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Special Issue "Impact of Bioactive Peptides on Human Health"

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 August 2018)

Printed Edition Available!
A printed edition of this Special Issue is available here.

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Dr. Kaustav Majumder

Food Science & Technology, University of Nebraska–Lincoln, Rm 263 | 1901 North 21st Street | Food Innovation Center; Nebraska Innovation Campus, NE 68588-6205, USA
Website | E-Mail
Interests: bioactive peptides; food proteins; anti-hypertensive activity; anti-inflammatory activity; peptide absorption; molecular signalling mechanims of peptides

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Food-derived bioactive peptides are increasingly becoming recognized as major food compounds for human health promotion by preventing the occurrence of chronic diseases through their impacts on the gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, immune, and nervous systems. New discoveries on bioactive peptides are important for the maintaining human health and commercial development of the area of functional foods and/or nutraceuticals. This Special Issue covers a wide range of research topics specifically on food-derived bioactive peptides including the in-vitro and in-vivo evaluation of biological activities, bioaccessibility, intestinal absorption, bioavailability, the effect on chronic diseases, and modulating human nutrition.

Dr. Kaustav Majumder
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Nutrients is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Bioactive peptides
  • Food Proteins
  • Functional Foods
  • Nutraceuticals

Published Papers (14 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Suppressive Effect of the α-Amylase Inhibitor Albumin from Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) on Postprandial Hyperglycaemia
Nutrients 2018, 10(10), 1503; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10101503
Received: 1 September 2018 / Revised: 8 October 2018 / Accepted: 12 October 2018 / Published: 15 October 2018
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Abstract
Inhibiting starch hydrolysis into sugar could reduce postprandial blood glucose elevation and contribute to diabetes prevention. Here, both buckwheat and wheat albumin that inhibited mammalian α-amylase in vitro suppressed blood glucose level elevation after starch loading in vivo, but it had no effect [...] Read more.
Inhibiting starch hydrolysis into sugar could reduce postprandial blood glucose elevation and contribute to diabetes prevention. Here, both buckwheat and wheat albumin that inhibited mammalian α-amylase in vitro suppressed blood glucose level elevation after starch loading in vivo, but it had no effect after glucose loading. In contrast to the non-competitive inhibition of wheat α-amylase inhibitor, buckwheat albumin acted in a competitive manner. Although buckwheat α-amylase inhibitor was readily hydrolysed by digestive enzymes, the hydrolysate retained inhibitory activity. Together with its thermal stability, this suggests its potential use in functional foods that prevent diabetes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Impact of Bioactive Peptides on Human Health) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Purification and Identification of Angiotensin I-Converting Enzyme Inhibitory Peptides and the Antihypertensive Effect of Chlorella sorokiniana Protein Hydrolysates
Nutrients 2018, 10(10), 1397; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10101397
Received: 26 August 2018 / Revised: 13 September 2018 / Accepted: 28 September 2018 / Published: 1 October 2018
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (846 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Hot water was used to obtain Chlorella sorokiniana hot water extract (HWE). Subsequently, this byproduct was freeze-dried, hydrolysed at 50 °C using Protease N to obtain C. sorokiniana protein hydrolysates (PN-1), and then digested with a gastrointestinal enzyme (PN-1G). The inhibitory effects of [...] Read more.
