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Nutrients, Volume 10, Issue 8 (August 2018)

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Cover Story (view full-size image) The accurate assessment of children’s dietary intake is critical to understand influences on eating [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle Red Blood Cell Aggregation-Associated Dietary Pattern Predicts Hyperlipidemia and Metabolic Syndrome
Nutrients 2018, 10(8), 1127; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10081127
Received: 29 June 2018 / Revised: 5 August 2018 / Accepted: 15 August 2018 / Published: 20 August 2018
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Abstract
Red blood cell (RBC) aggregation and iron status are interrelated and strongly influenced by dietary factors, and their alterations pose a great risk of dyslipidemia and metabolic syndrome (MetS). Currently, RBC aggregation-related dietary patterns remain unclear. This study investigated the dietary patterns that
[...] Read more.
Red blood cell (RBC) aggregation and iron status are interrelated and strongly influenced by dietary factors, and their alterations pose a great risk of dyslipidemia and metabolic syndrome (MetS). Currently, RBC aggregation-related dietary patterns remain unclear. This study investigated the dietary patterns that were associated with RBC aggregation and their predictive effects on hyperlipidemia and MetS. Anthropometric and blood biochemical data and food frequency questionnaires were collected from 212 adults. Dietary patterns were derived using reduced rank regression from 32 food groups. Adjusted linear regression showed that hepcidin, soluble CD163, and serum transferrin saturation (%TS) independently predicted RBC aggregation (all p < 0.01). Age-, sex-, and log-transformed body mass index (BMI)-adjusted prevalence rate ratio (PRR) showed a significant positive correlation between RBC aggregation and hyperlipidemia (p-trend < 0.05). RBC aggregation and iron-related dietary pattern scores (high consumption of noodles and deep-fried foods and low intake of steamed, boiled, and raw food, dairy products, orange, red, and purple vegetables, white and light-green vegetables, seafood, and rice) were also significantly associated with hyperlipidemia (p-trend < 0.05) and MetS (p-trend = 0.01) after adjusting for age, sex, and log-transformed BMI. Our results may help dieticians develop dietary strategies for preventing dyslipidemia and MetS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Management of Dyslipidemia)
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Open AccessArticle Evaluation of a High Concentrate Omega-3 for Correcting the Omega-3 Fatty Acid Nutritional Deficiency in Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (CONDIN)
Nutrients 2018, 10(8), 1126; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10081126
Received: 13 July 2018 / Revised: 13 August 2018 / Accepted: 16 August 2018 / Published: 20 August 2018
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Abstract
This randomized controlled trial investigated the safety and efficacy of MF4637, a high concentrate omega-3 fatty acid preparation, in correcting the omega-3 fatty acid nutritional deficiency in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The primary end point of the study was set as the
[...] Read more.
This randomized controlled trial investigated the safety and efficacy of MF4637, a high concentrate omega-3 fatty acid preparation, in correcting the omega-3 fatty acid nutritional deficiency in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The primary end point of the study was set as the change of red blood cell (RBC) eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) by MF4637. Whether the omega-3 concentrate could lower liver fat was evaluated in a subset of patients. Furthermore, 176 subjects with NAFLD were randomized to receive the omega-3 concentrate (n = 87) or placebo (n = 89) for 24 weeks, in addition to following standard-of-care dietary guidelines. The omega-3 index, omega-6: omega-3 fatty acid ratio and quantitative measurements of RBC EPA and DHA were determined at baseline and study completion. Magnetic resonance imaging of liver fat was conducted in a subset of patients. Administration of high concentrate omega-3 for 24 weeks significantly increased the omega-3 index and absolute values of RBC EPA and DHA, and decreased the RBC omega-6: omega-3 fatty acid ratio (p < 0.0001). A significant reduction in liver fat content was reported in both groups. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Human Milk Adiponectin and Leptin and Infant Body Composition over the First 12 Months of Lactation
Nutrients 2018, 10(8), 1125; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10081125
Received: 31 July 2018 / Revised: 17 August 2018 / Accepted: 17 August 2018 / Published: 20 August 2018
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Abstract
Human milk (HM) adipokines may influence infant feeding patterns, appetite regulation, and body composition (BC). The associations between concentrations/calculated daily intakes (CDI) of HM adipokines in the first 12 months postpartum and maternal/term infant BC, and infant breastfeeding parameters were investigated. BC of
[...] Read more.
Human milk (HM) adipokines may influence infant feeding patterns, appetite regulation, and body composition (BC). The associations between concentrations/calculated daily intakes (CDI) of HM adipokines in the first 12 months postpartum and maternal/term infant BC, and infant breastfeeding parameters were investigated. BC of breastfeeding dyads (n = 20) was measured at 2, 5, 9, and/or 12 months postpartum with ultrasound skinfolds (infants) and bioimpedance spectroscopy (infants/mothers). 24-h milk intake and feeding frequency were measured along with whole milk adiponectin and skim and whole milk leptin (SML and WML) and CDI were calculated. Statistical analysis used linear regression/mixed effects models; results were adjusted for multiple comparisons. Adipokine concentrations did not associate with infant BC. Higher CDI of adiponectin were associated with lower infant fat-free mass (FFM; p = 0.005) and FFM index (FFMI; p = 0.009) and higher fat mass (FM; p < 0.001), FM index (FMI; p < 0.001), and %FM (p < 0.001). Higher CDI of SML were associated with higher infant FM (p < 0.001), FMI (p < 0.001), and %FM (p = 0.002). At 12 months, higher CDI of WML were associated with larger increases in infant adiposity (2–12 month: FM, p = 0.0006; %FM, p = 0.0004); higher CDI of SML were associated with a larger decrease in FFMI (5–12 months: p = 0.0004). Intakes of HM adipokines differentially influence development of infant BC in the first year of life, which is a critical window of infant programming and may potentially influence risk of later disease via modulation of BC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Breastfeeding and Human Lactation)
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Open AccessArticle Variation in the Protein Composition of Human Milk during Extended Lactation: A Narrative Review
Nutrients 2018, 10(8), 1124; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10081124
Received: 12 July 2018 / Revised: 9 August 2018 / Accepted: 17 August 2018 / Published: 20 August 2018
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Abstract
The aim of this review is to evaluate changes in protein parameters in the second year postpartum. There is considerable agreement among authors about the declining trend of human milk protein concentrations, but most research on protein content in breast milk focuses on
[...] Read more.
