Special Issue "Nutrition and Eye Health"

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (28 February 2019).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. John Lawrenson
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Centre for Applied Vision Research, School of Health SciencesCity University of London, London, UK
Dr. Laura Downie
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Optometry and Vision Sciences, The University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria, Australia

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Blindness and visual impairment impact significantly on an individual’s physical and mental well-being. Loss of vision is a global health problem, with approximately 250 million of the world’s population currently living with vision loss, of which 36 million are classified as blind. Visual impairment is more frequent in the elderly, with cataract and age-related macular degeneration (AMD) accounting for over 50% of cases globally. Oxidative stress has been strongly implicated in the pathogenesis of both conditions, and consequently the role of nutritional factors, in particular carotenoids and micronutrient antioxidants, have been investigated as possible preventative or therapeutic strategies.

Dry eye syndrome (DES) is one of the most common ophthalmic conditions in the world. DES occurs where the eye does not produce enough tears and/or the tears evaporate too quicklyleading to discomfort and varying degrees of visual disturbance. There has recently been a great deal of interest in the potential for oral or topical supplementation with essential fatty acids (EFAs), specifically omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids, as an adjunct to conventional treatments for DES.

The objective of this Special Issue on ‘Nutrition and Eye Health’ is to publish papers describing the role of nutrition in maintaining eye health and the use of nutritional interventions to prevent or treat ocular disease. A particular (but not exclusive) emphasis will be on papers (reviews and/or clinical or experimental studies) relating to cataract, AMD and DES.

Prof. John Lawrenson
Dr. Laura Downie
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Nutrients is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Age-related macular degeneration
  • Cataract
  • Dry Eye
  • Antioxidants
  • Carotenoids
  • Lutein
  • Zeaxanthin
  • Essential fatty acids
  • Omega 3
  • Omega 6

Published Papers (13 papers)

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Editorial

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Open AccessEditorial
Nutrition and Eye Health
Nutrients 2019, 11(9), 2123; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11092123 - 06 Sep 2019
Abstract
Diet is a key lifestyle factor that can have long-term effects on ocular health [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Eye Health)

Research

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Open AccessArticle
Cucurbita argyrosperma Seed Extracts Attenuate Angiogenesis in a Corneal Chemical Burn Model
Nutrients 2019, 11(5), 1184; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11051184 - 27 May 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Severe corneal inflammation produces opacity or even perforation, scarring, and angiogenesis, resulting in blindness. In this study, we used the cornea to examine the effect of new anti-angiogenic chemopreventive agents. We researched the anti-angiogenic effect of two extracts, methanol (Met) and hexane (Hex), [...] Read more.
Severe corneal inflammation produces opacity or even perforation, scarring, and angiogenesis, resulting in blindness. In this study, we used the cornea to examine the effect of new anti-angiogenic chemopreventive agents. We researched the anti-angiogenic effect of two extracts, methanol (Met) and hexane (Hex), from the seed of Cucurbita argyrosperma, on inflamed corneas. The corneas of Wistar rats were alkali-injured and treated intragastrically for seven successive days. We evaluated: opacity score, corneal neovascularization (CNV) area, re-epithelialization percentage, and histological changes. Also, we assessed the inflammatory (cyclooxigenase-2, nuclear factor-kappaB, and interleukin-1β) and angiogenic (vascular endothelial growth factor A, VEGF-A; -receptor 1, VEGFR1; and -receptor 2, VEGFR2) markers. Levels of Cox-2, Il-1β, and Vegf-a mRNA were also determined. After treatment, we observed a reduction in corneal edema, with lower opacity scores and cell infiltration compared to untreated rats. Treatment also accelerated wound healing and decreased the CNV area. The staining of inflammatory and angiogenic factors was significantly decreased and related to a down-expression of Cox-2, Il-1β, and Vegf. These results suggest that intake of C. argyrosperma seed has the potential to attenuate the angiogenesis secondary to inflammation in corneal chemical damage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Eye Health)
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Open AccessArticle
A Critical Appraisal of National and International Clinical Practice Guidelines Reporting Nutritional Recommendations for Age-Related Macular Degeneration: Are Recommendations Evidence-Based?