Hot water was used to obtain Chlorella sorokiniana hot water extract (HWE). Subsequently, this byproduct was freeze-dried, hydrolysed at 50 °C using Protease N to obtain C. sorokiniana protein hydrolysates (PN-1), and then digested with a gastrointestinal enzyme (PN-1G). The inhibitory effects of the HWE and hydrolysates against angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) were investigated. The soluble protein and peptide contents were 379.9 and 179.7 mg/g, respectively, for HWE and 574.8 and 332.8 mg/g, respectively, for PN-1. The IC50 values of the HWE, PN-1, and PN-1G on ACE were 1.070, 0.035, and 0.044 mg/mL, respectively. PN-1G was separated into seven fractions through size exclusion chromatography. The sixth fraction of the hydrolysate had a molecular weight between 270 and 340 Da, and the lowest IC50 value on ACE was 0.015 mg/mL. The amino acid sequences of the ACE-inhibitory peptides were Trp-Val, Val-Trp, Ile-Trp, and Leu-Trp, of which the IC50 values were 307.61, 0.58, 0.50, and 1.11 µΜ, respectively. Systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure were reduced 20 and 21 mm Hg, respectively, in spontaneously hypertensive rats after 6 h of oral administration with a dose of 171.4 mg PN-1 powder/kg body weight. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Impact of Bioactive Peptides on Human Health) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
A Pilot Study for the Detection of Cyclic Prolyl-Hydroxyproline (Pro-Hyp) in Human Blood after Ingestion of Collagen Hydrolysate
Nutrients 2018, 10(10), 1356; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10101356
Received: 1 September 2018 / Revised: 17 September 2018 / Accepted: 20 September 2018 / Published: 22 September 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2750 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Levels of short linear hydroxyproline (Hyp)-containing peptides, such as prolyl-hydroxyproline (Pro-Hyp), increase in human blood after the ingestion of collagen hydrolysate, which has been associated with beneficial effects for human skin and joints. The present study demonstrates the presence of a novel food-derived [...] Read more.
Levels of short linear hydroxyproline (Hyp)-containing peptides, such as prolyl-hydroxyproline (Pro-Hyp), increase in human blood after the ingestion of collagen hydrolysate, which has been associated with beneficial effects for human skin and joints. The present study demonstrates the presence of a novel food-derived collagen peptide, cyclic Pro-Hyp, in human blood after the ingestion of collagen hydrolysate. The cyclic Pro-Hyp levels in plasma samples were estimated by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Cyclic Pro-Hyp levels significantly increased in the plasma after ingestion of collagen hydrolysate, reaching a maximum level after 2 h and then decreasing. The maximum level of cyclic Pro-Hyp in plasma ranged from 0.1413 to 0.3443 nmol/mL, representing approximately 5% of linear Pro-Hyp in plasma after ingestion of collagen hydrolysate. Addition of cyclic Pro-Hyp in medium at 7 nmol/mL significantly enhanced the growth rate of mouse skin fibroblasts on collagen gel more extensively compared to linear Pro-Hyp. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Impact of Bioactive Peptides on Human Health) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Dose-Related Antihypertensive Properties and the Corresponding Mechanisms of a Chicken Foot Hydrolysate in Hypertensive Rats
Nutrients 2018, 10(9), 1295; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10091295
Received: 9 August 2018 / Revised: 7 September 2018 / Accepted: 10 September 2018 / Published: 12 September 2018
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Abstract
The antihypertensive properties of different doses of a chicken foot hydrolysate, Hpp11 and the mechanisms involved in this effect were investigated. Spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) were administered water, Captopril (50 mg/kg) or Hpp11 at different doses (25, 55 and 85 mg/kg), and the [...] Read more.
The antihypertensive properties of different doses of a chicken foot hydrolysate, Hpp11 and the mechanisms involved in this effect were investigated. Spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) were administered water, Captopril (50 mg/kg) or Hpp11 at different doses (25, 55 and 85 mg/kg), and the systolic blood pressure (SBP) was recorded. The SBP of normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats administered water or Hpp11 was also recorded. Additionally, plasmatic angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) activity was determined in the SHR administered Hpp11. Moreover, the relaxation caused by Hpp11 in isolated aortic rings from Sprague-Dawley rats was evaluated. Hpp11 exhibited antihypertensive activity at doses of 55 and 85 mg/kg, with maximum activity 6 h post-administration. At this time, no differences were found between these doses and Captopril. Initial SBP values of 55 and 85 mg/kg were recovered 24 or 8 h post-administration, respectively, 55 mg/kg being the most effective dose. At this dose, a reduction in the plasmatic ACE activity in the SHR was found. However, Hpp11 did not relax the aortic ring preparations. Therefore, ACE inhibition could be the mechanism underlying Hpp11 antihypertensive effect. Remarkably, Hpp11 did not modify SBP in WKY rats, showing that the decreased SBP effect is specific to the hypertensive state. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Impact of Bioactive Peptides on Human Health) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Whey Protein Concentrate WPC-80 Intensifies Glycoconjugate Catabolism and Induces Oxidative Stress in the Liver of Rats