The aim of this review is to evaluate changes in protein parameters in the second year postpartum. There is considerable agreement among authors about the declining trend of human milk protein concentrations, but most research on protein content in breast milk focuses on the first year of life and comes from developed countries. Whereas this is the case for exclusive breastfeeding or for breastfeeding into the first year of life, the opposite applies to weaning or extended breastfeeding. This review is predominantly based on observational epidemiological evidence and on comparative research linking breast milk composition with cutting down on breastfeeding. Studies dating back several decades have shown an increase in the proportion of immunoglobulins, lactoferrin, and serum albumin during weaning. According to the limited data available, it seems likely that the regulation of milk protein composition during involution can be ascribed to alterations in tight junctions. In studies on humans and other mammalian species, offspring suckle more from mothers that produce more dilute milk and the increase in milk protein concentration is positively correlated to a decrease in suckling frequency during weaning. High milk protein contents were first reported in nonindustrial communities where breastfeeding is sustained the longest, but recent papers from urbanized communities have taken credit for rediscovering the increase in protein content of human milk that becomes evident with prolonged breastfeeding. This review presents an overview of the changes in breast milk protein parameters in the second year postpartum to enable milk banks’ practitioners to make informed nutritional decisions on preterm infants. Full article
Open AccessReview Autoantibodies in the Extraintestinal Manifestations of Celiac Disease
Nutrients 2018, 10(8), 1123; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10081123
Received: 1 August 2018 / Revised: 15 August 2018 / Accepted: 17 August 2018 / Published: 20 August 2018
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Abstract
Increased antibody reactivity towards self-antigens is often indicative of a disruption of homeostatic immune pathways in the body. In celiac disease, an autoimmune enteropathy triggered by the ingestion of gluten from wheat and related cereals in genetically predisposed individuals, autoantibody reactivity to transglutaminase
[...] Read more.
Increased antibody reactivity towards self-antigens is often indicative of a disruption of homeostatic immune pathways in the body. In celiac disease, an autoimmune enteropathy triggered by the ingestion of gluten from wheat and related cereals in genetically predisposed individuals, autoantibody reactivity to transglutaminase 2 is reflective of the pathogenic role of the enzyme in driving the associated inflammatory immune response. Autoantibody reactivity to transglutaminase 2 closely corresponds with the gluten intake and clinical presentation in affected patients, serving as a highly useful biomarker in the diagnosis of celiac disease. In addition to gastrointestinal symptoms, celiac disease is associated with a number of extraintestinal manifestations, including those affecting skin, bones, and the nervous system. Investigations of these manifestations in celiac disease have identified a number of associated immune abnormalities, including B cell reactivity towards various autoantigens, such as transglutaminase 3, transglutaminase 6, synapsin I, gangliosides, and collagen. Clinical relevance, pathogenic potential, mechanism of development, and diagnostic and prognostic value of the various identified autoantibody reactivities continue to be subjects of investigation and will be reviewed here. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Extraintestinal Manifestations of Coeliac Disease)
Open AccessArticle Acute Epigallocatechin 3 Gallate (EGCG) Supplementation Delays Gastric Emptying in Healthy Women: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Crossover Study
Nutrients 2018, 10(8), 1122; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10081122
Received: 23 July 2018 / Revised: 15 August 2018 / Accepted: 18 August 2018 / Published: 20 August 2018
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Abstract
Background: Epigallocatechin 3 Gallate (EGCG) appears to act in appetite control through hormonal modulation. However, there is a lack of elucidation of EGCG’s action mechanisms, especially in humans. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of acute EGCG supplementation
[...] Read more.
Background: Epigallocatechin 3 Gallate (EGCG) appears to act in appetite control through hormonal modulation. However, there is a lack of elucidation of EGCG’s action mechanisms, especially in humans. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of acute EGCG supplementation on gastric emptying and its relation to blood hormones, glucose and appetite perceptions in healthy women. Methods: 22 healthy adult women were included in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study. On two separate occasions, 1 week apart from each other, we offered 800 mg of corn starch (placebo) or 752 mg of EGCG. Appetite was assessed through gastric emptying; perceptions of hunger, desire to eat and satiation; and plasma insulin, adiponectin, leptin and glucose concentrations. The evaluations were carried out in fasting, 30, 90 and 150 min after supplementation. Results: EGCG supplementation induced higher relative gastric volume at 30 and 90 min. Satiation at 90 min was higher in the EGCG group. Adiponectin concentrations at 150 min were higher with EGCG, but no difference was found for glucose, insulin and leptin concentrations. Conclusions: Acute EGCG supplementation is able to delay gastric emptying in healthy women to a small, but statistically significant extent. This study was registered at the Brazilian Registry of Clinical Trials (ReBEC) as RBR-9svwrv. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phytochemicals in Health and Disease)
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Open AccessArticle Consumption of Fruits and Vegetables by Low-Income Brazilian Undergraduate Students: A Cross-Sectional Study
Nutrients 2018, 10(8), 1121; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10081121
Received: 10 July 2018 / Revised: 9 August 2018 / Accepted: 13 August 2018 / Published: 19 August 2018
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Abstract
Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the consumption of fruits and vegetables (FV) by low-income students participating in the Brazilian Student Assistance Program. Methods: For three days, we measured participants’ consumption through direct observation of food intake at the University Restaurant (UR) and
[...] Read more.
Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the consumption of fruits and vegetables (FV) by low-income students participating in the Brazilian Student Assistance Program. Methods: For three days, we measured participants’ consumption through direct observation of food intake at the University Restaurant (UR) and 24-h recall outside the restaurant. The 174 undergraduates were divided into two groups to obtain data on FV intake at the weekend (Sunday) and two days of the week. Group 1 included low-income undergraduates who received their meals for free, and Group 2 included students who paid for their meals at the UR. Results: Both groups presented a very low consumption of FV. On the weekend, Group 1 consumption was equal to Group 2, but it was higher than Group 2 on weekdays, demonstrating how important the UR is for this population. The lowest contribution of the UR to the daily consumption of FV was 59%, reaching a percentage of 87.27%. Fruit supply in the restaurant menu may have positively influenced this consumption. Conclusions: The consumption of FV varied according to the menu offered at the UR. The UR should be a space to promote healthy eating habits including more FV in its menus. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Vulnerable Groups)
Open AccessReview Food Bioactive HDAC Inhibitors in the Epigenetic Regulation of Heart Failure
Nutrients 2018, 10(8), 1120; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10081120
Received: 1 August 2018 / Revised: 15 August 2018 / Accepted: 15 August 2018 / Published: 18 August 2018
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Abstract
Approximately 5.7 million U.S. adults have been diagnosed with heart failure (HF). More concerning is that one in nine U.S. deaths included HF as a contributing cause. Current HF drugs (e.g., β-blockers, ACEi) target intracellular signaling cascades downstream of cell surface receptors to
[...] Read more.