Nutrients 2019, 11(4), 823; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11040823 - 11 Apr 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
Eye care professionals should have access to high quality clinical practice guidelines that ideally are underpinned by evidence from robust systematic reviews of relevant research. The aim of this study was to identify clinical guidelines with recommendations pertaining to dietary modification and/or nutritional [...] Read more.
Eye care professionals should have access to high quality clinical practice guidelines that ideally are underpinned by evidence from robust systematic reviews of relevant research. The aim of this study was to identify clinical guidelines with recommendations pertaining to dietary modification and/or nutritional supplementation for age-related macular degeneration (AMD), and to evaluate the overall quality of the guidelines using the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation II (AGREE II) instrument. We also mapped recommendations to existing systematic review evidence. A comprehensive search was undertaken using bibliographic databases and other electronic resources for eligible guidelines. Quality appraisal was undertaken to generate scores for each of the six AGREE II domains, and mapping of extracted nutritional recommendations was performed for systematic reviews published up to March 2017. We identified 13 national and international guidelines, developed or updated between 2004 and 2019. These varied substantially in quality. The lowest scoring AGREE II domains were for ‘Rigour of Development’, ‘Applicability’ (which measures implementation strategies to improve uptake of recommendations), and ‘Editorial Independence’. Only four guidelines used evidence from systematic reviews to support their nutritional recommendations. In conclusion, there is significant scope for improving current Clinical Practice Guidelines for AMD, and guideline developers should use evidence from existing high quality systematic reviews to inform clinical recommendations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Eye Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Preliminary Validation of a Food Frequency Questionnaire to Assess Long-Chain Omega-3 Fatty Acid Intake in Eye Care Practice
Nutrients 2019, 11(4), 817; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11040817 - 11 Apr 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
Clinical recommendations relating to dietary omega-3 essential fatty acids (EFAs) should consider an individual’s baseline intake. The time, cost, and practicality constraints of current techniques for quantifying omega-3 levels limit the feasibility of applying these methods in some settings, such as eye care [...] Read more.
Clinical recommendations relating to dietary omega-3 essential fatty acids (EFAs) should consider an individual’s baseline intake. The time, cost, and practicality constraints of current techniques for quantifying omega-3 levels limit the feasibility of applying these methods in some settings, such as eye care practice. This preliminary validation study, involving 40 adults, sought to assess the validity of a novel questionnaire, the Clinical Omega-3 Dietary Survey (CODS), for rapidly assessing long-chain omega-3 intake. Estimated dietary intakes of long-chain omega-3s from CODS correlated with the validated Dietary Questionnaire for Epidemiology Studies (DQES), Version 3.2, (Cancer Council Victoria, Melbourne, Australia) and quantitative assays from dried blood spot (DBS) testing. The ‘method of triads’ model was used to estimate a validity coefficient (ρ) for the relationship between the CODS and an estimated “true” intake of long-chain omega-3 EFAs. The CODS had high validity for estimating the ρ (95% Confidence Interval [CI]) for total long-chain omega-3 EFAs 0.77 (0.31–0.98), docosahexaenoic acid 0.86 (0.54–0.99) and docosapentaenoic acid 0.72 (0.14–0.97), and it had moderate validity for estimating eicosapentaenoic acid 0.57 (0.21–0.93). The total long-chain omega-3 EFAs estimated using the CODS correlated with the Omega-3 index (r = 0.37, p = 0.018) quantified using the DBS biomarker. The CODS is a novel tool that can be administered rapidly and easily, to estimate long-chain omega-3 sufficiency in clinical settings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Eye Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Rosmarinic and Sinapic Acids May Increase the Content of Reduced Glutathione in the Lenses of Estrogen-Deficient Rats
Nutrients 2019, 11(4), 803; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11040803 - 09 Apr 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
Oxidative stress is believed to be associated with both postmenopausal disorders and cataract development. Previously, we have demonstrated that rosmarinic and sinapic acids, which are diet-derived antioxidative phenolic acids, counteracted some disorders induced by estrogen deficiency. Other studies have shown that some phenolic [...] Read more.
