Special Issue "Diet, Lipid and Lipoprotein Metabolism and Human Health"

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 August 2018).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Bruce A. Griffin
Website
Guest Editor
Univ Surrey, Fac Hlth & Med Sci, Dept Nutr Sci, Guildford GU2 7XH, Surrey, England
Interests: human nutrition (macronutrients); plasma lipoproteins; cardio-metabolic risk
Prof. Julie A. Lovegrove
Website
Guest Editor
Univ Reading, Hugh Sinclair Unit Human Nutr, Reading, Berks, England
Interests: personalised nutrition; dietary fatty acids; polyphenols; vascular dysfunction

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The strength of evidence for the relationship between diet and cardiovascular disease (CVD) relies heavily on the effects of dietary fat and carbohydrates on serum biomarkers of CVD risk. Serum cholesterol, triglyceride, and critically the concentration and composition of circulating serum lipoproteins that transport these lipids, are prime examples of such serum biomarkers. Serum lipoproteins are causally related to the formation and regression of atherosclerotic lesions in arteries, are highly responsive to changes in diet and food intake, and have major clinical utility in describing the impact of diet on CVD risk. Despite current debate over the role of saturated fat and CVD, the totality of evidence indicates that both serum LDL cholesterol and CVD mortality can be reduced by replacing saturated fatty acids with polyunsaturated fatty acids. On the other hand, a major priority in the dietary management of cardio-metabolic risk arising from insulin resistance and excess visceral and ectopic fat, is not to lower serum LDL cholesterol, but to reduce the atherogencity of lipoprotein remnants, small, dense LDL and dysfunctional HDL. Increasing the intake of dietary long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and fibre, at the expense of reducing free sugars, are two ways in which the quality of dietary fat and carbohydrate can be altered to achieve this aim.

This Special Issue welcomes original research and reviews of literature concerning serum lipids, lipoproteins and health under the following topics:

  • Human dietary intervention studies that provide evidence for the effects of dietary fatty acids and/or carbohydrates on serum lipids and lipoproteins
  • Studies of human genotypes and/or metabolic phenotypes to help explain variation in lipid and lipoprotein responses to dietary macronutrients
  • Studies that provide mechanistic insights into the inter-relationship between diet, body composition and serum lipids and lipoproteins and CVD risk
  • Effects of dietary patterns and/or specific food groups on serum lipids and lipoproteins

Prof. Bruce A. Griffin
Prof. Julie A. Lovegrove
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Nutrients is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Serum lipids
  • Serum lipoproteins
  • Cardiovascular disease
  • Cardio-metabolic risk
  • Metabolic syndrome
  • Dietary saturated fatty acids
  • Dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids
  • Free sugars
  • Dietary fibre
  • Body fat
  • Subcutaneous fat
  • Visceral fat
  • Ectopic fat

Published Papers (12 papers)

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Research

Jump to: Review

Open AccessArticle
Sex-Specific Differences in Fat Storage, Development of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and Brain Structure in Juvenile HFD-Induced Obese Ldlr-/-.Leiden Mice
Nutrients 2019, 11(8), 1861; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11081861 - 10 Aug 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1987
Abstract
Background: Sex-specific differences play a role in metabolism, fat storage in adipose tissue, and brain structure. At juvenile age, brain function is susceptible to the effects of obesity; little is known about sex-specific differences in juvenile obesity. Therefore, this study examined sex-specific differences [...] Read more.
