Special Issue "Dietary Curcumin and Human Health"

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (1 July 2019).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Riccardo Ghidoni
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Health Sciences, University of Milan, 20142 Milan, Italy
Interests: polyphenols; cancer; bioactive lipids
Prof. Mariarosa Anna Beatrice Melone
E-Mail Website1 Website2
Guest Editor
1. Department of Medical and Surgical Advanced Sciences Second Division of Neurology , Center for Rare Neurological and Neuromuscular Diseases & Inter University Center for Research in Neurosciences, University of Campania Luigi Vanvitelli , Naples , Italy
2. Sbarro Institute for Cancer Research and Molecular Medicine, Department of Biology, Center for Biotechnology, College of Science and Technology, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA, USA
Interests: genetics of rare neurologic and neuromuscular diseases; translational neurogenetics; clinical & molecular neurogenetics; applied stem cell biology; systems neuroscience; neuropathology and experimental neurobiology; nanotechnology in nutraceuticals and functional fods; roles of autophagy in neurodegenerative diseases; clinical neurology of adults and children
Dr. Chiara Terracciano
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Inter University Center for Research in Neurosciences, Department of Medical, Surgical, Neurologic, Metabolic, and Aging Sciences, University of Campania Luigi Vanvitelli, Naples, Italy
Interests: neuromuscular disorders; neurological rare diseases; neuropathology; clinical biochemestry; clinical pathology; autophagy

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

We invite you to contribute to a Special Issue of Nutrients, entitled “Dietary Curcumin and Human Health”.

Curcumin is a polyphenol, extracted from the plant turmeric (Curcuma longa), a member of the ginger family, which has been widely used as an herbal medicine, ingredient of cosmetics, and dietary supplement (food flavoring and coloring).

Curcumin has been shown to be a potent molecule able to exert multiple beneficial pharmacological effects thanks to its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-proliferative proprieties.

Curcumin has been demonstrated to regulate several cellular signal transduction pathways and to have advantageous therapeutic effects in many pathological conditions, such as metabolic syndrome, arthritis, hyperlipidemia, skin disorders, neurodegenerative diseases, cancer, gastrointestinal disorders, etc. In addition, curcumin also seems to have beneficial effects on healthy people.

Despite this, the clinical efficacy of the native curcumin is weak, due to its low bioavailability and high metabolism in the gastrointestinal tract.

The aim of this Special Issue is to host the latest scientific advances in the role of curcumin in human health as a disease-preventing agent.

We are also interested in studies related to dietary curcumin availability, curcumin transport and metabolism, and curcumin function as an epigenetic modifier.

We welcome the submission of either original research manuscripts or reviews of the scientific literature.

Prof. Riccardo Ghidoni
Prof. Mariarosa Anna Beatrice Melone
Dr. Chiara Terracciano
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Nutrients is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Curcumin
  • Dietary curcumin
  • Bioavailability
  • Metabolic activity
  • Anti-inflammatory
  • Antioxidant
  • Anti-proliferative
  • Cell stress response
  • Tumors
  • Neurodegenerative diseases
  • Microbiota
  • Epigenetics

