Special Issue "Anthropometry, Body Composition and Resting Energy Expenditure in Human"

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 February 2019).

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A printed edition of this Special Issue is available here.

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Josep A. Tur
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Research Group on Community Nutrition and Oxidative Stress (NUCOX), University of the Balearic Islands & CIBEROBN (Physiopathology of Obesity and Nutrition), and Foundation of Health Research Institute of the Balearic Islands (IdISBa). Campus UIB, Guillem Colom Bldg., 07122 Palma de Mallorca, Spain
Interests: community nutrition; Mediterranean diet; epidemiology; public health; diet; nutrition; hydration; sports nutrition; obesity; non-alcoholic fatty liver; epigenetics; biomarkers; oxidative stress; antioxidants
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Dr. Maria del Mar Bibilonic
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
University of the Balearic Islands & CIBEROBN, Guillem Colom Bldg, 07122 Palma de Mallorca, Spain
Interests: nutrient intake; nutritional epidemiology; body composition; anthropometry

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Data on nutritional status of human populations are periodically needed, as well as their relationships with anthropometry, body composition, body image and energy expenditure, and also with health lifestyle outcomes. All these parameters contribute jointly to give a complete knowledge on dietary and lifestyle habits, and hence how to proceed to improve it in order to enjoy an optimal healthy status. So, you are kindly invited to submit proposals for manuscripts that fit the objectives and the topics of this Nutrients Special issue.

The aim of this proposed Nutrients Special Issue on "Anthropometry, Body Composition and Resting Energy Expenditure in Humans" is to publish selected papers detailing specific aspects of anthropometric, body composition and energy expenditure data in human populations and their relationships with nutritional status, as well as nutritional surveys and trials that examine measured differences or changes in these parameters are also cordially invited.

Prof. Dr. Josep A. Tur
Dr. Maria del Mar Bibiloni
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Anthropometry
  • Body composition
  • Body image
  • Body Mass Index
  • Free fat mass
  • Body fat
  • Nutritional status
  • Dietary influences
  • Health outcomes
  • Lifestyle outcomes

Published Papers (12 papers)

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Editorial

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Open AccessEditorial
Anthropometry, Body Composition and Resting Energy Expenditure in Human
Nutrients 2019, 11(8), 1891; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11081891 - 14 Aug 2019
Abstract
Anthropometry (from the Greek anthropos: human, and metron: measure) refers to the systematic collection and correlation of measurements of human individuals, including the systematic measurement of the physical characteristics of the human body, primarily body weight, body size, and shape [...] Full article