Background: Sex-specific differences play a role in metabolism, fat storage in adipose tissue, and brain structure. At juvenile age, brain function is susceptible to the effects of obesity; little is known about sex-specific differences in juvenile obesity. Therefore, this study examined sex-specific differences in adipose tissue and liver of high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice, and putative alterations between male and female mice in brain structure in relation to behavioral changes during the development of juvenile obesity. Methods: In six-week-old male and female Ldlr-/-.Leiden mice (n = 48), the impact of 18 weeks of HFD-feeding was examined. Fat distribution, liver pathology and brain structure and function were analyzed imunohisto- and biochemically, in cognitive tasks and with MRI. Results: HFD-fed female mice were characterized by an increased perigonadal fat mass, pronounced macrovesicular hepatic steatosis and liver inflammation. Male mice on HFD displayed an increased mesenteric fat mass, pronounced adipose tissue inflammation and microvesicular hepatic steatosis. Only male HFD-fed mice showed decreased cerebral blood flow and reduced white matter integrity. Conclusions: At young age, male mice are more susceptible to the detrimental effects of HFD than female mice. This study emphasizes the importance of sex-specific differences in obesity, liver pathology, and brain function. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet, Lipid and Lipoprotein Metabolism and Human Health)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Adipose Tissue Lipophilic Index and Risk of Ischemic Stroke—A Danish Case-Cohort Study
Nutrients 2018, 10(11), 1570; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10111570 - 23 Oct 2018
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1394
Abstract
Diet may influence the risk of ischemic stroke by several mechanisms. A potential and hitherto unknown mechanism may relate to an effect on the lipophilic index, which is a new and convenient indicator of membrane fluidity. This study investigated the association between the [...] Read more.
Diet may influence the risk of ischemic stroke by several mechanisms. A potential and hitherto unknown mechanism may relate to an effect on the lipophilic index, which is a new and convenient indicator of membrane fluidity. This study investigated the association between the adipose tissue lipophilic index and ischemic stroke and its subtypes. A case-cohort study was conducted based on the Danish cohort study Diet, Cancer, and Health, which includes 57,053 subjects aged 50–64 years at enrolment. A subcohort (n = 3500) was randomly drawn from the whole cohort. All ischemic stroke cases were validated and categorized into subtypes. The lipophilic index was calculated based on fatty acid profiles in adipose tissue. Subjects were divided into quintiles and a weighted Cox proportional hazards regression model was used to calculate hazard ratios. After appropriate exclusions, a subcohort of 3194 subjects and 1752 cases of ischemic stroke were included. When comparing the fifth quintile of the lipophilic index with the first quintile, the hazard ratio for ischemic stroke was 0.92 (95% confidence interval 0.75, 1.13) and the trend across quintiles was not statistically significant (p = 0.1727). In conclusion, no association was found between the lipophilic index and ischemic stroke or its subtypes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet, Lipid and Lipoprotein Metabolism and Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle
APOE4 Genotype Exerts Greater Benefit in Lowering Plasma Cholesterol and Apolipoprotein B than Wild Type (E3/E3), after Replacement of Dietary Saturated Fats with Low Glycaemic Index Carbohydrates
Nutrients 2018, 10(10), 1524; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10101524 - 17 Oct 2018
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2020
Abstract
We examined the impact of APOE genotype on plasma lipids and glucose in a secondary analysis of data from a five-arm, randomised controlled, parallel dietary intervention trial (‘RISCK’ study), to investigate the impact of replacing saturated fatty acids (SFA) with either monounsaturated fat [...] Read more.
We examined the impact of APOE genotype on plasma lipids and glucose in a secondary analysis of data from a five-arm, randomised controlled, parallel dietary intervention trial (‘RISCK’ study), to investigate the impact of replacing saturated fatty acids (SFA) with either monounsaturated fat (MUFA) or carbohydrate of high or low glycaemic index (GI) on CVD risk factors and insulin sensitivity. We tested the impact of APOE genotype (carriage of E2 and E4 alleles versus E3/E3), determined retrospectively, on plasma lipids, lipoproteins and glucose homeostasis at baseline (n = 469), and on the change in these variables after 24 weeks of dietary intervention (n = 389). At baseline, carriers of E2 (n = 70), E4 (n = 125) and E3/E3 (n = 274) expressed marked differences in total plasma cholesterol (TC, p = 0.001), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, p < 0.0001), apolipoprotein B (apo B, p < 0.0001) and total to high density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio (TC:HDL-C, p = 0.002), with plasma concentrations decreasing in the order E4 > E3/E3 > E2. Following intervention, there was evidence of a significant diet x genotype interaction with significantly greater decreases in TC (p = 0.02) and apo B (p = 0.006) among carriers of E4 when SFA was replaced with low GI carbohydrate on a lower fat diet (TC −0.28 mmol/L p = 0.03; apo B −0.1 g/L p = 0.02), and a relative increase in TC (in comparison to E3/E3) when SFA was replaced with MUFA and high GI carbohydrates (TC 0.3 mmol/L, p = 0.03). Among carriers of E2 (compared with E3/E3) there was an increase in triacylglycerol (TAG) when SFA was replaced with MUFA and low GI carbohydrates 0.46 mmol/L p = 0.001). There were no significant interactions between APOE genotype and diet for changes in indices of glucose homeostasis. In conclusion, variations in APOE genotype led to differential effects on the lipid response to the replacement of SFA with MUFA and low GI carbohydrates. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet, Lipid and Lipoprotein Metabolism and Human Health)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Fatty Acid Composition in Various Types of Cardiac Adipose Tissues and Its Relation to the Fatty Acid Content of Atrial Tissue
Nutrients 2018, 10(10), 1506; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10101506 - 15 Oct 2018
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1370
Abstract
Diet, with its content of various types of fatty acids (FAs), is of great importance for cellular function. Adipose tissue (AT) serves as a storage for dietary FAs, but after appropriate activation it may also offer important biological properties, e.g., by releasing adipokines [...] Read more.
