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Open AccessArticle

Diet: Cause or Consequence of the Microbial Profile of Cholelithiasis Disease?

Department of Functional Biology, University of Oviedo, C/Julián Clavería s/n, 33006 Oviedo, Asturias, Spain
Group Diet, Microbiota and Health, Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria del Principado de Asturias (ISPA), Avda. Roma s/n, 33011 Oviedo, Asturias, Spain
Department of Microbiology and Biochemistry of Dairy Products, Dairy Research Institute of Asturias–Spanish National Research Council (IPLA-CSIC), Paseo Río Linares s/n, 33300 Villaviciosa, Asturias, Spain
General Surgery Service, Colorectal Surgery Unit, Cabueñes University Hospital, Calle Los Prados 395, 33394 Gijón, Asturias, Spain
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2018, 10(9), 1307;
Received: 31 July 2018 / Revised: 5 September 2018 / Accepted: 13 September 2018 / Published: 14 September 2018
PDF [1847 KB, uploaded 17 September 2018]


Recent dietary habits and lifestyle could explain the shaping of the gut microbiota composition and, in consequence, the increasing prevalence of certain pathologies. However, little attention has been paid to the influence of diet on microbiotas, other than the gut microbiota. This is important in cholelithiasis, given that changes in the production of bile acids may affect gallbladder microbial communities. Our aim was to assess the association between regular dietary intake and gallbladder microbial composition. Fourteen adults with cholelithiasis and 14 controls, sex‒age-matched and without gastrointestinal pathology, were included. Diet was assessed through a food frequency questionnaire and quantification of gallbladder microbiota sequences by Illumina 16S rRNA gene-based analysis. The cholelithiasic patients showed greater intake of potatoes and lower consumption of vegetables, non-alcoholic drinks, and sauces, which resulted in a lower intake of energy, lipids, digestible polysaccharides, folate, calcium, magnesium, vitamin C, and some phenolic compounds. Regarding the altered bile microorganisms in cholelithiasic patients, dairy product intake was negatively associated with the proportions of Bacteroidaceae and Bacteroides, and several types of fiber, phenolics, and fatty acids were linked to the abundance of Bacteroidaceae, Chitinophagaceae, Propionibacteraceae, Bacteroides, and Escherichia‒Shigella. These results support a link between diet, biliary microbiota, and cholelithiasis. View Full-Text
Keywords: diet; polyphenols; fiber; cholelithiasis; biliary microbiota diet; polyphenols; fiber; cholelithiasis; biliary microbiota

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Gutiérrez-Díaz, I.; Molinero, N.; Cabrera, A.; Rodríguez, J.I.; Margolles, A.; Delgado, S.; González, S. Diet: Cause or Consequence of the Microbial Profile of Cholelithiasis Disease? Nutrients 2018, 10, 1307.

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