Research

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Open AccessArticle
Body Shape Index Is a Stronger Predictor of Diabetes
Nutrients 2019, 11(5), 1018; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11051018 - 07 May 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Anthropometric indicators can predict the development of diabetes among adults. Among them, a new indicator (Body Shape Index) was developed. Several cohort observational studies have demonstrated that A Body Shape Index (ABSI) is a prominent indicator for mortality and morbidity. Nevertheless, the predictive [...] Read more.
Anthropometric indicators can predict the development of diabetes among adults. Among them, a new indicator (Body Shape Index) was developed. Several cohort observational studies have demonstrated that A Body Shape Index (ABSI) is a prominent indicator for mortality and morbidity. Nevertheless, the predictive level of ABSI for diabetes varied among different ethnicities. This study aimed to assess the predictive level of ABSI for diabetes compared to BMI in the Qatari population. Date from 2536 Qatari adults aged 20–79 years attending the Qatar Biobank Study were used. Body height, weight, and waist circumference were measured. Blood samples were measured for glucose. The association between ABSI, BMI, and diabetes was assessed using a logistic regression. Both ABSI and BMI were positively associated with diabetes after adjusting for potential confounding factors. ABSI had a stronger association with diabetes than BMI. Per 1 SD increment of ABSI and BMI, the z-score had an odds ratios of 1.85 (1.54–2.23) and 1.34 (1.18–1.51) for diabetes, respectively. ABSI and BMI are significantly associated with diabetes in the Qatari population. ABSI is a better predictor for the risk of diabetes than BMI after the adjustment for age, gender, education, and physical activity. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Nut Consumptions as a Marker of Higher Diet Quality in a Mediterranean Population at High Cardiovascular Risk
Nutrients 2019, 11(4), 754; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11040754 - 30 Mar 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
Background: Nut consumption has been associated with improved nutrient adequacy and diet quality in healthy adult populations but this association has never been explored in individuals at high cardiovascular risk. Objective: to assess the associations between consumption of nuts and nutrient adequacy and [...] Read more.
Background: Nut consumption has been associated with improved nutrient adequacy and diet quality in healthy adult populations but this association has never been explored in individuals at high cardiovascular risk. Objective: to assess the associations between consumption of nuts and nutrient adequacy and diet quality in a Mediterranean population at high cardiovascular risk. Design: baseline assessment of nutritional adequacy in participants (n = 6060, men and women, with ages 55–75 years old, with overweight/obesity and metabolic syndrome) in the PREDIMED-PLUS primary cardiovascular prevention randomized trial. Methods: nut intake was assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Participants who reported consuming zero quantity of nuts were classified as ‘non-nut consumers’. ‘Nut consumers’ were participants who reported consuming any quantity of nuts. Nineteen micronutrients were examined (vitamins B1, B2, B3, B6, B12, A, C, D, E and folic acid; Ca, K, P, Mg, Fe, Se, Cr, Zn, and iodine). The proportion of micronutrient inadequacy was estimated using the estimated average requirements (EAR) or adequate intake (AI) cut-points. Diet quality was also assessed using a 17-item Mediterranean dietary questionnaire (Mediterranean diet score, MDS), a carbohydrate quality index (CQI) and a fat quality index (FQI). Results: eighty-two percent of participants were nut consumers (median of nut consumption 12.6 g/day; interquartile range: 6.0–25.2). Nut consumers were less likely to be below the EAR for vitamins A, B1, B2, B6, C, D, E, folic acid, and Ca, Mg, Se and Zn than non-nut consumers. Nut consumers were also more likely to be above the AI for K and Cr than non-nut consumers. Nut consumers had lower prevalence of inadequate micronutrient intakes, but also higher CQI, higher FQI, and better scores of adherence to the Mediterranean diet (Mediterranean diet score, MDS). Conclusions: nut consumers had better nutrient adequacy, diet quality, and adherence to the MedDiet than those non-nut consumers. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Congruent Validity of Resting Energy Expenditure Predictive Equations in Young Adults
Nutrients 2019, 11(2), 223; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11020223 - 22 Jan 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
Having valid and reliable resting energy expenditure (REE) estimations is crucial to establish reachable goals for dietary and exercise interventions. However, most of the REE predictive equations were developed some time ago and, as the body composition of the current population has changed, [...] Read more.
Having valid and reliable resting energy expenditure (REE) estimations is crucial to establish reachable goals for dietary and exercise interventions. However, most of the REE predictive equations were developed some time ago and, as the body composition of the current population has changed, it is highly relevant to assess the validity of REE predictive equations in contemporary young adults. In addition, little is known about the role of sex and weight status on the validity of these predictive equations. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the role of sex and weight status in congruent validity of REE predictive equations in young adults. A total of 132 young healthy adults (67.4% women, 18–26 years old) participated in the study. We measured REE by indirect calorimetry strictly following the standard procedures, and we compared it to 45 predictive equations. The most accurate equations were the following: (i) the Schofield and the “Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations/World Health Organization/United Nations” (FAO/WHO/UNU) equations in normal weight men; (ii) the Mifflin and FAO/WHO/UNU equations in normal weight women; (iii) the Livingston and Korth equations in overweight men; (iv) the Johnstone and Frankenfield equations in overweight women; (v) the Owen and Bernstein equations in obese men; and (vi) the Owen equation in obese women. In conclusion, the results of this study show that the best equation to estimate REE depends on sex and weight status in young healthy adults. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Growth Pattern, Resting Energy Expenditure, and Nutrient Intake of Children with Food Allergies
Nutrients 2019, 11(2), 212; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11020212 - 22 Jan 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Growth impairment has been reported in children with food allergies (FA). However, the available data on the dietary intake of FA children are controversial, and no data are available on their resting energy expenditure (REE). The aim of this study was to test [...] Read more.