Diet, with its content of various types of fatty acids (FAs), is of great importance for cellular function. Adipose tissue (AT) serves as a storage for dietary FAs, but after appropriate activation it may also offer important biological properties, e.g., by releasing adipokines and cytokines to the surrounding milieu. Such effects may depend on the diet and type of FA involved. Similarly, the composition of FAs in the heart is also likely to be important for cardiac function. We investigated samples of epicardial adipose tissue (EAT), pericardial adipose tissue (PAT), subcutaneous adipose tissue (SCAT), and tissue from the right atrial appendage to compare the FA compositions in patients undergoing elective cardiac surgery. Minor differences among AT compartments were found, while the comparison of atrial tissue and EAT showed major differences in saturated fatty acids (SFAs), monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs), and n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). These findings may be of importance for understanding biological availability, dietary effects, and the effects of FAs on the heart. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet, Lipid and Lipoprotein Metabolism and Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of Low Dose Docosahexaenoic Acid-Rich Fish Oil on Plasma Lipids and Lipoproteins in Pre-Menopausal Women: A Dose–Response Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial
Nutrients 2018, 10(10), 1460; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10101460 - 08 Oct 2018
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1620
Abstract
Omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 LCPUFA) supplementation has been shown to improve plasma lipid profiles in men and post-menopausal women, however, data for pre-menopausal women are lacking. The benefits of intakes less than 1 g/day have not been well [...] Read more.
Omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 LCPUFA) supplementation has been shown to improve plasma lipid profiles in men and post-menopausal women, however, data for pre-menopausal women are lacking. The benefits of intakes less than 1 g/day have not been well studied, and dose–response data is limited. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of low doses of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)-rich tuna oil on plasma triglyceride (TG) lowering in pre-menopausal women, and investigate if low dose DHA-rich tuna oil supplementation would increase the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) particle sizes. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted, in which 53 healthy pre-menopausal women with mildly elevated plasma TG levels consumed 0, 0.35, 0.7, or 1 g/day n-3 LCPUFA as HiDHA™ tuna oil or placebo (Sunola oil) capsules for 8 weeks. Supplementation with 1 g/day n-3 LCPUFA, but not lower doses, reduced plasma TG by 23% in pre-menopausal women. This was reflected in a dose-dependent reduction in very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL)-TG (R2 = 0.20, p = 0.003). A weak dose-dependent shift in HDL (but not LDL) particle size was identified (R2 = 0.05, p = 0.04). The results of this study indicate that DHA-rich n-3 LCPUFA supplementation at a dose of 1 g/day is an effective TG-lowering agent and increases HDL particle size in pre-menopausal women. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet, Lipid and Lipoprotein Metabolism and Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Association of Dietary Fatty Acids with Blood Lipids is Modified by Physical Activity in Adolescents: Results from the GINIplus and LISA Birth Cohort Studies
Nutrients 2018, 10(10), 1372; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10101372 - 25 Sep 2018
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1419
Abstract
The role of consuming different types of fatty acids (FA) at the expense of carbohydrates (CHO), on the blood lipid profile of adolescents is largely unknown, as is the modulating effect of different levels of physical activity (PA). Children from the GINIplus and [...] Read more.