Approximately 5.7 million U.S. adults have been diagnosed with heart failure (HF). More concerning is that one in nine U.S. deaths included HF as a contributing cause. Current HF drugs (e.g., β-blockers, ACEi) target intracellular signaling cascades downstream of cell surface receptors to prevent cardiac pump dysfunction. However, these drugs fail to target other redundant intracellular signaling pathways and, therefore, limit drug efficacy. As such, it has been postulated that compounds designed to target shared downstream mediators of these signaling pathways would be more efficacious for the treatment of HF. Histone deacetylation has been linked as a key pathogenetic element for the development of HF. Lysine residues undergo diverse and reversible post-translational modifications that include acetylation and have historically been studied as epigenetic modifiers of histone tails within chromatin that provide an important mechanism for regulating gene expression. Of recent, bioactive compounds within our diet have been linked to the regulation of gene expression, in part, through regulation of the epi-genome. It has been reported that food bioactives regulate histone acetylation via direct regulation of writer (histone acetyl transferases, HATs) and eraser (histone deacetylases, HDACs) proteins. Therefore, bioactive food compounds offer unique therapeutic strategies as epigenetic modifiers of heart failure. This review will highlight food bio-actives as modifiers of histone deacetylase activity in the heart. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gene-Diet Interactions)
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Open AccessArticle Nutrition of Preterm Infants and Raw Breast Milk-Acquired Cytomegalovirus Infection: French National Audit of Clinical Practices and Diagnostic Approach
Nutrients 2018, 10(8), 1119; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10081119
Received: 30 July 2018 / Revised: 9 August 2018 / Accepted: 14 August 2018 / Published: 18 August 2018
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Abstract
Raw breast milk is the optimal nutrition for infants, but it is also the primary cause of acquired cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection. Thus, many countries have chosen to contraindicate to feed raw breast milk preterm infants from CMV-positive mothers before a corrected age of
[...] Read more.
Raw breast milk is the optimal nutrition for infants, but it is also the primary cause of acquired cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection. Thus, many countries have chosen to contraindicate to feed raw breast milk preterm infants from CMV-positive mothers before a corrected age of 32 weeks or under a weight of 1500 g. French national recommendations have not been updated since 2005. An audit of the French practices regarding the nutrition with raw breast milk in preterm infants was carried out using a questionnaire sent to all neonatal care units. Diagnosed postnatal milk-acquired CMV infections have been analysed using hospitalisation reports. Seventy-five percent of the neonatal units responded: 24% complied with the French recommendations, 20% contraindicated raw breast milk to all infants before 32 weeks regardless of the mothers’ CMV-status, whereas 25% fed all preterm infants unconditionally with raw breast milk. Thirty-five cases of infants with milk-acquired CMV infections have been reported. The diagnosis was undeniable for five patients. In France, a high heterogeneity marks medical practices concerning the use of raw breast milk and the diagnostic approach for breast milk-acquired CMV infection is often incomplete. In this context, updated national recommendations and monitored CMV infections are urgently needed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Breastfeeding and Human Lactation)
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Open AccessArticle Metabolic Syndrome among Refugee Women from the West Bank, Palestine: A Cross-Sectional Study
Nutrients 2018, 10(8), 1118; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10081118
Received: 17 June 2018 / Revised: 13 August 2018 / Accepted: 16 August 2018 / Published: 18 August 2018
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Abstract
This study was carried out among Palestinian refugee women in the West Bank to provide data on the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its correlates. Data were obtained from a cross-sectional study of 1694 randomly selected refugee women from the United Nations
[...] Read more.
This study was carried out among Palestinian refugee women in the West Bank to provide data on the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its correlates. Data were obtained from a cross-sectional study of 1694 randomly selected refugee women from the United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East (UNRWA) health centers throughout the West Bank during June and July 2010. In this cohort, 30% of the refugee women were overweight, 39% were obese, and 7% were extremely obese. Based on World Health Organization (WHO) criteria, the age-adjusted prevalence of MetS was 19.8%. The results of the binary logistic regression analysis indicated that older age and younger marital age were significantly associated with an increased likelihood of MetS in the women. The high prevalence of obesity and MetS mandates the implementation of national policies for its prevention, notably by initiating large-scale community intervention programs for 5.2 million refugees in Palestine, Jordan, Lebanon, and Syria, to tackle obesity and increase the age at marriage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Vulnerable Groups)
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Open AccessArticle Food Consumption as a Modifier of the Association between LEPR Gene Variants and Excess Body Weight in Children and Adolescents: A Study of the SCAALA Cohort
Nutrients 2018, 10(8), 1117; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10081117
Received: 12 July 2018 / Revised: 4 August 2018 / Accepted: 8 August 2018 / Published: 18 August 2018
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Abstract
No studies showing that food consumption is a modifier of the association of variants of the leptin receptor gene (LEPR) with body weight have involved a Brazilian population. The aim of this study was to evaluate the modifying effect of dietary
[...] Read more.
No studies showing that food consumption is a modifier of the association of variants of the leptin receptor gene (LEPR) with body weight have involved a Brazilian population. The aim of this study was to evaluate the modifying effect of dietary intake on the association between the LEPR gene and excess weight. In this study, 1211 children and adolescents aged 4–11 years were assessed. Participants were genotyped for 112 single-nucleotide variants of the LEPR gene. Anthropometric measurements were performed, and dietary data were obtained. Logistic regressions were used to study the associations of interest. Of the participants, 13.4% were overweight/obese. The risk allele (G) of the rs1137100 variant was associated with excess weight in individuals with fat consumption below the median (odds ratio OR = 1.92; 95% confidence interval CI = 1.18–3.14), with daily frequency of consumption of drink/artificial juice (OR = 2.15; 95% CI = 1.26–3.68) and refined cereals (OR = 2.17; 95% CI = 1.31–3.62) above the median. The risk allele (G) of variant rs1177681 was also associated with excess weight (OR = 2.74; 95% CI = 1.65–4.57) in subjects with a daily frequency of refined cereal consumption above the median. The association between LEPR and excess weight can be modulated by the type and distribution of dietary fatty acids, sugary drinks, and refined cereals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrigenomics)
Open AccessArticle Maternal and Paternal Caffeine Intake and ART Outcomes in Couples Referring to an Italian Fertility Clinic: A Prospective Cohort
Nutrients 2018, 10(8), 1116; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10081116
Received: 15 July 2018 / Revised: 12 August 2018 / Accepted: 15 August 2018 / Published: 17 August 2018
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Abstract
Caffeine intake, a frequent lifestyle exposure, has a number of biological effects. We designed a cohort study to investigate the relation between lifestyle and assisted reproduction technique (ART) outcomes. From September 2014 to December 2016, 339 subfertile couples referring to an Italian fertility
[...] Read more.