Nutrients 2018, 10(9), 1178; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10091178
Received: 29 July 2018 / Revised: 23 August 2018 / Accepted: 27 August 2018 / Published: 28 August 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (3047 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of whey protein concentrate (WPC-80) on glycoconjugate catabolism, selected markers of oxidative stress and liver inflammation. The experiment was conducted on male Wistar rats (n = 63). The animals from the study [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of whey protein concentrate (WPC-80) on glycoconjugate catabolism, selected markers of oxidative stress and liver inflammation. The experiment was conducted on male Wistar rats (n = 63). The animals from the study group were administered WPC-80 at a dose of 0.3 or 0.5 g/kg body weight for 7, 14 or 21 days, while rats from the control group received only 0.9% NaCl. In liver homogenates, we assayed the activity of N-acetyl-β-D-hexosaminidase (HEX), β-glucuronidase (GLU), β-galactosidase (GAL), α-mannosidase (MAN), α-fucosidase (FUC), as well as the level of reduced glutathione (GSH), malondialdehyde (MDA), interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1). A significantly higher activity of HEX, GLU, MAN and FUC were found in the livers of rats receiving WPC-80 compared to controls. Serum ALT and AST were significantly higher in the animals supplemented with WPC-80 at a dose of 0.5 g/kg body weight for 21 days. In the same group of animals, enhanced level of GSH, MDA, IL-1β and TGF-β1 were also observed. WPC-80 is responsible for intensive remodelling of liver tissue and induction of oxidative stress especially at a dose of 0.5 g/kg body weight. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Impact of Bioactive Peptides on Human Health) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Amelioration of Ethanol-Induced Gastric Ulcers in Rats Pretreated with Phycobiliproteins of Arthrospira (Spirulina) Maxima
Nutrients 2018, 10(6), 763; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10060763
Received: 19 April 2018 / Revised: 6 June 2018 / Accepted: 8 June 2018 / Published: 13 June 2018
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (940 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Phycobiliproteins of Arthrospira (Spirulina) maxima have attracted attention because of their potential therapeutic antioxidant properties. The aim of this study was to assess the possible antiulcerogenic activity of these phycobiliproteins (ExPhy) against ethanol-induced gastric ulcers in rats. To explore the possible [...] Read more.
Phycobiliproteins of Arthrospira (Spirulina) maxima have attracted attention because of their potential therapeutic antioxidant properties. The aim of this study was to assess the possible antiulcerogenic activity of these phycobiliproteins (ExPhy) against ethanol-induced gastric ulcers in rats. To explore the possible mechanisms of action, we examined antioxidant defense enzymes (e.g., catalase, superoxide dismutase, and glutathione peroxidase), as well as the level of lipid peroxidation (MDA) and the histopathological changes in the gastric mucosa. Intragastric administration of ExPhy (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg body weight) significantly lowered the ulcer index value compared to the ulcer control group (p < 0.05). The greatest protection was provided by the concentration of 400 mg/kg. The histological study supported the observed gastroprotective activity of ExPhy, showing a reduced inflammatory response. Moreover, the alcohol-induced decrease in stomach antioxidant enzyme activity found in the ulcer control group was prevented by ExPhy pretreatment. Furthermore, ExPhy reversed the ethanol-induced increase in lipid peroxidation. In summary, the antiulcerogenic potential of ExPhy may be due, at least in part, to its anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Impact of Bioactive Peptides on Human Health) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Stability of Antiradical Activity of Protein Extracts and Hydrolysates from Dry-Cured Pork Loins with Probiotic Strains of LAB
Nutrients 2018, 10(4), 521; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10040521
Received: 2 March 2018 / Revised: 13 April 2018 / Accepted: 19 April 2018 / Published: 22 April 2018
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (651 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The application of starter cultures to improve quality and safety has become a very common practice in the meat industry. Probiotic strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) can also bring health benefits by releasing bioactive peptides. The aim of this work was to [...] Read more.