The role of consuming different types of fatty acids (FA) at the expense of carbohydrates (CHO), on the blood lipid profile of adolescents is largely unknown, as is the modulating effect of different levels of physical activity (PA). Children from the GINIplus and LISA birth cohorts, with complete data on dietary FA (assessed by food-frequency questionnaires), objectively-measured PA (assessed by accelerometers) and blood lipids (lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides) at age 15 years, were included (N = 837). Sex-stratified associations between dietary FA and blood lipids were assessed by linear regression in substitution models which represented isocaloric replacements of CHO with saturated FA (SFA), monounsaturated FA (MUFA), n-3 polyunsaturated FA (PUFA) or n-6 PUFA. To assess the interactions with PA, analyses were then performed stratified by tertiles of different PA levels (sedentary, lifestyle, moderate-to-vigorous (MVPA)). Both sexes presented a significant inverse association between MUFA and triglycerides, and females a direct association between n-3 PUFA and high-density lipoprotein. Stratifying by PA tertiles, associations were mainly restricted to participants with the lowest levels of lifestyle PA, or the highest time spent sedentary. The effects of dietary FA on the lipid profile vary in an activity-specific manner, emphasizing possible synergistic roles of diet and PA. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet, Lipid and Lipoprotein Metabolism and Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of Marine n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids on Heart Rate Variability and Heart Rate in Patients on Chronic Dialysis: A Randomized Controlled Trial
Nutrients 2018, 10(9), 1313; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10091313 - 17 Sep 2018
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1757
Abstract
Marine n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) may improve autonomic dysfunction, as indicated by an increase in heart rate variability (HRV) and reduce the risk of sudden cardiac death. Hence, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of marine n [...] Read more.
Marine n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) may improve autonomic dysfunction, as indicated by an increase in heart rate variability (HRV) and reduce the risk of sudden cardiac death. Hence, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of marine n-3 PUFA on 24-h HRV in patients on chronic dialysis, who have a high risk of sudden cardiac death. Between June 2014 and March 2016, 112 patients on chronic dialysis from Denmark were allocated to a daily supplement of 2 g marine n-3 PUFA or control for three months in a randomized, double-blinded, controlled trial. A 48-h Holter monitoring was performed and mean 24-h HRV indices for the two days were available in 85 patients. The mean age was 62.3 years (SD: 14.3) and median dialysis vintage was 1.7 years (IQR: 0.5, 6.4). Within-group and between-group changes in outcome were evaluated by a paired and two sample t-test, respectively. Marine n-3 PUFA did not change the primary endpoint SDNN (SD of all RR-intervals) reflecting overall HRV, but other HRV indices increased and the mean RR-interval increased significantly, corresponding to a decrease in heart rate by 2.5 beats per minute (p = 0.04). In conclusion, marine n-3 PUFA did not change SDNN, but the mean heart rate was significantly reduced and changes in other HRV-indices were also observed, indicating an increase in vagal modulation that might be protective against malignant ventricular arrhythmias. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet, Lipid and Lipoprotein Metabolism and Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Interesterified Palm Olein (IEPalm) and Interesterified Stearic Acid-Rich Fat Blend (IEStear) Have No Adverse Effects on Insulin Resistance: A Randomized Control Trial
Nutrients 2018, 10(8), 1112; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10081112 - 17 Aug 2018
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2122
Abstract
Chemically-interesterified (CIE) fats are trans-fat free and are increasingly being used as an alternative to hydrogenated oils for food manufacturing industries to optimize their products’ characteristics and nutrient compositions. The metabolic effects of CIE fats on insulin activity, lipids, and adiposity in [...] Read more.