Growth impairment has been reported in children with food allergies (FA). However, the available data on the dietary intake of FA children are controversial, and no data are available on their resting energy expenditure (REE). The aim of this study was to test whether REE differs between FA and healthy children. In this study, 30 FA children were matched by sex and age, with 31 healthy controls using coarsened exact matching (CEM). Their REE was measured by indirect calorimetry (IC). Energy and macronutrient intake were evaluated using a three-day dietary record. Between-group comparisons were performed by robust median regression using CEM-related weights. The association of REE with allergies was also evaluated using robust median regression models. Anthropometric measurements, REE, and nutrient intake were similar in FA children and matched controls. Taking into account the association of REE with gender and age, a statistically significant but biologically negligible association was detected between median REE and allergy status (+9% in FA children). In conclusion, we did not find any biologically relevant difference in REE, anthropometry, and dietary intake in children with FA compared to healthy children. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Performance of Waist-To-Height Ratio, Waist Circumference, and Body Mass Index in Discriminating Cardio-Metabolic Risk Factors in a Sample of School-Aged Mexican Children
Nutrients 2018, 10(12), 1850; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10121850 - 01 Dec 2018
Cited by 1
Abstract
The most common tools used to screen for abdominal obesity are waist circumference (WC) and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR); the latter may represent a more suitable tool for the general non-professional population. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association of WHtR, [...] Read more.
The most common tools used to screen for abdominal obesity are waist circumference (WC) and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR); the latter may represent a more suitable tool for the general non-professional population. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association of WHtR, WC, and body mass index with lipidic and non-lipidic cardio-metabolic risk factors and the prediction capability of each adiposity indicator in a sample of school-aged Mexican children. Overall, 125 children aged 6 to 12 years were analyzed. Anthropometric, biochemical, and dietary parameters were assessed. Receiving operating characteristic (ROC) analysis and univariate and multivariate linear and logistic regression analyses were performed. All the three adiposity indicators showed significant areas under the ROC curve (AURC) greater than 0.68 for high low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c), triglycerides, and atherogenic index of plasma, and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c). A significant increased risk of having LDL-c ≥ 3.4 mmol/L was observed among children with WHtR ≥ 0.5 as compared to those with WHtR < 0.5 (odds ratio, OR: 2.82; 95% confidence interval, CI: 0.75–7.68; p = 0.003). Fasting plasma glucose was not associated with any of the adiposity parameters. WHtR performed similarly to WC and z-BMI in predicting lipidic cardio-metabolic risk factors; however, a WHtR ≥ 0.5 was superior in detecting an increased risk of elevated LDL-c. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Association between Physical Condition and Body Composition, Nutrient Intake, Sociodemographic Characteristics, and Lifestyle Habits in Older Spanish Adults
Nutrients 2018, 10(11), 1608; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10111608 - 01 Nov 2018
Cited by 4
Abstract
In this study, we assessed physical condition and its association with body composition, nutrient intake, sociodemographic characteristics, and lifestyle habits in older Spanish adults. In this cross-sectional study, we investigated 380 individuals (54% women; men aged 55–80 years and women aged 60–80 years) [...] Read more.
In this study, we assessed physical condition and its association with body composition, nutrient intake, sociodemographic characteristics, and lifestyle habits in older Spanish adults. In this cross-sectional study, we investigated 380 individuals (54% women; men aged 55–80 years and women aged 60–80 years) with no previously documented cardiovascular disease. A general questionnaire was used, and body weight, height, fat, appendicular skeletal muscle mass, and waist circumference were assessed. Physical condition measurements included handgrip strength (HGS) and agility/dynamic balance by eight-foot time up-and-go (8-f TUG) test. The lowest maximum HGS score (kg) was found in older participants, inactive men, and men with abdominal obesity. The highest maximum 8-f TUG score (s) was found in older and inactive, low education, low income, and abdominal obesity and overfat participants; 24.5% of participants had low maximum HGS and 36.8% had a high 8-f TUG score. Sex- and/or age-adjusted odds ratio (OR) for low maximum HGS in women, older participants, overweight and overfat participants were 4.6, 2.9, 0.6 and 0.6 respectively. Sex and/or age adjusted OR for high maximum 8-f TUG in women, overweight, overfat, and abdominally obese participants were 2.4, 1.6, 1.7, and 3.4, respectively; in participants with higher education, those who earned €900 or more per month, and slightly active and active participants had OR values of 0.4, 0.4, and 0.3, respectively. Sarcopenia incidence was 0.3%; however, 4.5% of men and 19.1% of women registered low physical condition (high and low scores in 8-f TUG and HGS tests, respectively). Overall, 36.8%, 24.5%, and 0.3% of participants had high maximum 8-f TUG score, low maximum HGS, and sarcopenia, respectively. Prevalence of these low values varies according to sociodemographic and body composition variables. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Reliability of Compartmental Body Composition Measures in Weight-Stable Adults Using GE iDXA: Implications for Research and Practice
Nutrients 2018, 10(10), 1484; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10101484 - 12 Oct 2018
Cited by 5
Abstract
