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Nutrients 2018, 10(9), 1312; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10091312

The Decreasing Trend in Dietary Glycaemic Index and Glycaemic Load in Australian Children and Adolescents between 1995 and 2012

1
School of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong, China
2
Charles Perkins Centre and School of Life and Environmental Sciences, The University of Sydney, Sydney 2006, NSW, Australia
3
Private Practice, Sydney, NSW, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 22 August 2018 / Revised: 3 September 2018 / Accepted: 13 September 2018 / Published: 16 September 2018
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Abstract

This study aims to examine whether there were changes between 1995–2012 in the dietary glycaemic index (dGI) and glycaemic load (dGL) in Australian children (<16 years) according to three national surveys in 1995 (1995NS), 2007 (2007NS), and 2011–2012 (2012NS). Glycaemic index (GI) values of foods were assigned using published methodology. Plausible 24-h recall data from the 1995NS, 2007NS and 2012NS (weighted n = 2475, 4373 and 1691 respectively) were compared for differences in dGI and dGL, and the contribution to dGL from different foods using one-way ANOVA with Bonferroni post hoc comparisons and linear regression. Decreasing trends across surveys were found in dGI and dGL (p < 0.001). Between 1995 and 2012, dGI and dGL per Megajoule (MJ) dropped by 2% and 6% respectively. The per capita dGL contribution from breads and bread rolls, fruit and vegetable juices, sweetened beverages and potatoes showed strong decreasing trends (R2 > 0.7). Our findings suggest that dGI and dGL of Australian youths declined between 1995 to 2012, which may be due to increased awareness of the GI concept and healthy diet, widened food choices and immigrants with diverse dietary habits. This may lower the future risks of chronic degenerative diseases in Australian youths. View Full-Text
Keywords: glycaemic index; glycaemic load; Australian children and adolescents; national nutrition surveys; trend analysis glycaemic index; glycaemic load; Australian children and adolescents; national nutrition surveys; trend analysis
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Yeung, C.H.C.; Kusnadi, D.T.L.; Barclay, A.W.; Brand-Miller, J.C.; Louie, J.C.Y. The Decreasing Trend in Dietary Glycaemic Index and Glycaemic Load in Australian Children and Adolescents between 1995 and 2012. Nutrients 2018, 10, 1312.

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