Chemically-interesterified (CIE) fats are trans-fat free and are increasingly being used as an alternative to hydrogenated oils for food manufacturing industries to optimize their products’ characteristics and nutrient compositions. The metabolic effects of CIE fats on insulin activity, lipids, and adiposity in humans are not well established. We investigated the effects of CIE fats rich in palmitic (C16:0, IEPalm) and stearic (C18:0, IEStear) acids on insulin resistance, serum lipids, apolipoprotein concentrations, and adiposity, using C16:0-rich natural palm olein (NatPO) as the control. We designed a parallel, double-blind clinical trial. Three test fats were used to prepare daily snacks for consumption with a standard background diet over a period of 8 weeks by three groups of a total of 85 healthy, overweight adult volunteers. We measured the outcome variables at weeks 0, 6, and at the endpoint of 8. After 8 weeks, there was no significant difference in surrogate biomarkers of insulin resistance in any of the IE fat diets (IEPalm and IEStear) compared to the NatPO diet. The change in serum triacylglycerol concentrations was significantly lower with the IEStear diet, and the changes in serum leptin and body fat percentages were significantly lower in the NatPO-diet compared to the IEPalm diet. We conclude that diets containing C16:0 and C18:0-rich CIE fats do not affect markers of insulin resistance compared to a natural C16:0-rich fat (NatPO) diet. Higher amounts of saturated fatty acids (SFAs) and longer chain SFAs situated at the sn-1,3 position of the triacylglycerol (TAG) backbones resulted in less weight gain and lower changes in body fat percentage and leptin concentration to those observed in NatPO and IEStear. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet, Lipid and Lipoprotein Metabolism and Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Dietary Inflammatory Index and Biomarkers of Lipoprotein Metabolism, Inflammation and Glucose Homeostasis in Adults
Nutrients 2018, 10(8), 1033; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10081033 - 08 Aug 2018
Cited by 39 | Viewed by 2962
Abstract
Accumulating evidence identifies diet and inflammation as potential mechanisms contributing to cardiometabolic risk. However, inconsistent reports regarding dietary inflammatory potential, biomarkers of cardiometabolic health and metabolic syndrome (MetS) risk exist. Our objective was to examine the relationships between a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ)-derived [...] Read more.
Accumulating evidence identifies diet and inflammation as potential mechanisms contributing to cardiometabolic risk. However, inconsistent reports regarding dietary inflammatory potential, biomarkers of cardiometabolic health and metabolic syndrome (MetS) risk exist. Our objective was to examine the relationships between a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ)-derived dietary inflammatory index (DII®), biomarkers of lipoprotein metabolism, inflammation and glucose homeostasis and MetS risk in a cross-sectional sample of 1992 adults. Energy-adjusted DII (E-DII) scores derived from an FFQ were calculated. Lipoprotein particle size and subclass concentrations were measured using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Serum acute-phase reactants, adipocytokines, pro-inflammatory cytokines and white blood cell (WBC) counts were determined. Insulin resistance was calculated by homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR). Our data indicate that a more pro-inflammatory diet, reflected by higher E-DII scores, was associated with potentially pro-atherogenic lipoprotein profiles characterised by increased numbers of large very low density lipoprotein (VLDL), small dense low density lipoprotein (LDL) and high density lipoprotein (HDL) particles and less large LDL and HDL particles (all p < 0.001). Inflammatory profiling identified a range of adverse phenotypes among those with higher E-DII scores, including higher complement component C3 (C3), C-reactive protein (CRP), (both p < 0.05), interleukin 6 (IL-6) and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α concentrations, higher WBC counts and neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and lower adiponectin levels (all p < 0.001). MetS risk was increased among those with higher E-DII scores (OR 1.37, 95% CI (1.01, 1.88), p < 0.05), after adjusting for potential confounders. In conclusion, habitual intake of a more pro-inflammatory diet is associated with unfavourable lipoprotein and inflammatory profiles and increased MetS risk. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet, Lipid and Lipoprotein Metabolism and Human Health)
Open AccessArticle
Inulin Improves Postprandial Hypertriglyceridemia by Modulating Gene Expression in the Small Intestine
Nutrients 2018, 10(5), 532; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10050532 - 25 Apr 2018
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 3656
Abstract
Postprandial hyperlipidemia is an important risk factor for cardiovascular diseases in the context of obesity. Inulin is a non-digestible carbohydrate, known for its beneficial properties in metabolic disorders. We investigated the impact of inulin on postprandial hypertriglyceridemia and on lipid metabolism in a [...] Read more.