Oxidative stress is believed to be associated with both postmenopausal disorders and cataract development. Previously, we have demonstrated that rosmarinic and sinapic acids, which are diet-derived antioxidative phenolic acids, counteracted some disorders induced by estrogen deficiency. Other studies have shown that some phenolic acids may reduce cataract development in various animal models. However, there is no data on the effect of phenolic acids on oxidative stress markers in the lenses of estrogen-deficient rats. The study aimed to investigate whether administration of rosmarinic acid and sinapic acid affects the antioxidative abilities and oxidative damage parameters in the lenses of estrogen-deficient rats. The study was conducted on three-month-old female Wistar rats. The ovariectomized rats were orally treated with rosmarinic acid at doses of 10 and 50 mg/kg or sinapic acid at doses of 5 and 25 mg/kg, for 4 weeks. The content of reduced glutathione (GSH), oxidized glutathione and amyloid β1-42, as well as products of protein and lipid oxidation, were assessed. Moreover, the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and some glutathione-related enzymes in the lenses were determined. Rosmarinic and sinapic acids in both doses resulted in an increase in the GSH content and glutathione reductase activity. They also improved parameters connected with protein oxidation. Since GSH plays an important role in maintaining the lens transparency, the increase in GSH content in lenses after the use of rosmarinic and sinapic acids seems to be beneficial. Therefore, both the investigated dietary compounds may be helpful in preventing cataract. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Eye Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Lactobacillus paracasei KW3110 Prevents Blue Light-Induced Inflammation and Degeneration in the Retina
Nutrients 2018, 10(12), 1991; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10121991 - 15 Dec 2018
Cited by 2
Abstract
Age-related macular degeneration and retinitis pigmentosa are leading causes of blindness and share a pathological feature, which is photoreceptor degeneration. To date, the lack of a potential treatment to prevent such diseases has raised great concern. Photoreceptor degeneration can be accelerated by excessive [...] Read more.
Age-related macular degeneration and retinitis pigmentosa are leading causes of blindness and share a pathological feature, which is photoreceptor degeneration. To date, the lack of a potential treatment to prevent such diseases has raised great concern. Photoreceptor degeneration can be accelerated by excessive light exposure via an inflammatory response; therefore, anti-inflammatory agents would be candidates to prevent the progress of photoreceptor degeneration. We previously reported that a lactic acid bacterium, Lactobacillus paracasei KW3110 (L. paracasei KW3110), activated macrophages suppressing inflammation in mice and humans. Recently, we also showed that intake of L. paracasei KW3110 could mitigate visual display terminal (VDT) load-induced ocular disorders in humans. However, the biological mechanism of L. paracasei KW3110 to retain visual function remains unclear. In this study, we found that L. paracasei KW3110 activated M2 macrophages inducing anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-10 (IL-10) production in vitro using bone marrow-derived M2 macrophages. We also show that IL-10 gene expression was significantly increased in the intestinal immune tissues 6 h after oral administration of L. paracasei KW3110 in vivo. Furthermore, we demonstrated that intake of L. paracasei KW3110 suppressed inflammation and photoreceptor degeneration in a murine model of light-induced retinopathy. These results suggest that L. paracasei KW3110 may have a preventive effect against degrative retinal diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Eye Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Chrysin Ameliorates Malfunction of Retinoid Visual Cycle through Blocking Activation of AGE-RAGE-ER Stress in Glucose-Stimulated Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cells and Diabetic Eyes
Nutrients 2018, 10(8), 1046; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10081046 - 08 Aug 2018
Cited by 12
Abstract
Diabetes-associated visual cycle impairment has been implicated in diabetic retinopathy, and chronic hyperglycemia causes detrimental effects on visual function. Chrysin, a naturally occurring flavonoid found in various herbs, has anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and neuroprotective properties. The goal of the current study was to identify [...] Read more.