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessCommunication
Curcumin and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: Prevention and Treatment
Nutrients 2019, 11(8), 1837; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11081837 - 08 Aug 2019
Abstract
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is an ensemble of metabolic diseases that has reached pandemic dimensions all over the world. The multifactorial nature of the pathology makes patient management, which includes lifelong drug therapy and lifestyle modification, extremely challenging. It is well known [...] Read more.
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is an ensemble of metabolic diseases that has reached pandemic dimensions all over the world. The multifactorial nature of the pathology makes patient management, which includes lifelong drug therapy and lifestyle modification, extremely challenging. It is well known that T2DM is a preventable disease, therefore lowering the incidence of new T2DM cases could be a key strategy to reduce the global impact of diabetes. Currently, there is growing evidence on the efficacy of the use of medicinal plants supplements for T2DM prevention and management. Among these medicinal plants, curcumin is gaining a growing interest in the scientific community. Curcumin is a bioactive molecule present in the rhizome of the Curcuma longa plant, also known as turmeric. Curcumin has different pharmacological and biological effects that have been described by both in vitro and in vivo studies, and include antioxidant, cardio-protective, anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial, nephro-protective, anti-neoplastic, hepato-protective, immunomodulatory, hypoglycaemic and anti-rheumatic effects. In animal models, curcumin extract delays diabetes development, improves β-cell functions, prevents β-cell death, and decreases insulin resistance. The present review focuses on pre-clinical and clinical trials on curcumin supplementation in T2DM and discusses the peculiar mechanisms by which curcumin might ameliorate diabetes management. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Curcumin and Human Health)
Open AccessArticle
Protective Effects of CISD2 and Influence of Curcumin on CISD2 Expression in Aged Animals and Inflammatory Cell Model
Nutrients 2019, 11(3), 700; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11030700 - 25 Mar 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Background: Inflammation and mitochondrial dysfunction have been linked to trauma, neurodegeneration, and aging. Impairment of CISD2 expression may trigger the aforementioned pathological conditions in neural cells. We previously reported that curcumin attenuates the downregulation of CISD2 in animal models of spinal cord injury [...] Read more.
Background: Inflammation and mitochondrial dysfunction have been linked to trauma, neurodegeneration, and aging. Impairment of CISD2 expression may trigger the aforementioned pathological conditions in neural cells. We previously reported that curcumin attenuates the downregulation of CISD2 in animal models of spinal cord injury and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated neuronal cells. In this study, we investigate (1) the role of CISD2 and (2) how curcumin regulates CISD2 in the aging process. Materials and methods: The serial expression of CISD2 and the efficacy of curcumin treatment were evaluated in old (104 weeks) mice and long-term cultures of neural cells (35 days in vitro, DIV). LPS-challenged neural cells (with or without siCISD2 transfection) were used to verify the role of curcumin on CISD2 underlying mitochondrial dysfunction. Results: In the brain and spinal cord of mice aged P2, 8, 25, and 104 weeks, we observed a significant decrease in CISD2 expression with age. Curcumin treatment in vivo and in vitro was shown to upregulate CISD2 expression; attenuate inflammatory response in neural cells. Moreover, curcumin treatment elevated CISD2 expression levels and prevented mitochondrial dysfunction in LPS-challenged neural cells. The beneficial effects of curcumin in either non-stressed or LPS-challenged cells that underwent siCISD2 transfection were significantly lower than in respective groups of cells that underwent scrambled siRNA-transfection. Conclusions: We hypothesize that the protective effects of curcumin treatment in reducing cellular inflammation associated trauma, degenerative, and aging processes can be partially attributed to elevated CISD2 expression. We observed a reduction in the protective effects of curcumin against injury-induced inflammation and mitochondrial dysfunction in cells where CISD2 expression was reduced by siCISD2. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Curcumin and Human Health)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Curcumin, Gut Microbiota, and Neuroprotection
Nutrients 2019, 11(10), 2426; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11102426 - 11 Oct 2019
Abstract
Curcumin, a nontoxic, naturally occurring polyphenol, has been recently proposed for the management of neurodegenerative and neurological diseases. However, a discrepancy exists between the well-documented pharmacological activities that curcumin seems to possess in vivo and its poor aqueous solubility, bioavailability, and pharmacokinetic profiles [...] Read more.
Curcumin, a nontoxic, naturally occurring polyphenol, has been recently proposed for the management of neurodegenerative and neurological diseases. However, a discrepancy exists between the well-documented pharmacological activities that curcumin seems to possess in vivo and its poor aqueous solubility, bioavailability, and pharmacokinetic profiles that should limit any therapeutic effect. Thus, it is possible that curcumin could exert direct regulative effects primarily in the gastrointestinal tract, where high concentrations of curcumin are present after oral administration. Indeed, a new working hypothesis that could explain the neuroprotective role of curcumin despite its limited availability is that curcumin acts indirectly on the central nervous system by influencing the “microbiota–gut–brain axis”, a complex bidirectional system in which the microbiome and its composition represent a factor which preserves and determines brain “health”. Interestingly, curcumin and its metabolites might provide benefit by restoring dysbiosis of gut microbiome. Conversely, curcumin is subject to bacterial enzymatic modifications, forming pharmacologically more active metabolites than curcumin. These mutual interactions allow to keep proper individual physiologic functions and play a key role in neuroprotection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Curcumin and Human Health)
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Open AccessReview
Curcumin, Hormesis and the Nervous System
Nutrients 2019, 11(10), 2417; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11102417 - 10 Oct 2019
Abstract
Curcumin is a polyphenol compound extracted from the rhizome of Curcuma longa Linn (family Zingiberaceae) commonly used as a spice to color and flavor food. Several preclinical studies have suggested beneficial roles for curcumin as an adjuvant therapy in free radical-based diseases, [...] Read more.
