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Review

The Role of Mineral and Trace Element Supplementation in Exercise and Athletic Performance: A Systematic Review

1
School of Public Health, Physiotherapy and Sports Science, University College Dublin, D04 V1W8 Dublin 4, Ireland
2
School of Food Science and Environmental Health, Dublin Institute of Technology, Dublin 8, Ireland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2019, 11(3), 696; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11030696
Received: 31 January 2019 / Revised: 12 March 2019 / Accepted: 19 March 2019 / Published: 24 March 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition Support for Athletic Performance)
Minerals and trace elements (MTEs) are micronutrients involved in hundreds of biological processes. Deficiency in MTEs can negatively affect athletic performance. Approximately 50% of athletes have reported consuming some form of micronutrient supplement; however, there is limited data confirming their efficacy for improving performance. The aim of this study was to systematically review the role of MTEs in exercise and athletic performance. Six electronic databases and grey literature sources (MEDLINE; EMBASE; CINAHL and SportDISCUS; Web of Science and clinicaltrials.gov) were searched, in accordance with PRISMA guidelines. Results: 17,433 articles were identified and 130 experiments from 128 studies were included. Retrieved articles included Iron (n = 29), Calcium (n = 11), Magnesium, (n = 22), Phosphate (n = 17), Zinc (n = 9), Sodium (n = 15), Boron (n = 4), Selenium (n = 5), Chromium (n = 12) and multi-mineral articles (n = 5). No relevant articles were identified for Copper, Manganese, Iodine, Nickel, Fluoride or Cobalt. Only Iron and Magnesium included articles of sufficient quality to be assigned as ‘strong’. Currently, there is little evidence to support the use of MTE supplementation to improve physiological markers of athletic performance, with the possible exception of Iron (in particular, biological situations) and Magnesium as these currently have the strongest quality evidence. Regardless, some MTEs may possess the potential to improve athletic performance, but more high quality research is required before support for these MTEs can be given. PROSPERO preregistered (CRD42018090502). View Full-Text
Keywords: ergogenic aids; nutritional supplements; physical performance; exercise and sport nutrition; muscle function ergogenic aids; nutritional supplements; physical performance; exercise and sport nutrition; muscle function
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MDPI and ACS Style

Heffernan, S.M.; Horner, K.; De Vito, G.; Conway, G.E. The Role of Mineral and Trace Element Supplementation in Exercise and Athletic Performance: A Systematic Review. Nutrients 2019, 11, 696. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11030696

AMA Style

Heffernan SM, Horner K, De Vito G, Conway GE. The Role of Mineral and Trace Element Supplementation in Exercise and Athletic Performance: A Systematic Review. Nutrients. 2019; 11(3):696. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11030696

Chicago/Turabian Style

Heffernan, Shane M., Katy Horner, Giuseppe De Vito, and Gillian E. Conway 2019. "The Role of Mineral and Trace Element Supplementation in Exercise and Athletic Performance: A Systematic Review" Nutrients 11, no. 3: 696. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11030696

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