Caffeine intake, a frequent lifestyle exposure, has a number of biological effects. We designed a cohort study to investigate the relation between lifestyle and assisted reproduction technique (ART) outcomes. From September 2014 to December 2016, 339 subfertile couples referring to an Italian fertility clinic and eligible for ART procedures were enrolled in our study. Sociodemographic characteristics, smoking, and usual alcohol and caffeine consumption in the year prior to ART were recorded. The mean age of participants was 36.6 ± 3.6 years in women and 39.4 ± 5.2 years in men. After oocytes retrieval, 293 (86.4%) underwent implantation, 110 (32.4%) achieved clinical pregnancy, and 82 (24.2%) live birth. Maternal age was the main determinant of ART outcome. In a model including women’s age and college degree, smoking habits, calorie and alcohol intake for both partners, previous ART cycles, and partner’s caffeine intake, we did not observe any association between caffeine intake and ART outcome. Using the first tertile of caffeine intake by women as a reference, the adjusted rate ratio (ARR) for live birth was 1.09 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.79–1.50) in the second and 0.99 (95% CI 0.71–1.40) in the third tertiles. In conclusion, a moderate caffeine intake by women and men in the year prior to the ART procedure was not associated with negative ART outcomes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Impact of Caffeine and Coffee on Human Health)
Open AccessArticle Bioavailability of a Novel Form of Microencapsulated Bovine Lactoferrin and Its Effect on Inflammatory Markers and the Gut Microbiome: A Pilot Study
Nutrients 2018, 10(8), 1115; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10081115
Received: 8 July 2018 / Revised: 14 August 2018 / Accepted: 15 August 2018 / Published: 17 August 2018
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Abstract
Bovine lactoferrin, extracted from milk or whey, is used in a range of products to enhance immunity and support digestive health, iron absorption, and homeostasis. This study examined the absorption and effect of Progel (Brisbane, Queensland, Australia) microencapsulated bovine lactoferrin (InferrinTM,
[...] Read more.
Bovine lactoferrin, extracted from milk or whey, is used in a range of products to enhance immunity and support digestive health, iron absorption, and homeostasis. This study examined the absorption and effect of Progel (Brisbane, Queensland, Australia) microencapsulated bovine lactoferrin (InferrinTM, Bega Bionutrients, Victoria, Australia) on immune markers and the microbiome. A double-blind randomised, cross-over trial was conducted with 12 healthy males randomised to one of two doses, equivalent to 200 mg or 600 mg lactoferrin, for two four-week supplementation arms, with a two-week washout period. Subjects received either standard bovine lactoferrin or InferrinTM for each arm. Baseline and post each trial arm, CD69+ activation on CD4+ and CD8+ cells was analysed, bovine and human lactoferrin contents of faecal and serum samples were reported, and the gut microbiome was analysed using 16S sequencing and metagenomic sequencing. The mean level of CD69+ activation on the CD4+ cells was lower after supplementation regardless of the form or dose of lactoferrin. This was statistically significant for the 200 mg dose. A higher level of bovine lactoferrin was found post-supplementation in those taking InferrinTM, although this was not statistically significant. Changes in phylum-level microbial community profiling were detected post-supplementation in the second trial arm, particularly in those receiving InferrinTM. Metagenomic sequencing showed changes in the volumes of the top 100 species of bacteria present before and after all treatment arms. Results suggest that lactoferrin supplementation may have beneficial effects on the microbiome and immune system, and that the use of InferrinTM improves absorption. Larger detailed studies are needed to ascertain the potential positive effects of bovine lactoferrin supplementation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Dietary Supplements)
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Open AccessArticle Dietary Supplement Use Differs by Socioeconomic and Health-Related Characteristics among U.S. Adults, NHANES 2011–2014
Nutrients 2018, 10(8), 1114; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10081114
Received: 27 July 2018 / Revised: 14 August 2018 / Accepted: 14 August 2018 / Published: 17 August 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (261 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of use and types of dietary supplements (DS) used by U.S. adults (≥19 years) by sociodemographic characteristics: family income-to-poverty ratio (PIR), food security status, and Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) participation using NHANES
[...] Read more.
The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of use and types of dietary supplements (DS) used by U.S. adults (≥19 years) by sociodemographic characteristics: family income-to-poverty ratio (PIR), food security status, and Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) participation using NHANES 2011–2014 data (n = 11,024). DS use was ascertained via a home inventory and a retrospective 30-day questionnaire. Demographic and socioeconomic differences related to DS use were evaluated using a univariate t statistic. Half of U.S. adults (52%) took at least one DS during a 30-day period; multivitamin-mineral (MVM) products were the most commonly used (31%). DS and MVM use was significantly higher among those with a household income of ≥ 350% of the poverty level, those who were food secure, and SNAP income-ineligible nonparticipants across all sex, age, and race/ethnic groups. Among women, prevalence of use significantly differed between SNAP participants (39%) and SNAP income-eligible nonparticipants (54%). Older adults (71+ years) remained the highest consumers of DS, specifically among the highest income group (82%), while younger adults (19–30 years), predominantly in the lowest income group (28%), were the lowest consumers. Among U.S. adults, DS use and the types of products consumed varied with income, food security, and SNAP participation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Dietary Supplements)
Open AccessArticle Adherence to the Chinese or American Dietary Guidelines is Associated with a Lower Risk of Primary Liver Cancer in China: A Case-Control Study
Nutrients 2018, 10(8), 1113; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10081113
Received: 24 July 2018 / Revised: 9 August 2018 / Accepted: 15 August 2018 / Published: 17 August 2018
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Abstract
Adherence to healthy dietary guidelines has been related to a lower risk of several cancers, but its role in primary liver cancer (PLC) has not been fully investigated, especially among Eastern populations. This study enrolled 720 PLC patients and 720 healthy controls who
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Adherence to healthy dietary guidelines has been related to a lower risk of several cancers, but its role in primary liver cancer (PLC) has not been fully investigated, especially among Eastern populations. This study enrolled 720 PLC patients and 720 healthy controls who were frequency-matched by age and sex between September 2013 and October 2017 in South China. Dietary quality was assessed by the Chinese Healthy Eating Index (CHEI) and the Healthy Eating Index 2015 (HEI-2015), which manifests as scores of adhering to the 2016 Dietary Guidelines for Chinese and adhering to the 2015–2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans, respectively. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using unconditional logistic regression models, adjusting for potential confounders. Higher scores in both the CHEI and HEI-2015 were associated with a lower risk of PLC (per 5-points increment of the total scores: OR: 0.43, 95% CI: 0.38–0.50 for CHEI; OR: 0.47, 95% CI: 0.40–0.55 for HEI-2015). The protective associations persisted significantly in the stratified analyses by sex, smoker status, alcohol consumption, HBV infection, and histological types of PLC, without statistical evidence for heterogeneity (p-interaction > 0.05). Closer adherence to the most recent dietary guidelines for Chinese or Americans may protect against PLC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet Quality and Health Outcomes)
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Open AccessArticle Interesterified Palm Olein (IEPalm) and Interesterified Stearic Acid-Rich Fat Blend (IEStear) Have No Adverse Effects on Insulin Resistance: A Randomized Control Trial
Nutrients 2018, 10(8), 1112; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10081112
Received: 31 May 2018 / Revised: 6 August 2018 / Accepted: 8 August 2018 / Published: 17 August 2018
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Abstract
Chemically-interesterified (CIE) fats are trans-fat free and are increasingly being used as an alternative to hydrogenated oils for food manufacturing industries to optimize their products’ characteristics and nutrient compositions. The metabolic effects of CIE fats on insulin activity, lipids, and adiposity in
