profile. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Preventive Nutrition)
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Open AccessReview
Impact of Gut Microbiota Composition on Onset and Progression of Chronic Non-Communicable Diseases
Nutrients 2019, 11(5), 1073; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11051073
Received: 29 March 2019 / Revised: 7 May 2019 / Accepted: 8 May 2019 / Published: 14 May 2019
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (726 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In recent years, mounting scientific evidence has emerged regarding the evaluation of the putative correlation between the gut microbiota composition and the presence of chronic non-communicable diseases (NCDs), such as diabetes mellitus, chronic kidney disease, and arterial hypertension. The aim of this narrative [...] Read more.
In recent years, mounting scientific evidence has emerged regarding the evaluation of the putative correlation between the gut microbiota composition and the presence of chronic non-communicable diseases (NCDs), such as diabetes mellitus, chronic kidney disease, and arterial hypertension. The aim of this narrative review is to examine the current literature with respect to the relationship between intestinal dysbiosis and the insurgence/progression of chronic NCDs, analyzing the physiopathological mechanisms that can induce microbiota modification in the course of these pathologies, and the possible effect induced by microbiota alteration upon disease onset. Therapy based on probiotics, prebiotics, synbiotics, postbiotics, and fecal microbiota transplant can represent a useful therapeutic tool, as has been highlighted on animal studies. To this moment, clinical studies that intended to demonstrate the beneficial effect induced by this kind of oral supplementation on the gut microbiota composition, and subsequent amelioration of signs and symptoms of chronic NCDs have been conducted on limited sample populations for a limited follow-up period. Therefore, to fully evaluate the therapeutic value of this kind of intervention, it would be ideal to design ample population; randomized clinical trials with a lengthy follow up period. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Preventive Nutrition)
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Open AccessReview
Prostate Cancer Disparity, Chemoprevention, and Treatment by Specific Medicinal Plants
Nutrients 2019, 11(2), 336; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11020336
Received: 19 November 2018 / Revised: 2 January 2019 / Accepted: 29 January 2019 / Published: 4 February 2019
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Abstract
Prostate cancer (PC) is one of the most common cancers in men. The global burden of this disease is rising. Its incidence and mortality rates are higher in African American (AA) men compared to white men and other ethnic groups. The treatment decisions [...] Read more.
Prostate cancer (PC) is one of the most common cancers in men. The global burden of this disease is rising. Its incidence and mortality rates are higher in African American (AA) men compared to white men and other ethnic groups. The treatment decisions for PC are based exclusively on histological architecture, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels, and local disease state. Despite advances in screening for and early detection of PC, a large percentage of men continue to be diagnosed with metastatic disease including about 20% of men affected with a high mortality rate within the African American population. As such, this population group may benefit from edible natural products that are safe with a low cost. Hence, the central goal of this article is to highlight PC disparity associated with nutritional factors and highlight chemo-preventive agents from medicinal plants that are more likely to reduce PC. To reach this central goal, we searched the PubMed Central database and the Google Scholar website for relevant papers. Our search results revealed that there are significant improvements in PC statistics among white men and other ethnic groups. However, its mortality rate remains significantly high among AA men. In addition, there are limited studies that have addressed the benefits of medicinal plants as chemo-preventive agents for PC treatment, especially among AA men. This review paper addresses this knowledge gap by discussing PC disparity associated with nutritional factors and highlighting the biomedical significance of three medicinal plants (curcumin, garlic, and Vernonia amygdalina) that show a great potential to prevent/treat PC, as well as to reduce its incidence/prevalence and mortality, improve survival rate, and reduce PC-related health disparity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Preventive Nutrition)
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