Diabetes-associated visual cycle impairment has been implicated in diabetic retinopathy, and chronic hyperglycemia causes detrimental effects on visual function. Chrysin, a naturally occurring flavonoid found in various herbs, has anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and neuroprotective properties. The goal of the current study was to identify the retinoprotective role of chrysin in maintaining robust retinoid visual cycle-related components. The in vitro study employed human retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells exposed to 33 mM of glucose or advanced glycation end products (AGEs) in the presence of 1–20 μM chrysin for three days. In the in vivo study, 10 mg/kg of chrysin was orally administrated to db/db mice. Treating chrysin reversed the glucose-induced production of vascular endothelial growth factor, insulin-like growth factor-1, and pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) in RPE cells. The outer nuclear layer thickness of chrysin-exposed retina was enhanced. The oral gavage of chrysin augmented the levels of the visual cycle enzymes of RPE65, lecithin retinol acyltransferase (LRAT), retinol dehydrogenase 5 (RDH5), and rhodopsin diminished in db/db mouse retina. The diabetic tissue levels of the retinoid binding proteins and the receptor of the cellular retinol-binding protein, cellular retinaldehyde-binding protein-1, interphotoreceptor retinoid-binding protein and stimulated by retinoic acid 6 were restored to those of normal mouse retina. The presence of chrysin demoted AGE secretion and AGE receptor (RAGE) induction in glucose-exposed RPE cells and diabetic eyes. Chrysin inhibited the reduction of PEDF, RPE 65, LRAT, and RDH5 in 100 μg/mL of AGE-bovine serum albumin-exposed RPE cells. The treatment of RPE cells with chrysin reduced the activation of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Chrysin inhibited the impairment of the retinoid visual cycle through blocking ER stress via the AGE-RAGE activation in glucose-stimulated RPE cells and diabetic eyes. This is the first study demonstrating the protective effects of chrysin on the diabetes-associated malfunctioned visual cycle. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Eye Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Lutein and Zeaxanthin Isomers Protect against Light-Induced Retinopathy via Decreasing Oxidative and Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in BALB/cJ Mice
Nutrients 2018, 10(7), 842; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10070842 - 28 Jun 2018
Cited by 4
Abstract
Oxidative stress (OS) and endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) are the major factors underlying photoreceptor degeneration. Lutein, RR-zeaxanthin (3R,3’R-zeaxanthin) and RS (meso)-zeaxanthin (3R,3’S-RS- zeaxanthin) (L/Zi) could protect against cell damage by ameliorating OS in retina. In this study, we examined the effect of L/Zi [...] Read more.
Oxidative stress (OS) and endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) are the major factors underlying photoreceptor degeneration. Lutein, RR-zeaxanthin (3R,3’R-zeaxanthin) and RS (meso)-zeaxanthin (3R,3’S-RS- zeaxanthin) (L/Zi) could protect against cell damage by ameliorating OS in retina. In this study, we examined the effect of L/Zi supplementation in a mouse model of photoreceptor degeneration and investigated whether the treatment of L/Zi ameliorated OS and ERS. BALB/cJ mice after light exposure were used as the animal model. The protective effects of L/Zi were observed by electroretinography (ERG) and terminal deoxyuridine triphosphate nick-end labeling (TUNEL) analysis. The underlying mechanisms related to OS and ERS were explored by Western blotting. After L/Zi treatment, the ERG amplitudes were significantly higher, and the number of TUNEL-positive cells was significantly reduced compared to that of the vehicle group. Western blotting results revealed that OS was ameliorated according to the significant downregulation of phosphorylated c-Jun N-terminal kinase (p-JNK), and significant upregulation of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2). In addition, ERS was reduced according to the significant downregulation of 78 kDa glucose-regulated protein (GRP78), phosphorylated protein kinase RNA-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (p-PERK), activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4) and activating transcription factor (ATF6). Our data shows that L/Zi provided functional and morphological preservation of photoreceptors against light damage, which is probably related to its mitigation of oxidative and endoplasmic reticulum stress. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Eye Health)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Nutritional Strategies to Prevent Lens Cataract: Current Status and Future Strategies
Nutrients 2019, 11(5), 1186; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11051186 - 27 May 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
Oxidative stress and the subsequent oxidative damage to lens proteins is a known causative factor in the initiation and progression of cataract formation, the leading cause of blindness in the world today. Due to the role of oxidative damage in the etiology of [...] Read more.