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Chemically-interesterified (CIE) fats are trans-fat free and are increasingly being used as an alternative to hydrogenated oils for food manufacturing industries to optimize their products’ characteristics and nutrient compositions. The metabolic effects of CIE fats on insulin activity, lipids, and adiposity in humans are not well established. We investigated the effects of CIE fats rich in palmitic (C16:0, IEPalm) and stearic (C18:0, IEStear) acids on insulin resistance, serum lipids, apolipoprotein concentrations, and adiposity, using C16:0-rich natural palm olein (NatPO) as the control. We designed a parallel, double-blind clinical trial. Three test fats were used to prepare daily snacks for consumption with a standard background diet over a period of 8 weeks by three groups of a total of 85 healthy, overweight adult volunteers. We measured the outcome variables at weeks 0, 6, and at the endpoint of 8. After 8 weeks, there was no significant difference in surrogate biomarkers of insulin resistance in any of the IE fat diets (IEPalm and IEStear) compared to the NatPO diet. The change in serum triacylglycerol concentrations was significantly lower with the IEStear diet, and the changes in serum leptin and body fat percentages were significantly lower in the NatPO-diet compared to the IEPalm diet. We conclude that diets containing C16:0 and C18:0-rich CIE fats do not affect markers of insulin resistance compared to a natural C16:0-rich fat (NatPO) diet. Higher amounts of saturated fatty acids (SFAs) and longer chain SFAs situated at the sn-1,3 position of the triacylglycerol (TAG) backbones resulted in less weight gain and lower changes in body fat percentage and leptin concentration to those observed in NatPO and IEStear. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet, Lipid and Lipoprotein Metabolism and Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle Low Serum Carotenoids Are Associated with Self-Reported Cognitive Dysfunction and Inflammatory Markers in Breast Cancer Survivors
Nutrients 2018, 10(8), 1111; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10081111
Received: 13 July 2018 / Revised: 2 August 2018 / Accepted: 8 August 2018 / Published: 17 August 2018
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Abstract
Background: Dietary carotenoids may exert anti-inflammatory activities to reduce inflammation-driven cognitive impairments during cancer and cancer treatment. Our objective was to explore if cognitive function in breast cancer survivors (BCS) differs by serum carotenoid concentrations, and if blood carotenoids concentrations are associated with
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Background: Dietary carotenoids may exert anti-inflammatory activities to reduce inflammation-driven cognitive impairments during cancer and cancer treatment. Our objective was to explore if cognitive function in breast cancer survivors (BCS) differs by serum carotenoid concentrations, and if blood carotenoids concentrations are associated with reduced systemic inflammation. Methods: Objective cognitive function and perceived cognitive impairment of 29 BCS and 38 controls were assessed cross-sectionally with the National Institutes of Health Toolbox Cognition Battery and The Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Cognitive Function Questionnaire, respectively. Serum carotenoid and inflammatory marker (sTNF-RII, IL-6, IL-1ra, CRP) concentrations were measured. Results: Low-carotenoid BCS had more cognitive complaints compared to the low-carotenoid controls (Mdiff = −43.0, p < 0.001) and high-carotenoid controls (Mdiff = −44.5, p < 0.001). However, the cognitive complaints of high-carotenoid BCS were intermediate to and not different than the low-carotenoid BCS, or low- or high-carotenoid controls. BCS performed similarly to controls on all objective cognitive measures. Multiple linear regression, controlling for age and body mass index (BMI), demonstrated an inverse association between serum carotenoid concentrations and pro-inflammatory sTNFR-II (β = 0.404, p = 0.005) and IL-6 concentrations (β = −0.35, p = 0.001), but not IL-1ra or CRP. Conclusions: Higher serum carotenoid concentrations may convey cognitive and anti-inflammatory benefits in BCS. Future research should identify dietary components and patterns that support cognitive health in cancer survivors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carotenoids and Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle Postprandial Glycaemic, Hormonal and Satiety Responses to Rice and Kiwifruit Preloads in Chinese Adults: A Randomised Controlled Crossover Trial
Nutrients 2018, 10(8), 1110; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10081110
Received: 26 July 2018 / Revised: 9 August 2018 / Accepted: 14 August 2018 / Published: 17 August 2018
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Abstract
Controlling postprandial glycaemia helps to prevent and manage non-communicable diseases. One strategy in controlling glycaemia may be to consume meals in two parts; a preload, followed by the remainder of the meal. Our aim was to test preloading a rice meal given for
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Controlling postprandial glycaemia helps to prevent and manage non-communicable diseases. One strategy in controlling glycaemia may be to consume meals in two parts; a preload, followed by the remainder of the meal. Our aim was to test preloading a rice meal given for breakfast and lunch on different days, either by splitting the meal (rice preload followed by rice meal) or by using kiwifruit as a preload compared with consuming the rice meal in one sitting. Primary outcomes were glycaemic and insulinaemic responses with secondary outcomes of other hormonal responses, subjective satiety, and subsequent energy intake. Following breakfast, postprandial glycaemic peak concentration was 0.9 (95% CI: 0.2, 1.6) mmol/L lower for the kiwifruit preload compared with the rice meal eaten in one sitting. Following lunch, glycaemic peak concentrations were 1.0 (0.7, 1.4) and 1.1 (0.5, 1.7) mmol/L lower for the rice-split and kiwifruit preload compared with the rice meal alone, respectively. Postprandial insulinaemia area-under-the-curve was 1385 (87, 2684) mU/L·min less for the kiwifruit preload compared with the rice-split. There were no differences among treatments for subsequent energy intake. Meal splitting is useful for lowering postprandial glycaemia, and replacing part of a meal with kiwifruit may help with insulin efficiency without detriment to subsequent energy intake. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Nutrient Intake and Physical Exercise Significantly Impact Physical Performance, Body Composition, Blood Lipids, Oxidative Stress, and Inflammation in Male Rats
Nutrients 2018, 10(8), 1109; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10081109
Received: 31 July 2018 / Revised: 13 August 2018 / Accepted: 15 August 2018 / Published: 17 August 2018
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Abstract
Background: Humans consuming a purified vegan diet known as the "Daniel Fast" realize favorable changes in blood lipids, oxidative stress, and inflammatory biomarkers, with subjective reports of improved physical capacity. Objective: We sought to determine if this purified vegan diet was synergistic with
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Background: Humans consuming a purified vegan diet known as the "Daniel Fast" realize favorable changes in blood lipids, oxidative stress, and inflammatory biomarkers, with subjective reports of improved physical capacity. Objective: We sought to determine if this purified vegan diet was synergistic with exercise in male rats. Methods: Long–Evans rats (n = 56) were assigned to be exercise trained (+E) by running on a treadmill three days per week at a moderate intensity or to act as sedentary controls with normal activity. After the baseline physical performance was evaluated by recording run time to exhaustion, half of the animals in each group were fed ad libitum for three months a purified diet formulated to mimic the Daniel Fast (DF) or a Western Diet (WD). Physical performance was evaluated again at the end of month 3, and body composition was assessed using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Blood was collected for measurements of lipids, oxidative stress, and inflammatory biomarkers. Results: Physical performance at the end of month 3 was higher compared to baseline for both exercise groups (p < 0.05), with a greater percent increase in the DF + E group (99%) than in the WD + E group (51%). Body fat was lower in DF than in WD groups at the end of month 3 (p < 0.05). Blood triglycerides, cholesterol, malondialdehyde, and advanced oxidation protein products were significantly lower in the DF groups than in the WD groups (p < 0.05). No significant differences were noted in cytokines levels between the groups (p > 0.05), although IL-1β and IL-10 were elevated three-fold and two-fold in the rats fed the WD compared to the DF rats, respectively. Conclusions: Compared to a WD, a purified diet that mimics the vegan Daniel Fast provides significant anthropometric and metabolic benefits to rats, while possibly acting synergistically with exercise training to improve physical performance. These findings highlight the importance of macronutrient composition and quality in the presence of ad libitum food intake. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Socio-Ecological Barriers to Dry Grain Pulse Consumption among Low-Income Women: A Mixed Methods Approach
