Next Article in Journal
The Association of Body Mass Index and Body Composition with Pain, Disease Activity, Fatigue, Sleep and Anxiety in Women with Fibromyalgia
Next Article in Special Issue
Early Time-Restricted Feeding Improves 24-Hour Glucose Levels and Affects Markers of the Circadian Clock, Aging, and Autophagy in Humans
Previous Article in Journal
Dysregulation of Neuronal Genes by Fetal-Neonatal Iron Deficiency Anemia Is Associated with Altered DNA Methylation in the Rat Hippocampus
Previous Article in Special Issue
Clinical Management of Intermittent Fasting in Patients with Diabetes Mellitus
Article Menu
Issue 5 (May) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessReview

Energy Metabolism and Intermittent Fasting: The Ramadan Perspective

Imperial College London Diabetes Center (ICLDC), Abu Dhabi 48338, UAE
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2019, 11(5), 1192; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11051192
Received: 18 April 2019 / Revised: 6 May 2019 / Accepted: 9 May 2019 / Published: 27 May 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health Effects of Intermittent Fasting: How Broad are the Benefits?)
  |  
PDF [1284 KB, uploaded 29 May 2019]
  |  

Abstract

Intermittent fasting (IF) has been gaining popularity as a means of losing weight. The Ramadan fast (RF) is a form of IF practiced by millions of adult Muslims globally for a whole lunar month every year. It entails a major shift from normal eating patterns to exclusive nocturnal eating. RF is a state of intermittent liver glycogen depletion and repletion. The earlier (morning) part of the fasting day is marked by dominance of carbohydrate as the main fuel, but lipid becomes more important towards the afternoon and as the time for breaking the fast at sunset (iftar) gets closer. The practice of observing Ramadan fasting is accompanied by changes in sleeping and activity patterns, as well as circadian rhythms of hormones including cortisol, insulin, leptin, ghrelin, growth hormone, prolactin, sex hormones, and adiponectin. Few studies have investigated energy expenditure in the context of RF including resting metabolic rate (RMR) and total energy expenditure (TEE) and found no significant changes with RF. Changes in activity and sleeping patterns however do occur and are different from non-Ramadan days. Weight changes in the context of Ramadan fast are variable and typically modest with wise inter-individual variation. As well as its direct relevance to many religious observers, understanding intermittent fasting may have implications on weight loss strategies with even broader potential implications. This review examines current knowledge on different aspects of energy balance in RF, as a common model to learn from and also map out strategies for healthier outcomes in such settings. View Full-Text
Keywords: fast; intermittent; Ramadan; energy expenditure; weight fast; intermittent; Ramadan; energy expenditure; weight
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Lessan, N.; Ali, T. Energy Metabolism and Intermittent Fasting: The Ramadan Perspective. Nutrients 2019, 11, 1192.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Nutrients EISSN 2072-6643 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top