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Open AccessArticle

Effects of Long-Term Walnut Supplementation on Body Weight in Free-Living Elderly: Results of a Randomized Controlled Trial

1
Center for Nutrition, Healthy Lifestyle and Disease Prevention, School of Public Health, Loma Linda University, Loma Linda, CA 92350, USA
2
Department of Nutrition & Dietetics, School of Allied Health Professions, Loma Linda University, Loma Linda, CA 92350, USA
3
Lipid Clinic, Endocrinology and Nutrition Service, Institut d’Investigacions Biomèdiques August Pi Sunyer (IDIBAPS), Hospital Clínic, Barcelona 08036, Spain
4
Ciber Fisiopatología de la Obesidad y Nutrición (CIBEROBN), Instituto de Salud Carlos III (ISCIII), Madrid 28029, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2018, 10(9), 1317; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10091317
Received: 25 August 2018 / Revised: 14 September 2018 / Accepted: 16 September 2018 / Published: 18 September 2018
Objective: To assess the effects of chronic walnut consumption on body weight and adiposity in elderly individuals. Methods: The Walnuts and Healthy Aging study is a dual-center (Barcelona, Spain and Loma Linda University (LLU)), 2-year randomized parallel trial. This report concerns only the LLU cohort. Healthy elders (mean age 69 year, 67% women) were randomly assigned to walnut (n = 183) or control diets (n = 173). Subjects in the walnut group received packaged walnuts (28–56 g/day), equivalent to ≈15% of daily energy requirements, to incorporate into their habitual diet, while those in the control group abstained from walnuts. Adiposity was measured periodically, and data were adjusted for in-trial changes in self-reported physical activity. Results: After 2 years, body weight significantly decreased (p = 0.031), while body fat significantly increased (p = 0.0001). However, no significant differences were observed between the control and walnut groups regarding body weight (−0.6 kg and −0.4 kg, respectively, p = 0.67) or body fat (+0.9% and +1.3%, respectively, p = 0.53). Lean body mass, waist circumference, and waist-to-hip ratio remained essentially unchanged. Sensitivity analyses were consistent with the findings of primary analysis. Conclusion: Our findings indicate that walnuts can be incorporated into the daily diet of healthy elders without concern for adverse effects on body weight or body composition. View Full-Text
Keywords: nuts; walnuts; body weight; adiposity; obesity; elderly; energy nuts; walnuts; body weight; adiposity; obesity; elderly; energy
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Bitok, E.; Rajaram, S.; Jaceldo-Siegl, K.; Oda, K.; Sala-Vila, A.; Serra-Mir, M.; Ros, E.; Sabaté, J. Effects of Long-Term Walnut Supplementation on Body Weight in Free-Living Elderly: Results of a Randomized Controlled Trial. Nutrients 2018, 10, 1317.

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