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Coffee Consumption and the Risk of Depression in a Middle-Aged Cohort: The SUN Project

Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, School of Medicine, University of Navarra, 31008 Pamplona, Spain
Department of Cardiology, Complejo Hospitalario de Navarra, Servicio Navarro de Salud Osasunbidea, 31008 Pamplona, Spain
IdiSNA, Navarra Institute for Health Research, 31008 Pamplona, Spain
Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red Área de Fisiopatología de la Obesidad y la Nutrición (CIBEROBN), 28029 Madrid, Spain
Department of Nutrition, Harvard TH Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02115, USA
Nutrition Research Group, Research Institute of Biomedical and Health Sciences, University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, 35016 Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Spain
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2018, 10(9), 1333;
Received: 30 August 2018 / Revised: 14 September 2018 / Accepted: 16 September 2018 / Published: 19 September 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Impact of Caffeine and Coffee on Human Health)
Coffee is one of the most widely consumed drinks around the world, while depression is considered the major contributor to the overall global burden of disease. However, the investigation on coffee consumption and depression is limited and results may be confounded by the overall dietary pattern. We assessed the relationship between coffee intake and the risk of depression, controlling for adherence to the Mediterranean diet. We studied 14,413 university graduates of the ‘Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra’ (SUN) cohort, initially free of depression. We evaluated coffee consumption using a validated food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Incident depression cases were adjudicated only if the participant met two criteria simultaneously: (a) validated physician-diagnosed depression together with (b) new onset of habitual antidepressant use. Both criteria were needed; participants meeting only one of them were not classified as cases. Participants who drank at least four cups of coffee per day showed a significantly lower risk of depression than participants who drank less than one cup of coffee per day (HR: 0.37 (95% CI 0.15–0.95)). However, overall, we did not observe an inverse linear dose–response association between coffee consumption and the incidence of depression (p for trend = 0.22). View Full-Text
Keywords: coffee; depression; cohort study coffee; depression; cohort study
MDPI and ACS Style

Navarro, A.M.; Abasheva, D.; Martínez-González, M.Á.; Ruiz-Estigarribia, L.; Martín-Calvo, N.; Sánchez-Villegas, A.; Toledo, E. Coffee Consumption and the Risk of Depression in a Middle-Aged Cohort: The SUN Project. Nutrients 2018, 10, 1333.

AMA Style

Navarro AM, Abasheva D, Martínez-González MÁ, Ruiz-Estigarribia L, Martín-Calvo N, Sánchez-Villegas A, Toledo E. Coffee Consumption and the Risk of Depression in a Middle-Aged Cohort: The SUN Project. Nutrients. 2018; 10(9):1333.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Navarro, Adela M., Daria Abasheva, Miguel Á. Martínez-González, Liz Ruiz-Estigarribia, Nerea Martín-Calvo, Almudena Sánchez-Villegas, and Estefanía Toledo. 2018. "Coffee Consumption and the Risk of Depression in a Middle-Aged Cohort: The SUN Project" Nutrients 10, no. 9: 1333.

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