Nutrients 2018, 10(8), 1108; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10081108
Received: 17 July 2018 / Revised: 13 August 2018 / Accepted: 14 August 2018 / Published: 17 August 2018
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Abstract
The purpose of this study was to determine the socio-ecological influences on dry grain pulse consumption (beans, peas, lentils, chickpeas) among low-socioeconomic women in Iowa. Seven focus groups were conducted, with 36 women who qualified for income-based federal assistance. Data were collected from
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The purpose of this study was to determine the socio-ecological influences on dry grain pulse consumption (beans, peas, lentils, chickpeas) among low-socioeconomic women in Iowa. Seven focus groups were conducted, with 36 women who qualified for income-based federal assistance. Data were collected from October 2017 to January 2018. Participants completed a survey that gathered individual demographics, assessed perceptions of dry grain pulses, and level of food security. Fifty-eight percent of the women were non-Hispanic white, and 39% were African American, all with an average age of 34.7 years. Thirty-three percent of the women consumed pulses less than once per week. Over 80% agreed that beans were healthful and satiating. Some health benefits of beans were unknown by more than 33% of the population, e.g., lower cancer risk, lower LDL, maintain blood glucose. Only 30% of the women were food secure. Focus group audio recordings were transcribed and analyzed by two researchers, using the grounded theory approach. At the policy level, participants knew pulses were included in USA federal nutrition assistance programs like the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC). Pulses were widely available in grocery stores in communities. Interpersonally, women felt that male partners preferred meats, and children needed animal-source proteins. Individually, women perceived uncooked dry pulses were challenging to prepare. Conclusively, more detailed instruction on pulse preparation, different pulse varieties, and offering canned pulses through WIC may increase consumption. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Moderate Effect of Flavonoids on Vascular and Renal Function in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats
Nutrients 2018, 10(8), 1107; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10081107
Received: 20 July 2018 / Revised: 14 August 2018 / Accepted: 15 August 2018 / Published: 16 August 2018
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Abstract
Many studies have shown that flavonoids are effective as antihypertensive drugs in arterial hypertension. In the present work, we have analyzed the effects of some flavonoid extracts in the spontaneous hypertensive rat model (SHR). An important feature of this study is that we
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Many studies have shown that flavonoids are effective as antihypertensive drugs in arterial hypertension. In the present work, we have analyzed the effects of some flavonoid extracts in the spontaneous hypertensive rat model (SHR). An important feature of this study is that we have used a low dose, far from those that are usually applied in human therapy or experimental animals, a dose that responded to the criterion of a potential future commercial use in human subjects. Treatments were carried out for 6 and 12 weeks in two groups of SHR rats, which received apigenin, lemon extract, grapefruit + bitter orange (GBO) extracts, and cocoa extract. Captopril was used as a positive control in the SHR group treated for 6 weeks (SHR6) and Diosmin was used as the industry reference in the SHR group treated for 12 weeks (SHR12). Captopril and GBO extracts lowered the high arterial pressure of the SHR6 animals, but none of the extracts were effective in the SHR12 group. Apigenin, lemon extract (LE), GBO, and captopril also improved aortic vascular relaxation and increased plasma and urinary excretion of nitrites, but only in the SHR6 group. Kidney and urinary thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) were also significantly reduced by GBO in the SHR6 rats. Apigenin also improved vascular relaxation in the SHR12 group and all the flavonoids studied reduced urinary thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) excretion and proteinuria. Vascular abnormalities, such as lumen/wall ratio in heart arteries and thoracic aorta, were moderately improved by these treatments in the SHR6 group. In conclusion, the flavonoid-rich extracts included in this study, especially apigenin, LE and GBO improved vascular vasodilatory function of young adult SHRs but only the GBO-treated rats benefited from a reduction in blood pressure. These extracts may be used as functional food ingredients with a moderate therapeutic benefit, especially in the early phases of arterial hypertension. Full article
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Open AccessArticle An Audit of Australian Bread with a Focus on Loaf Breads and Whole Grain
Nutrients 2018, 10(8), 1106; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10081106
Received: 27 July 2018 / Revised: 10 August 2018 / Accepted: 14 August 2018 / Published: 16 August 2018
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Abstract
Bread is a vehicle for a range of nutrients within the Australian diet, but has been the target of negative press. The aim of this study was to examine bread products, particularly white, whole grain and gluten-free loaves, including nutrients, health claims and
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Bread is a vehicle for a range of nutrients within the Australian diet, but has been the target of negative press. The aim of this study was to examine bread products, particularly white, whole grain and gluten-free loaves, including nutrients, health claims and Health Star Rating (HSR). An audit of four supermarkets and a bakery franchise (2017) was compared with 2014 data. Median and range was calculated for whole grain content, dietary fibre, sodium, protein, carbohydrate and sugar. Of all breads (n = 456), 29% were eligible to make a whole grain claim with 27% very high in whole grain (≥24 g/serve), an 18% increase from 2014. Within loaves (n = 243), 40% were at least a source of whole grain (≥8 g/serve), 79% were at least a source of dietary fibre, 54% met the sodium reformulation target (≤400 mg/100 g), 78% were a ‘source’ and 20% were a ‘good source’ of protein (10 g/serve), and 97% were low in sugar. Despite significant differences between loaves for all nutrients assessed, HSR did not differ between white and whole grain varieties. Compared to 2014, there were 20 fewer white loaves and 20 additional whole grain loaves which may assist more Australians achieve the 48 g whole grain daily target intake. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Whole Grains and Human Health)
Open AccessArticle Effects of Different Doses of Fructooligosaccharides (FOS) on the Composition of Mice Fecal Microbiota, Especially the Bifidobacterium Composition
Nutrients 2018, 10(8), 1105; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10081105
Received: 13 July 2018 / Revised: 12 August 2018 / Accepted: 14 August 2018 / Published: 16 August 2018
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Abstract
Fructooligosaccharides (FOS) are a well-known class of prebiotic and are considered to selectively stimulate the growth of bifidobacteria in the gut. Previous studies focused on the growth stimulation of Bifidobacterium, but they did not further investigate the bifidobacterial composition and the specific
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Fructooligosaccharides (FOS) are a well-known class of prebiotic and are considered to selectively stimulate the growth of bifidobacteria in the gut. Previous studies focused on the growth stimulation of Bifidobacterium, but they did not further investigate the bifidobacterial composition and the specific species that were stimulated. In this study, mice were fed with FOS in different doses for four weeks and the composition of fecal microbiota, in particular Bifidobacterium, was analyzed by sequencing the V3–V4 region and the groEL gene on the MiSeq platform, respectively. In the high-dose group, the relative abundance of Actinobacteria was significantly increased, which was mainly contributed by Bifidobacterium. At the genus level, the relative abundances of Blautia and Coprococcus were also significantly increased. Through the groEL sequencing, 14 species of Bifidobacterium were identified, among which B. pseudolongum was most abundant. After FOS treatment, B. pseudolongum became almost the sole bifidobacterial species (>95%). B. pseudolongum strains were isolated and demonstrated their ability to metabolize FOS by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Therefore, we inferred that FOS significantly stimulated the growth of B. pseudolongum in mice. Further investigations are needed to reveal the mechanism of selectiveness between FOS and B. pseudolongum, which would aid our understanding of the basic principles between dietary carbohydrates and host health. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Cognitive Functioning of Geriatric Patients: Is Hypovitaminosis D the Next Marker of Cognitive Dysfunction and Dementia?