The aim of this study was to explore the reliability and precision of body compartment measures, in particular visceral adipose tissue, in weight stable adults over a range of BMIs using GE-Lunar iDXA. Weight-stable participants aged 18–65 years had a total body composition [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to explore the reliability and precision of body compartment measures, in particular visceral adipose tissue, in weight stable adults over a range of BMIs using GE-Lunar iDXA. Weight-stable participants aged 18–65 years had a total body composition scan on GE-Lunar iDXA either on three separate occasions over a three month period (n = 51), or on a single occasion for duplicate scans with repositioning (n = 30). The coefficient of variation (CV%) and least significant change (LSC) of body compartments were calculated. The CV was higher for all measures over three months (range 0.8–5.9%) compared with same-day precision-scans (all < 2%). The CV for visceral adipose tissue (VAT) was considerably higher than all other body compartments (42.2% three months, 16.2% same day scanning). To accurately measure VAT mass using the GE iDXA it is recommended that participants have a BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2, or VAT mass > 500 g. Changes observed in VAT mass levels below 500 g should be interpreted with caution due to lack of precision and reliability. All other compartmental measures demonstrated good reliability, with less than 6% variation over three months. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Comparison of a Bioelectrical Impedance Device against the Reference Method Dual Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry and Anthropometry for the Evaluation of Body Composition in Adults
Nutrients 2018, 10(10), 1469; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10101469 - 10 Oct 2018
Cited by 4
Abstract
This study aimed to compare the use of the bioelectrical impedance device (BIA) seca® mBCA 515 using dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) as a reference method, for body composition assessment in adults across the spectrum of body mass indices. It explores the utility [...] Read more.
This study aimed to compare the use of the bioelectrical impedance device (BIA) seca® mBCA 515 using dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) as a reference method, for body composition assessment in adults across the spectrum of body mass indices. It explores the utility of simple anthropometric measures (the waist height ratio (WHtR) and waist circumference (WC)) for the assessment of obesity. In the morning after an overnight fast (10 h), 30 participants underwent a body composition DXA (GE iDXA) scan, BIA (seca 515), and anthropometric measures. Compared to the DXA reference measure, the BIA underestimated fat mass (FM) by 0.32 kg (limits of agreement −3.8 kg, 4.4 kg); overestimated fat free mass (FFM) by 0.43 kg (limits of agreement −8.2 kg, 4.3 kg). Some of the variation was explained by body mass index (BMI), as for FM, the mean difference of the normal range BMI group was smaller than for the overweight/obese group (0.25 kg and 0.35 kg, respectively) with wider limits of agreement (−4.30 kg, 4.81 kg, and −3.61 kg, 4.30 kg, respectively). There were significant differences in visceral adipose tissue (VAT) volume measurements between methods with BIA systematically overestimating VAT compared to DXA. WC was more strongly correlated with DXA FM (rho = 0.90, p < 0.001) than WHtR (rho = 0.83, p < 0.001). BIA had some agreement with DXA; however, they are not equivalent measures for the range of BMIs explored, with DXA remaining the more informative tool. WC is a useful and simple assessment tool for obesity. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis Results for Estimating Body Composition Are Associated with Glucose Metabolism Following Laparoscopic Sleeve Gastrectomy in Obese Japanese Patients
Nutrients 2018, 10(10), 1456; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10101456 - 08 Oct 2018
Cited by 2
Abstract
We investigated the association between body composition and changes in glucose metabolism following laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) in obese Japanese patients. Thirty-two Class III obese patients were assessed before LSG and 3, 6, and 12 months postoperatively. Variables including fat mass (FM), % [...] Read more.
We investigated the association between body composition and changes in glucose metabolism following laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) in obese Japanese patients. Thirty-two Class III obese patients were assessed before LSG and 3, 6, and 12 months postoperatively. Variables including fat mass (FM), % body fat (%FM), total and skeletal muscle mass (MM), the ratio of lower extremity MM to body weight (BW) (L/W), and the ratio of upper extremity MM to BW (U/W) were measured while using bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA). LSG significantly decreased BW, FM, and %FM in all time periods observed after surgery with concomitant improvements in metabolic markers. MM was decreased at three months but maintained from 3–12 months post-surgery. Importantly, %MM, U/W, and the L/W ratio increased after LSG. Furthermore, change in FM was positively correlated with change in BW 12 months after LSG, whereas changes in %MM were negatively correlated with fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c). Finally, multivariable stepwise regression analyses showed that changes in % total MM was an independent determinant of FPG and change in % skeletal MM was a significant independent determinant of HbA1c in Class III obese Japanese patients after LSG. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of Long-Term Walnut Supplementation on Body Weight in Free-Living Elderly: Results of a Randomized Controlled Trial
Nutrients 2018, 10(9), 1317; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10091317 - 18 Sep 2018
Cited by 4
Abstract
Objective: To assess the effects of chronic walnut consumption on body weight and adiposity in elderly individuals. Methods: The Walnuts and Healthy Aging study is a dual-center (Barcelona, Spain and Loma Linda University (LLU)), 2-year randomized parallel trial. This report concerns [...] Read more.
Objective: To assess the effects of chronic walnut consumption on body weight and adiposity in elderly individuals. Methods: The Walnuts and Healthy Aging study is a dual-center (Barcelona, Spain and Loma Linda University (LLU)), 2-year randomized parallel trial. This report concerns only the LLU cohort. Healthy elders (mean age 69 year, 67% women) were randomly assigned to walnut (n = 183) or control diets (n = 173). Subjects in the walnut group received packaged walnuts (28–56 g/day), equivalent to ≈15% of daily energy requirements, to incorporate into their habitual diet, while those in the control group abstained from walnuts. Adiposity was measured periodically, and data were adjusted for in-trial changes in self-reported physical activity. Results: After 2 years, body weight significantly decreased (p = 0.031), while body fat significantly increased (p = 0.0001). However, no significant differences were observed between the control and walnut groups regarding body weight (−0.6 kg and −0.4 kg, respectively, p = 0.67) or body fat (+0.9% and +1.3%, respectively, p = 0.53). Lean body mass, waist circumference, and waist-to-hip ratio remained essentially unchanged. Sensitivity analyses were consistent with the findings of primary analysis. Conclusion: Our findings indicate that walnuts can be incorporated into the daily diet of healthy elders without concern for adverse effects on body weight or body composition. Full article
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Review