Postprandial hyperlipidemia is an important risk factor for cardiovascular diseases in the context of obesity. Inulin is a non-digestible carbohydrate, known for its beneficial properties in metabolic disorders. We investigated the impact of inulin on postprandial hypertriglyceridemia and on lipid metabolism in a mouse model of diet-induced obesity. Mice received a control or a western diet for 4 weeks and were further supplemented or not with inulin for 2 weeks (0.2 g/day per mouse). We performed a lipid tolerance test, measured mRNA expression of genes involved in postprandial lipid metabolism, assessed post-heparin plasma and muscle lipoprotein lipase activity and measured lipid accumulation in the enterocytes and fecal lipid excretion. Inulin supplementation in western diet-fed mice decreases postprandial serum triglycerides concentration, decreases the mRNA expression levels of Cd36 (fatty acid receptor involved in lipid uptake and sensing) and apolipoprotein C3 (Apoc3, inhibitor of lipoprotein lipase) in the jejunum and increases fecal lipid excretion. In conclusion, inulin improves postprandial hypertriglyceridemia by targeting intestinal lipid metabolism. This work confirms the interest of using inulin supplementation in the management of dyslipidemia linked to obesity and cardiometabolic risk. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet, Lipid and Lipoprotein Metabolism and Human Health)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Nutrigenetic Contributions to Dyslipidemia: A Focus on Physiologically Relevant Pathways of Lipid and Lipoprotein Metabolism
Nutrients 2018, 10(10), 1404; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10101404 - 02 Oct 2018
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2510
Abstract
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) remains the number one cause of death worldwide, and dyslipidemia is a major predictor of CVD mortality. Elevated lipid concentrations are the result of multiple genetic and environmental factors. Over 150 genetic loci have been associated with blood lipid levels. [...] Read more.
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) remains the number one cause of death worldwide, and dyslipidemia is a major predictor of CVD mortality. Elevated lipid concentrations are the result of multiple genetic and environmental factors. Over 150 genetic loci have been associated with blood lipid levels. However, not all variants are present in pathways relevant to the pathophysiology of dyslipidemia. The study of these physiologically relevant variants can provide mechanistic understanding of dyslipidemia and identify potential novel therapeutic targets. Additionally, dietary fatty acids have been evidenced to exert both positive and negative effects on lipid profiles. The metabolism of both dietary and endogenously synthesized lipids can be affected by individual genetic variation to produce elevated lipid concentrations. This review will explore the genetic, dietary, and nutrigenetic contributions to dyslipidemia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet, Lipid and Lipoprotein Metabolism and Human Health)
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Open AccessReview
Diet-Modulated Lipoprotein Metabolism and Vascular Inflammation Evaluated by 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography
Nutrients 2018, 10(10), 1382; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10101382 - 28 Sep 2018
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1830
Abstract
Vascular inflammation plays a central role in atherosclerosis, from initiation and progression to acute thrombotic complications. Modified low-density lipoproteins (LDLs) and apoB-containing particles stimulate plaque inflammation by interacting with macrophages. Loss of function of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) for preventing LDL particles from oxidative [...] Read more.
Vascular inflammation plays a central role in atherosclerosis, from initiation and progression to acute thrombotic complications. Modified low-density lipoproteins (LDLs) and apoB-containing particles stimulate plaque inflammation by interacting with macrophages. Loss of function of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) for preventing LDL particles from oxidative modification in dyslipidemic states may amplify modified LDL actions, accelerating plaque inflammation. Diets are one of the most important factors that can affect these processes of lipoprotein oxidation and vascular inflammation. Recently, 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) has emerged as a reliable noninvasive imaging modality for identifying and quantifying vascular inflammation within atherosclerotic lesions based on the high glycolytic activity of macrophages infiltrating active atherosclerotic plaques. Vascular inflammation evaluated by FDG PET has been positively related to metabolic syndrome components and traditional risk factors of cardiovascular disease, including high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, body mass index, and insulin resistance. A positive association of vascular inflammation with endothelial dysfunction, resistin levels, pericardial adipose tissue, and visceral fat area has also been reported. In contrast, HDL cholesterol and adiponectin have been inversely related to vascular inflammation detected by FDG PET. Because of its reproducibility, serial FDG PET shows potential for tracking the effects of dietary interventions and other systemic and local antiatherosclerotic therapies for plaque inflammation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet, Lipid and Lipoprotein Metabolism and Human Health)
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