Nutrients 2018, 10(8), 1104; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10081104
Received: 11 July 2018 / Revised: 3 August 2018 / Accepted: 14 August 2018 / Published: 16 August 2018
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Abstract
The study objective is to investigate whether vitamin D is associated with the cognitive function of geriatric patients. This cross-sectional study involved 357 patients hospitalized in the geriatric ward who complained of memory problems (mean age: 82.3 years). The level of cognitive function
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The study objective is to investigate whether vitamin D is associated with the cognitive function of geriatric patients. This cross-sectional study involved 357 patients hospitalized in the geriatric ward who complained of memory problems (mean age: 82.3 years). The level of cognitive function was measured with the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and the clinical diagnosis of dementia was established according to the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10) criteria. The serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D was measured with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The iterative Bayesian model averaging (BMA) procedure was applied to linear and logistic regression models in order to identify the best set of factors describing cognitive dysfunction and dementia, respectively. According to BMA, there is strong evidence that higher vitamin D levels, higher body mass index (BMI), and higher mobility function measured with the Timed Up and Go (TUG) test are independently associated with better cognitive performance and lower risk of dementia. Additionally, there is strong evidence that fewer years of education and lower vitamin B12 plasma levels independently describe worse cognitive performance. However, vitamin B12 levels higher than 800 pg/mL is negatively associated with the MMSE performance. Hypovitaminosis D in geriatric patients is an underrated marker of cognitive dysfunction and dementia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Age-Related Disorders)
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Open AccessReview Muscle and Bone Health in Postmenopausal Women: Role of Protein and Vitamin D Supplementation Combined with Exercise Training
Nutrients 2018, 10(8), 1103; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10081103
Received: 17 July 2018 / Revised: 11 August 2018 / Accepted: 13 August 2018 / Published: 16 August 2018
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Abstract
Menopause is an age-dependent physiological condition associated with a natural decline in oestrogen levels, which causes a progressive decrease of muscle mass and strength and bone density. Sarcopenia and osteoporosis often coexist in elderly people, with a prevalence of the latter in elderly
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Menopause is an age-dependent physiological condition associated with a natural decline in oestrogen levels, which causes a progressive decrease of muscle mass and strength and bone density. Sarcopenia and osteoporosis often coexist in elderly people, with a prevalence of the latter in elderly women. The profound interaction between muscle and bone induces a negative resonance between the two tissues affected by these disorders worsening the quality of life in the postmenopausal period. It has been estimated that at least 1 in 3 women over age 50 will experience osteoporotic fractures, often requiring hospitalisation and long-term care, causing a large financial burden to health insurance systems. Hormonal replacement therapy is effective in osteoporosis prevention, but concerns have been raised with regard to its safety. On the whole, the increase in life expectancy for postmenopausal women along with the need to improve their quality of life makes it necessary to develop specific and safe therapeutic strategies, alternative to hormonal replacement therapy, targeting both sarcopenia and osteoporosis progression. This review will examine the rationale and the effects of dietary protein, vitamin D and calcium supplementation combined with a specifically-designed exercise training prescription as a strategy to counteract these postmenopausal-associated disorders. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Protein and Muscle in Aging People)
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Open AccessArticle Consumption of Cherry out of Season Changes White Adipose Tissue Gene Expression and Morphology to a Phenotype Prone to Fat Accumulation
Nutrients 2018, 10(8), 1102; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10081102
Received: 17 July 2018 / Revised: 9 August 2018 / Accepted: 10 August 2018 / Published: 16 August 2018
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Abstract
The aim of this study was to determine whether the consumption of cherry out of its normal harvest photoperiod affects adipose tissue, increasing the risk of obesity. Fischer 344 rats were held over a long day (LD) or a short day (SD), fed
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The aim of this study was to determine whether the consumption of cherry out of its normal harvest photoperiod affects adipose tissue, increasing the risk of obesity. Fischer 344 rats were held over a long day (LD) or a short day (SD), fed a standard diet (STD), and treated with a cherry lyophilizate (CH) or vehicle (VH) (n = 6). Biometric measurements, serum parameters, gene expression in white (RWAT) and brown (BAT) adipose tissues, and RWAT histology were analysed. A second experiment with similar conditions was performed (n = 10) but with a cafeteria diet (CAF). In the STD experiment, Bmal1 and Cry1 were downregulated in the CHSD group compared to the VHSD group. Pparα expression was downregulated while Ucp1 levels were higher in the BAT of the CHSD group compared to the VHSD group. In the CAF-fed rats, glucose and insulin serum levels increased, and the expression levels of lipogenesis and lipolysis genes in RWAT were downregulated, while the adipocyte area increased and the number of adipocytes diminished in the CHSD group compared to the VHSD group. In conclusion, we show that the consumption of cherry out of season influences the metabolism of adipose tissue and promotes fat accumulation when accompanied by an obesogenic diet. Full article
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Open AccessArticle The Effect of Diet on Improved Endurance in Male C57BL/6 Mice
Nutrients 2018, 10(8), 1101; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10081101
Received: 10 July 2018 / Revised: 13 August 2018 / Accepted: 14 August 2018 / Published: 16 August 2018
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The consumption of fruits and vegetables appears to help with maintaining an adequate level of exercise and improves endurance. However, the mechanisms that are involved in this process are not well understood. In the current study, the impact of diets enriched in fruits