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Open AccessReview
New Insights about How to Make an Intervention in Children and Adolescents with Metabolic Syndrome: Diet, Exercise vs. Changes in Body Composition. A Systematic Review of RCT
Nutrients 2018, 10(7), 878; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10070878 - 06 Jul 2018
Cited by 4
Abstract
Objective: To record which interventions produce the greatest variations in body composition in patients ≤19 years old with metabolic syndrome (MS). Method: search dates between 2005 and 2017 in peer reviewed journals, following the PRISMA method (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and [...] Read more.
Objective: To record which interventions produce the greatest variations in body composition in patients ≤19 years old with metabolic syndrome (MS). Method: search dates between 2005 and 2017 in peer reviewed journals, following the PRISMA method (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses). The selection criteria were: diagnostic for MS or at least a criterion for diagnosis; randomized clinical trials, ≤19 years of age; intervention programs that use diet and/or exercise as a tool (interventions showing an interest in body composition). Results: 1781 clinical trials were identified under these criteria but only 0.51% were included. The most frequent characteristics of the selected clinical trials were that they used multidisciplinary interventions and were carried out in America. The most utilized parameters were BMI (body mass index) in kg/m2 and BW (body weight) in kg. Conclusions: Most of the clinical trials included had been diagnosed through at least 2 diagnostic criteria for MS. Multidisciplinary interventions obtained greater changes in body composition in patients with MS. This change was especially prevalent in the combinations of dietary interventions and physical exercise. It is proposed to follow the guidelines proposed for patients who are overweight, obese, or have diabetes type 2, and extrapolate these strategies as recommendations for future clinical trials designed for patients with MS. Full article
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