Oxidative stress and the subsequent oxidative damage to lens proteins is a known causative factor in the initiation and progression of cataract formation, the leading cause of blindness in the world today. Due to the role of oxidative damage in the etiology of cataract, antioxidants have been prompted as therapeutic options to delay and/or prevent disease progression. However, many exogenous antioxidant interventions have to date produced mixed results as anti-cataract therapies. The aim of this review is to critically evaluate the efficacy of a sample of dietary and topical antioxidant interventions in the light of our current understanding of lens structure and function. Situated in the eye behind the blood-eye barrier, the lens receives it nutrients and antioxidants from the aqueous and vitreous humors. Furthermore, being a relatively large avascular tissue the lens cannot rely of passive diffusion alone to deliver nutrients and antioxidants to the distinctly different metabolic regions of the lens. We instead propose that the lens utilizes a unique internal microcirculation system to actively deliver antioxidants to these different regions, and that selecting antioxidants that can utilize this system is the key to developing novel nutritional therapies to delay the onset and progression of lens cataract. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Eye Health)
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Open AccessReview
Nutraceuticals for the Treatment of Diabetic Retinopathy
Nutrients 2019, 11(4), 771; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11040771 - 02 Apr 2019
Cited by 4
Abstract
Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is one of the most common complications of diabetes mellitus and is characterized by degeneration of retinal neurons and neoangiogenesis, causing a severe threat to vision. Nowadays, the principal treatment options for DR are laser photocoagulation, vitreoretinal surgery, or intravitreal [...] Read more.
Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is one of the most common complications of diabetes mellitus and is characterized by degeneration of retinal neurons and neoangiogenesis, causing a severe threat to vision. Nowadays, the principal treatment options for DR are laser photocoagulation, vitreoretinal surgery, or intravitreal injection of drugs targeting vascular endothelial growth factor. However, these treatments only act at advanced stages of DR, have short term efficacy, and cause side effects. Treatment with nutraceuticals (foods providing medical or health benefits) at early stages of DR may represent a reasonable alternative to act upstream of the disease, preventing its progression. In particular, in vitro and in vivo studies have revealed that a variety of nutraceuticals have significant antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties that may inhibit the early diabetes-driven molecular mechanisms that induce DR, reducing both the neural and vascular damage typical of DR. Although most studies are limited to animal models and there is the problem of low bioavailability for many nutraceuticals, the use of these compounds may represent a natural alternative method to standard DR treatments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Eye Health)
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Open AccessReview
Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) in Ocular Diseases: A Narrative Review of the Existing Evidence from Clinical Studies
Nutrients 2019, 11(3), 649; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11030649 - 18 Mar 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) and its main constituents, i.e., crocin and crocetin, are natural carotenoid compounds, which have been reported to possess a wide spectrum of properties and induce pleiotropic anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative, and neuroprotective effects. An increasing number of experimental, animal, and [...] Read more.
Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) and its main constituents, i.e., crocin and crocetin, are natural carotenoid compounds, which have been reported to possess a wide spectrum of properties and induce pleiotropic anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative, and neuroprotective effects. An increasing number of experimental, animal, and human studies have investigated the effects and mechanistic pathways of these compounds in order to assess their potential therapeutic use in ocular diseases (e.g., in age related macular degeneration, glaucoma, and diabetic maculopathy). This narrative review presents the key findings of published clinical studies that examined the effects of saffron and/or its constituents in the context of ocular disease, as well as an overview of the proposed underlying mechanisms mediating these effects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Eye Health)
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Open AccessReview
The Role of Diet, Micronutrients and the Gut Microbiota in Age-Related Macular Degeneration: New Perspectives from the Gut–Retina Axis
Nutrients 2018, 10(11), 1677; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10111677 - 05 Nov 2018
Cited by 8
Abstract
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a complex multifactorial disease and the primary cause of legal and irreversible blindness among individuals aged ≥65 years in developed countries. Globally, it affects 30–50 million individuals, with an estimated increase of approximately 200 million by 2020 and [...] Read more.
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a complex multifactorial disease and the primary cause of legal and irreversible blindness among individuals aged ≥65 years in developed countries. Globally, it affects 30–50 million individuals, with an estimated increase of approximately 200 million by 2020 and approximately 300 million by 2040. Currently, the neovascular form may be able to be treated with the use of anti-VEGF drugs, while no effective treatments are available for the dry form. Many studies, such as the randomized controlled trials (RCTs) Age-Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS) and AREDS 2, have shown a potential role of micronutrient supplementation in lowering the risk of progression of the early stages of AMD. Recently, low-grade inflammation, sustained by dysbiosis and a leaky gut, has been shown to contribute to the development of AMD. Given the ascertained influence of the gut microbiota in systemic low-grade inflammation and its potential modulation by macro- and micro-nutrients, a potential role of diet in AMD has been proposed. This review discusses the role of the gut microbiota in the development of AMD. Using PubMed, Web of Science and Scopus, we searched for recent scientific evidence discussing the impact of dietary habits (high-fat and high-glucose or -fructose diets), micronutrients (vitamins C, E, and D, zinc, beta-carotene, lutein and zeaxanthin) and omega-3 fatty acids on the modulation of the gut microbiota and their relationship with AMD risk and progression. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Eye Health)
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview
Cataract Preventive Role of Isolated Phytoconstituents: Findings from a Decade of Research
Nutrients 2018, 10(11), 1580; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10111580 - 26 Oct 2018
Cited by 2
Abstract
Cataract is an eye disease with clouding of the eye lens leading to disrupted vision, which often develops slowly and causes blurriness of the eyesight. Although the restoration of the vision in people with cataract is conducted through surgery, the costs and risks [...] Read more.
Cataract is an eye disease with clouding of the eye lens leading to disrupted vision, which often develops slowly and causes blurriness of the eyesight. Although the restoration of the vision in people with cataract is conducted through surgery, the costs and risks remain an issue. Botanical drugs have been evaluated for their potential efficacies in reducing cataract formation decades ago and major active phytoconstituents were isolated from the plant extracts. The aim of this review is to find effective phytoconstituents in cataract treatments in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo. A literature search was synthesized from the databases of Pubmed, Science Direct, Google Scholar, Web of Science, and Scopus using different combinations of keywords. Selection of all manuscripts were based on inclusion and exclusion criteria together with analysis of publication year, plant species, isolated phytoconstituents, and evaluated cataract activities. Scientists have focused their attention not only for anti-cataract activity in vitro, but also in ex vivo and in vivo from the review of active phytoconstituents in medicinal plants. In our present review, we identified 58 active phytoconstituents with strong anti-cataract effects at in vitro and ex vivo with lack of in vivo studies. Considering the benefits of anti-cataract activities require critical evaluation, more in vivo and clinical trials need to be conducted to increase our understanding on the possible mechanisms of action and the therapeutic effects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Eye Health)
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