The application of starter cultures to improve quality and safety has become a very common practice in the meat industry. Probiotic strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) can also bring health benefits by releasing bioactive peptides. The aim of this work was to evaluate the stability of antiradical activity of protein extracts from LAB-inoculated dry-cured pork loins during long-term aging and evaluate their hydrolysates after simulated gastrointestinal digestion. Analyses of hydrolysates by using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) were strengthened with in silico analysis. The highest antiradical activity of the protein extracts was observed after 180 days of aging. The influence of the strain used (LOCK, BAUER, or BB12) on the inactivation ability of ABTS radicals varied during long-term aging. The IC50 values indicated the higher antiradical properties of salt-soluble (SSF) compared to water-soluble fraction (WSF) of proteins. The peptides generated by in vitro digestion have MW between 700 and 4232 Da and their length ranged from 5 to 47 amino acids in a sequence where Leu, Pro, Lys, Glu, and His had the largest share. This study demonstrates that the degradation of pork muscle proteins during gastrointestinal digestion may give rise to a wide variety of peptides with antiradical properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Impact of Bioactive Peptides on Human Health) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Protective Effects of LSGYGP from Fish Skin Gelatin Hydrolysates on UVB-Induced MEFs by Regulation of Oxidative Stress and Matrix Metalloproteinase Activity
Nutrients 2018, 10(4), 420; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10040420
Received: 2 February 2018 / Revised: 24 March 2018 / Accepted: 26 March 2018 / Published: 28 March 2018
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (13440 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A previous study has shown that tilapia fish skin gelatin hydrolysates inhibited photoaging in vivo, and that, Leu-Ser-Gly-Tyr-Gly-Pro (LSGYGP) identified in the hydrolysate had a high hydroxyl radical scavenging activity. In this study, activities of LSGYGP were further evaluated using ultraviolet B (UVB)-induced [...] Read more.
A previous study has shown that tilapia fish skin gelatin hydrolysates inhibited photoaging in vivo, and that, Leu-Ser-Gly-Tyr-Gly-Pro (LSGYGP) identified in the hydrolysate had a high hydroxyl radical scavenging activity. In this study, activities of LSGYGP were further evaluated using ultraviolet B (UVB)-induced mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs). UVB irradiation significantly increased the intercellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) activities and decreased the content of collagen in MEFs. LSGYGP reduced the intercellular ROS generation in UVB-induced MEFs. Meanwhile, the decrease of superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and the increase of malondiaidehyde (MDA) content were inhibited by LSGYGP. LSGYGP reduced MMP-1 and MMP-9 activities in a dose-dependent manner. Molecular docking simulation indicated that LSGYGP inhibited MMPs activities by docking the active sites of MMP-1 and MMP-9. Furthermore, LSGYGP also affected the intercellular phosphorylation of UVB-induced the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway. LSGYGP could protect collagen synthesis in MEFs under UVB irradiation by inhibiting oxidative stress and regulating MMPs activities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Impact of Bioactive Peptides on Human Health) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Mechanistic Pathways Underlying the Antihypertensive Effect of Fermented Milk with Lactococcus lactis NRRL B-50571 in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats
Nutrients 2018, 10(3), 262; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10030262
Received: 27 January 2018 / Revised: 20 February 2018 / Accepted: 23 February 2018 / Published: 26 February 2018
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (1643 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
It has been reported that fermented milk (FM) with Lactococcus lactis NRRL B-50571 had an antihypertensive effect in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and prehypertensive subjects. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to evaluate the possible mechanisms involved (angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition [...] Read more.
