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Open AccessArticle

Breakfast Consumption in Spain: Patterns, Nutrient Intake and Quality. Findings from the ANIBES Study, a Study from the International Breakfast Research Initiative

1
Spanish Nutrition Foundation (FEN), C/General Álvarez de Castro 20, 1 pta, 28010 Madrid, Spain
2
Department of Pharmaceutical and Health Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy, CEU San Pablo University, Urb. Montepríncipe, Crta. Boadilla Km 53, Boadilla del Monte, 28668 Madrid, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2018, 10(9), 1324; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10091324
Received: 20 August 2018 / Revised: 9 September 2018 / Accepted: 14 September 2018 / Published: 18 September 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue International Breakfast Research Consortium)
This study aimed to investigate energy, nutrient and food group intakes at breakfast in Spain and to examine for the first time, their relationship to the overall Diet Quality (DQ). The data used were from the Spanish ANIBES (anthropometric data, macronutrients and micronutrients intake, practice of physical activity, socioeconomic data and lifestyles in Spain), a cross-sectional study using a nationally representative sample of the Spanish population (9–75 years old). DQ was assessed using the Nutrient Rich Foods Index, adapted to total diets (NRF9.3d). Most (>85%) of the Spanish population were regular breakfast consumers, although one in five adolescents were breakfast skippers. Breakfast provides just 16–19% of the daily intake of energy. Relative to its daily energy contribution, the Spanish breakfast contributed a higher proportion of daily total carbohydrates, added sugars, sodium, thiamin, riboflavin, folates, iron, potassium, magnesium, phosphorus and especially in calcium. By contrast, the breakfast is low in water intake, protein, dietary fibre, total fat, polyunsaturated fatty acids, beta-carotene and vitamins E and D. In children and teenagers, the most commonly consumed breakfast food was chocolate (mainly as chocolate-flavoured milk and powder), followed by bakery and pastry, whole milk and semi-skimmed milk. In the older groups, a bigger variety of foods were reported. Consumers in the highest NRF9.3d tertile for diet quality tended to have a higher intake of positive nutrients at breakfast than other tertiles, most notably among adults. View Full-Text
Keywords: breakfast consumption; dietary quality; ANIBES Study; NRF 9.3; Spanish diet; food groups breakfast consumption; dietary quality; ANIBES Study; NRF 9.3; Spanish diet; food groups
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Ruiz, E.; Ávila, J.M.; Valero, T.; Rodriguez, P.; Varela-Moreiras, G. Breakfast Consumption in Spain: Patterns, Nutrient Intake and Quality. Findings from the ANIBES Study, a Study from the International Breakfast Research Initiative. Nutrients 2018, 10, 1324.

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