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The consumption of fruits and vegetables appears to help with maintaining an adequate level of exercise and improves endurance. However, the mechanisms that are involved in this process are not well understood. In the current study, the impact of diets enriched in fruits and vegetables (GrandFusion®) on exercise endurance was examined in a mouse model. GrandFusion (GF) diets increased mitochondrial DNA and enzyme activity, while they also stimulated mitochondrial mRNA synthesis in vivo. GF diets increased both the mRNA expression of factors involved in mitochondrial biogenesis, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1 alpha (PGC-1α), mitochondrial transcription factor A (Tfam), estrogen-related receptor alpha (ERRα), nuclear respiratory factor 1 (NRF-1), cytochrome c oxidase IV (COXIV) and ATP synthase (ATPsyn). Mice treated with GF diets showed an increase in running endurance, rotarod perseverance and grip strength when compared to controls who were on a regular diet. In addition, GF diets increased the protein expression of phosphorylated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), sirtuin 1 (SIRT1), PGC-1α and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta (PPAR-δ), which was greater than exercise-related changes. Finally, GF reduced the expression of phosphorylated ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1 (p-S6K1) and decreased autophagy. These results demonstrate that GF diets enhance exercise endurance, which is mediated via mitochondrial biogenesis and function. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Approaches to Assess Vitamin A Status in Settings of Inflammation: Biomarkers Reflecting Inflammation and Nutritional Determinants of Anemia (BRINDA) Project
Nutrients 2018, 10(8), 1100; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10081100
Received: 23 July 2018 / Revised: 8 August 2018 / Accepted: 13 August 2018 / Published: 16 August 2018
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Abstract
The accurate estimation of vitamin A deficiency (VAD) is critical to informing programmatic and policy decisions that could have important public health implications. However, serum retinol and retinol binding protein (RBP) concentrations, two biomarkers often used to estimate VAD, are temporarily altered during
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The accurate estimation of vitamin A deficiency (VAD) is critical to informing programmatic and policy decisions that could have important public health implications. However, serum retinol and retinol binding protein (RBP) concentrations, two biomarkers often used to estimate VAD, are temporarily altered during the acute phase response, potentially overestimating the prevalence of VAD in populations with high levels of inflammation. In 22 nationally-representative surveys, we examined (1) the association between C-reactive protein (CRP) or α1-acid glycoprotein (AGP) and retinol or RBP, and (2) how different adjustment approaches for correcting for inflammation compare with one another. In preschool age children (PSC) and school age children (SAC), the association between inflammation and retinol and RBP was largely statistically significant; using the regression approach, adjustments for inflammation decreased the estimated prevalence of VAD compared to unadjusted VAD (range: −22.1 to −6.0 percentage points). In non-pregnant women of reproductive age (WRA), the association between inflammation and vitamin A biomarkers was inconsistent, precluding adjustments for inflammation. The burden of VAD can be overestimated if inflammation is not accounted for, and the regression approach provides a method for adjusting retinol and RBP for inflammation across the full range of concentrations in PSC and SAC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamin A, Infectious Diseases and the Immune Function)
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Open AccessReview An Update on Protein, Leucine, Omega-3 Fatty Acids, and Vitamin D in the Prevention and Treatment of Sarcopenia and Functional Decline
Nutrients 2018, 10(8), 1099; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10081099
Received: 22 July 2018 / Revised: 9 August 2018 / Accepted: 14 August 2018 / Published: 16 August 2018
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Abstract
Aging is associated with sarcopenia and functional decline, leading to frailty and disability. As a modifiable risk factor, nutrition may represent a target for preventing or postponing the onset of these geriatric conditions. Among nutrients, high-quality protein, leucine, vitamin D, and omega-3 polyunsaturated
[...] Read more.
Aging is associated with sarcopenia and functional decline, leading to frailty and disability. As a modifiable risk factor, nutrition may represent a target for preventing or postponing the onset of these geriatric conditions. Among nutrients, high-quality protein, leucine, vitamin D, and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) are of particular interest for their demonstrated effects on skeletal muscle health. This narrative review aims to examine the recent observational and interventional evidence on the associations and the role of these nutrients in the muscle mass, strength, mobility, and physical function of free-living older adults, who are either healthy or at risk of frailty. Recent evidence supports a higher protein intake recommendation of 1.0–1.2 g/kg/day in healthy older adults; an evenly distributed mealtime protein intake or minimal protein per meal may be beneficial. In addition, vitamin D supplementation of 800–1000 IU, particularly when vitamin D status is low, and doses of ~3 g/day of n-3 PUFA may be favorable for physical function, muscle mass, and strength. Reviewed studies are highly heterogenous, yet the quantity, quality, and timing of intakes should be considered when designing intervention studies. Combined protein, leucine, vitamin D, and n-3 PUFA supplements may convey added benefits and may represent an intervention strategy in the prevention of sarcopenia and functional decline. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Intake and Musculoskeletal Health)
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Open AccessArticle Adherence to Nutrition and Physical Activity Cancer Prevention Guidelines and Development of Colorectal Adenoma
Nutrients 2018, 10(8), 1098; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10081098
Received: 23 July 2018 / Revised: 9 August 2018 / Accepted: 13 August 2018 / Published: 16 August 2018
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Abstract
Adherence to the American Cancer Society’s (ACS) Nutrition and Physical Activity Cancer Prevention Guidelines is associated with reductions in overall cancer incidence and mortality, including site-specific cancers such as colorectal cancer. We examined the relationship between baseline adherence to the ACS guidelines and
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Adherence to the American Cancer Society’s (ACS) Nutrition and Physical Activity Cancer Prevention Guidelines is associated with reductions in overall cancer incidence and mortality, including site-specific cancers such as colorectal cancer. We examined the relationship between baseline adherence to the ACS guidelines and (1) baseline adenoma characteristics and (2) odds of recurrent colorectal adenomas over 3 years of follow-up. Cross-sectional and prospective analyses with a pooled sample of participants from the Wheat Bran Fiber (n = 503) and Ursodeoxycholic Acid (n = 854) trials were performed. A cumulative adherence score was constructed using baseline self-reported data regarding body size, diet, physical activity and alcohol consumption. Multivariable logistic regression demonstrated significantly reduced odds of having three or more adenomas at baseline for moderately adherent (odds ratio [OR] = 0.67, 95% confidence intervals [CI]: 0.46–0.99) and highly adherent (OR = 0.50, 95% CI: 0.31–0.81) participants compared to low adherers (p-trend = 0.005). Conversely, guideline adherence was not associated with development of recurrent colorectal adenoma (moderate adherence OR = 1.16, 95% CI: 0.85–1.59, high adherence OR = 1.23, 95% CI: 0.85–1.79). Full article
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