It has been reported that fermented milk (FM) with Lactococcus lactis NRRL B-50571 had an antihypertensive effect in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and prehypertensive subjects. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to evaluate the possible mechanisms involved (angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition (ACEI), enhancement of nitric oxide production, antioxidant activity and opioid effect), in the antihypertensive effect of FM with SHR. First, twenty one SHR were randomized into three groups to either receive in a single-oral dose of purified water (negative control), FM, or naloxone (opioid receptor antagonist) + FM. In a parallel study, twenty seven SHR were randomized into three groups to either receive ad libitum purified water (negative control), Captopril or FM. After six weeks of treatment ACEI activity, enhancement of nitric oxide production, and antioxidant activity were evaluated in plasma. Results indicated that opioid receptors were not involved in the hypotensive effect of FM. However, ACEI activity (94 U/L), the oxidative stress index (malondialdehyde/catalase + glutathione peroxidase) 0.9, and nitric oxide in plasma (4.4 ± 1.3 U/L), were significantly different from the negative control, and not significantly different from the Captopril group. Thus, these results suggested that these mechanisms are involved in the hypotensive effect of FM. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Impact of Bioactive Peptides on Human Health) Printed Edition available
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Review

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Open AccessReview
The Use of Glycomacropeptide in Patients with Phenylketonuria: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Nutrients 2018, 10(11), 1794; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10111794
Received: 9 October 2018 / Revised: 29 October 2018 / Accepted: 12 November 2018 / Published: 18 November 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (3592 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In phenylketonuria (PKU), synthetic protein derived from L-amino acids (AAs) is essential in a low-phenylalanine (Phe) diet. Glycomacropeptide (GMP), an intact protein, is very low in Phe in its native form. It has been modified and adapted for PKU to provide an alternative [...] Read more.
In phenylketonuria (PKU), synthetic protein derived from L-amino acids (AAs) is essential in a low-phenylalanine (Phe) diet. Glycomacropeptide (GMP), an intact protein, is very low in Phe in its native form. It has been modified and adapted for PKU to provide an alternative protein source through supplementation with rate-limiting amino acids (GMP-AAs), although it still contains residual Phe. This review aims to systematically evaluate published intervention studies on the use of GMP-AAs in PKU by considering its impact on blood Phe control (primary aim) and changes in tyrosine control, nutritional biomarkers, and patient acceptability or palatability (secondary aims). Four electronic databases were searched for articles published from 2007 to June 2018. Of the 274 studies identified, only eight were included. Bias risk was assessed and a quality appraisal of the body of evidence was completed. A meta-analysis was performed with two studies with adequate comparable methodology which showed no differences between GMP-AAs and AAs for any of the interventions analysed. This work underlines the scarcity and nature of studies with GMP-AAs interventions. All were short-term with small sample sizes. There is a need for better-designed studies to provide the best evidence-based recommendations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Impact of Bioactive Peptides on Human Health) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessReview
Food-Derived Bioactive Peptides in Human Health: Challenges and Opportunities
Nutrients 2018, 10(11), 1738; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10111738
Received: 16 October 2018 / Revised: 6 November 2018 / Accepted: 9 November 2018 / Published: 12 November 2018
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (591 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Recent scientific evidence suggests that food proteins not only serve as nutrients, but can also modulate the body’s physiological functions. These physiological functions are primarily regulated by some peptides that are encrypted in the native protein sequences. These bioactive peptides can exert health [...] Read more.
Recent scientific evidence suggests that food proteins not only serve as nutrients, but can also modulate the body’s physiological functions. These physiological functions are primarily regulated by some peptides that are encrypted in the native protein sequences. These bioactive peptides can exert health beneficial properties and thus are considered as a lead compound for the development of nutraceuticals or functional foods. In the past few decades, a wide range of food-derived bioactive peptide sequences have been identified, with multiple health beneficial activities. However, the commercial application of these bioactive peptides has been delayed because of the absence of appropriate and scalable production methods, proper exploration of the mechanisms of action, high gastro-intestinal digestibility, variable absorption rate, and the lack of well-designed clinical trials to provide the substantial evidence for potential health claims. This review article discusses the current techniques, challenges of the current bioactive peptide production techniques, the oral use and gastrointestinal bioavailability of these food-derived bioactive peptides, and the overall regulatory environment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Impact of Bioactive Peptides on Human Health) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessReview
Hairless Canaryseed: A Novel Cereal with Health Promoting Potential
Nutrients 2018, 10(9), 1327; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10091327
Received: 30 August 2018 / Revised: 14 September 2018 / Accepted: 16 September 2018 / Published: 19 September 2018
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Abstract
Glabrous canaryseeds were recently approved for human consumption as a novel cereal grain in Canada and the United States. Previously, canaryseeds were exclusively used as birdseed due to the presence of carcinogenic silica fibers; therefore the nutritional value of the seeds has been [...] Read more.