Curcumin is a polyphenol compound extracted from the rhizome of Curcuma longa Linn (family Zingiberaceae) commonly used as a spice to color and flavor food. Several preclinical studies have suggested beneficial roles for curcumin as an adjuvant therapy in free radical-based diseases, mainly neurodegenerative disorders. Indeed, curcumin belongs to the family of hormetins and the enhancement of the cell stress response, mainly the heme oxygenase-1 system, is actually considered the common denominator for this dual response. However, evidence-based medicine has clearly demonstrated the lack of any therapeutic effect of curcumin to contrast the onset or progression of neurodegeneration and related diseases. Finally, the curcumin safety profile imposes a careful analysis of the risk/benefit balance prior to proposing chronic supplementation with curcumin. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Curcumin and Human Health)
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Open AccessReview
Curcumin and Cancer
Nutrients 2019, 11(10), 2376; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11102376 - 05 Oct 2019
Abstract
Curcumin, a polyphenol extracted from Curcuma longa in 1815, has gained attention from scientists worldwide for its biological activities (e.g., antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antiviral), among which its anticancer potential has been the most described and still remains under investigation. The present review focuses [...] Read more.
Curcumin, a polyphenol extracted from Curcuma longa in 1815, has gained attention from scientists worldwide for its biological activities (e.g., antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antiviral), among which its anticancer potential has been the most described and still remains under investigation. The present review focuses on the cell signaling pathways involved in cancer development and proliferation, and which are targeted by curcumin. Curcumin has been reported to modulate growth factors, enzymes, transcription factors, kinase, inflammatory cytokines, and proapoptotic (by upregulation) and antiapoptotic (by downregulation) proteins. This polyphenol compound, alone or combined with other agents, could represent an effective drug for cancer therapy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Curcumin and Human Health)
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Open AccessReview
Potential of Curcumin in Skin Disorders
Nutrients 2019, 11(9), 2169; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11092169 - 10 Sep 2019
Abstract
Curcumin is a compound isolated from turmeric, a plant known for its medicinal use. Recently, there is a growing interest in the medical community in identifying novel, low-cost, safe molecules that may be used in the treatment of inflammatory and neoplastic diseases. An [...] Read more.
Curcumin is a compound isolated from turmeric, a plant known for its medicinal use. Recently, there is a growing interest in the medical community in identifying novel, low-cost, safe molecules that may be used in the treatment of inflammatory and neoplastic diseases. An increasing amount of evidence suggests that curcumin may represent an effective agent in the treatment of several skin conditions. We examined the most relevant in vitro and in vivo studies published to date regarding the use of curcumin in inflammatory, neoplastic, and infectious skin diseases, providing information on its bioavailability and safety profile. Moreover, we performed a computational analysis about curcumin’s interaction towards the major enzymatic targets identified in the literature. Our results suggest that curcumin may represent a low-cost, well-tolerated, effective agent in the treatment of skin diseases. However, bypass of limitations of its in vivo use (low oral bioavailability, metabolism) is essential in order to conduct larger clinical trials that could confirm these observations. The possible use of curcumin in combination with traditional drugs and the formulations of novel delivery systems represent a very promising field for future applicative research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Curcumin and Human Health)
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Open AccessReview
Dietary Curcumin: Correlation between Bioavailability and Health Potential
Nutrients 2019, 11(9), 2147; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11092147 - 08 Sep 2019
Abstract
The yellow pigment curcumin, extracted from turmeric, is a renowned polyphenol with a broad spectrum of health properties such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, antidiabetic, hepatoprotective, anti-allergic, anti-dermatophyte, and neuroprotective. However, these properties are followed by a poor pharmacokinetic profile which compromises its therapeutic [...] Read more.
The yellow pigment curcumin, extracted from turmeric, is a renowned polyphenol with a broad spectrum of health properties such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, antidiabetic, hepatoprotective, anti-allergic, anti-dermatophyte, and neuroprotective. However, these properties are followed by a poor pharmacokinetic profile which compromises its therapeutic potential. The association of low absorption by the small intestine and the extensive reductive and conjugative metabolism in the liver dramatically weakens the oral bioavailability. Several strategies such as inhibition of curcumin metabolism with adjuvants as well as novel solid and liquid oral delivery systems have been tried to counteract curcumin poor absorption and rapid elimination from the body. Some of these drug deliveries can successfully enhance the solubility, extending the residence in plasma, improving the pharmacokinetic profile and the cellular uptake. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Curcumin and Human Health)
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview
The Autophagy Signaling Pathway: A Potential Multifunctional Therapeutic Target of Curcumin in Neurological and Neuromuscular Diseases
Nutrients 2019, 11(8), 1881; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11081881 - 13 Aug 2019
Abstract
Autophagy is the major intracellular machinery for degrading proteins, lipids, polysaccharides, and organelles. This cellular process is essential for the maintenance of the correct cellular balance in both physiological and stress conditions. Because of its role in maintaining cellular homeostasis, dysregulation of autophagy [...] Read more.
Autophagy is the major intracellular machinery for degrading proteins, lipids, polysaccharides, and organelles. This cellular process is essential for the maintenance of the correct cellular balance in both physiological and stress conditions. Because of its role in maintaining cellular homeostasis, dysregulation of autophagy leads to various disease manifestations, such as inflammation, metabolic alterations, aging, and neurodegeneration. A common feature of many neurologic and neuromuscular diseases is the alteration of the autophagy-lysosomal pathways. For this reason, autophagy is considered a target for the prevention and/or cure of these diseases. Dietary intake of polyphenols has been demonstrated to prevent/ameliorate several of these diseases. Thus, natural products that can modulate the autophagy machinery are considered a promising therapeutic strategy. In particular, curcumin, a phenolic compound widely used as a dietary supplement, exerts an important effect in modulating autophagy. Herein, we report on the current knowledge concerning the role of curcumin in modulating the autophagy machinery in various neurological and neuromuscular diseases as well as its role in restoring the autophagy molecular mechanism in several cell types that have different effects on the progression of neurological and neuromuscular disorders. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Curcumin and Human Health)
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