Glabrous canaryseeds were recently approved for human consumption as a novel cereal grain in Canada and the United States. Previously, canaryseeds were exclusively used as birdseed due to the presence of carcinogenic silica fibers; therefore the nutritional value of the seeds has been seriously overlooked. Two cultivars of glabrous canaryseeds (yellow and brown) were created from the hairy varieties. They are high in protein compared to other cereal grains, and contain high amounts of tryptophan, an amino acid normally lacking in cereals, and are gluten-free. Bioactive peptides of canaryseeds produced by in vitro gastrointestinal digestion have shown antioxidant, antidiabetic, and antihypertensive activity. The seeds contain other constituents with health promoting effects, including unsaturated fatty acids, minerals, and phytochemicals. Anti-nutritional components in the seeds are comparable to other cereal grains. Because of their beneficial health effects, canaryseeds should be regarded as a healthy food and have immense potential as a functional food and ingredient. Further research is required to determine additional bioactive peptide activity and capacity, as well as differences between the yellow and brown cultivars. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Impact of Bioactive Peptides on Human Health) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview
ACEI-Inhibitory Peptides Naturally Generated in Meat and Meat Products and Their Health Relevance
Nutrients 2018, 10(9), 1259; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10091259
Received: 31 July 2018 / Revised: 1 September 2018 / Accepted: 3 September 2018 / Published: 7 September 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (984 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Meat and meat products have been described as a very good source of angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACEI)-inhibitory peptides. The generation of bioactive peptides can occur through the action of endogenous muscular enzymes during processing, gastrointestinal digestion, or by using commercial enzymes in [...] Read more.
Meat and meat products have been described as a very good source of angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACEI)-inhibitory peptides. The generation of bioactive peptides can occur through the action of endogenous muscular enzymes during processing, gastrointestinal digestion, or by using commercial enzymes in laboratory or industry under controlled conditions. Studies of bioavailability are necessary in order to prove the positive health effect of bioactive peptides in the body as they should resist gastrointestinal digestion, cross the intestinal barrier, and reach blood stream and target organs. However, in order to better understand their effect, interactions, and bioavailability, it is necessary to consider food matrix interactions and continue the development of quantitative methodologies in order to obtain more data that will enable advances in the field of bioactive peptides and the determination of their influence on health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Impact of Bioactive Peptides on Human Health) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessReview
Egg and Soy-Derived Peptides and Hydrolysates: A Review of Their Physiological Actions against Diabetes and Obesity
Nutrients 2018, 10(5), 549; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10050549
Received: 23 March 2018 / Revised: 19 April 2018 / Accepted: 26 April 2018 / Published: 28 April 2018
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (318 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Type 2 diabetes and obesity are two chronic conditions associated with the metabolic syndrome and their prevalences are increasing worldwide. The investigation of food protein-derived bioactive peptides that can improve the pathophysiology of diabetes or obesity while causing minimal side effects is desired. [...] Read more.
Type 2 diabetes and obesity are two chronic conditions associated with the metabolic syndrome and their prevalences are increasing worldwide. The investigation of food protein-derived bioactive peptides that can improve the pathophysiology of diabetes or obesity while causing minimal side effects is desired. Egg and soy proteins generate bioactive peptides with multiple biological effects, exerting nutritional and physiological benefits. This review focuses on the anti-diabetic and anti-obesity effects of egg- and soy-derived peptides and hydrolysates in vivo and in vitro relevant to these conditions. Studies using the intact protein were considered only when comparing the results with the hydrolysate or peptides. In vivo evidence suggests that bioactive peptides from egg and soy can potentially be used to manage elements of glucose homeostasis in metabolic syndrome; however, the mechanisms of action on glucose and insulin metabolism, and the interaction between peptides and their molecular targets remain unclear. Optimizing the production of egg- and soy-derived peptides and standardizing the physiological models to study their effects on diabetes and obesity could help to clarify the effects of these bioactive peptides in metabolic syndrome-related conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Impact of Bioactive Peptides on Human Health) Printed Edition available
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