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Remote Sens., Volume 16, Issue 12 (June-2 2024) – 208 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): This study addresses the data gap in the deep learning-based pan sharpening of hyperspectral images, a technique used to improve the spatial resolution of an image using a high-resolution panchromatic image while preserving spectral information. Using the ASI PRISMA sensor, a dataset of 262,200 km2 was collected, making it the largest dataset in terms of statistical relevance and scene diversity, which are essential for robust model generalization. Reduced resolution (RR) and full resolution (FR) experiments were also conducted to compare several deep learning pan sharpening algorithms with various non-machine learning methods. The investigation shows that data-driven neural networks significantly outperform traditional methods in terms of spectral and spatial fidelity. An in-depth analysis of both aspects is presented in this work. View this paper
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21 pages, 52503 KiB  
Article
Study on the Identification, Failure Mode, and Spatial Distribution of Bank Collapses after the Initial Impoundment in the Head Section of Baihetan Reservoir in Jinsha River, China
by Chuangchuang Yao, Lingjing Li, Xin Yao, Renjiang Li, Kaiyu Ren, Shu Jiang, Ximing Chen and Li Ma
Remote Sens. 2024, 16(12), 2253; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs16122253 - 20 Jun 2024
Viewed by 441
Abstract
After the initial impoundment of the Baihetan Reservoir in April 2021, the water level in front of the dam rose about 200 m. The mechanical properties and effects of the bank slopes in the reservoir area changed significantly, resulting in many bank collapses. [...] Read more.
After the initial impoundment of the Baihetan Reservoir in April 2021, the water level in front of the dam rose about 200 m. The mechanical properties and effects of the bank slopes in the reservoir area changed significantly, resulting in many bank collapses. This study systematically analyzed the bank slope of the head section of the reservoir, spanning 30 km from the dam to Baihetan Bridge, through a comprehensive investigation conducted after the initial impoundment. The analysis utilized UAV flights and ground surveys to interpret the bank slope’s distribution characteristics and failure patterns. A total of 276 bank collapses were recorded, with a geohazard development density of 4.6/km. The slope gradient of 26% of the collapsed banks experienced an increase ranging from 5 to 20° after impoundment, whereas the remaining sites’ inclines remained unchanged. According to the combination of lithology and movement mode, the bank failure mode is divided into six types, which are the surface erosion type, surface collapse type, surface slide type, bedding slip type of clastic rock, toppling type of clastic rock, and cavity corrosion type of carbonate rock. It was found that the collapsed banks in the reservoir area of 85% developed in the reactivation of old landslide deposits, while 15% in the clastic and carbonate rock. This study offers guidance for the next phase of bank collapse regulations and future geohazards prevention strategies in the Baihetan Reservoir area. Full article
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23 pages, 76599 KiB  
Article
SRBPSwin: Single-Image Super-Resolution for Remote Sensing Images Using a Global Residual Multi-Attention Hybrid Back-Projection Network Based on the Swin Transformer
by Yi Qin, Jiarong Wang, Shenyi Cao, Ming Zhu, Jiaqi Sun, Zhicheng Hao and Xin Jiang
Remote Sens. 2024, 16(12), 2252; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs16122252 - 20 Jun 2024
Viewed by 301
Abstract
Remote sensing images usually contain abundant targets and complex information distributions. Consequently, networks are required to model both global and local information in the super-resolution (SR) reconstruction of remote sensing images. The existing SR reconstruction algorithms generally focus on only local or global [...] Read more.
Remote sensing images usually contain abundant targets and complex information distributions. Consequently, networks are required to model both global and local information in the super-resolution (SR) reconstruction of remote sensing images. The existing SR reconstruction algorithms generally focus on only local or global features, neglecting effective feedback for reconstruction errors. Therefore, a Global Residual Multi-attention Fusion Back-projection Network (SRBPSwin) is introduced by combining the back-projection mechanism with the Swin Transformer. We incorporate a concatenated Channel and Spatial Attention Block (CSAB) into the Swin Transformer Block (STB) to design a Multi-attention Hybrid Swin Transformer Block (MAHSTB). SRBPSwin develops dense back-projection units to provide bidirectional feedback for reconstruction errors, enhancing the network’s feature extraction capabilities and improving reconstruction performance. SRBPSwin consists of the following four main stages: shallow feature extraction, shallow feature refinement, dense back projection, and image reconstruction. Firstly, for the input low-resolution (LR) image, shallow features are extracted and refined through the shallow feature extraction and shallow feature refinement stages. Secondly, multiple up-projection and down-projection units are designed to alternately process features between high-resolution (HR) and LR spaces, obtaining more accurate and detailed feature representations. Finally, global residual connections are utilized to transfer shallow features during the image reconstruction stage. We propose a perceptual loss function based on the Swin Transformer to enhance the detail of the reconstructed image. Extensive experiments demonstrate the significant reconstruction advantages of SRBPSwin in quantitative evaluation and visual quality. Full article
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19 pages, 6650 KiB  
Technical Note
Innovative Rotating SAR Mode for 3D Imaging of Buildings
by Yun Lin, Ying Wang, Yanping Wang, Wenjie Shen and Zechao Bai
Remote Sens. 2024, 16(12), 2251; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs16122251 - 20 Jun 2024
Viewed by 325
Abstract
Three-dimensional SAR imaging of urban buildings is currently a hotspot in the research area of remote sensing. Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) offers all-time, all-weather, high-resolution capacity, and is an important tool for the monitoring of building health. Buildings have geometric distortion in conventional [...] Read more.
Three-dimensional SAR imaging of urban buildings is currently a hotspot in the research area of remote sensing. Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) offers all-time, all-weather, high-resolution capacity, and is an important tool for the monitoring of building health. Buildings have geometric distortion in conventional 2D SAR images, which brings great difficulties to the interpretation of SAR images. This paper proposes a novel Rotating SAR (RSAR) mode, which acquires 3D information of buildings from two different angles in a single rotation. This new RSAR mode takes the center of a straight track as its rotation center, and obtains images of the same facade of a building from two different angles. By utilizing the differences in geometric distortion of buildings in the image pair, the 3D structure of the building is reconstructed. Compared to the existing tomographic SAR or circular SAR, this method does not require multiple flights in different elevations or observations from varying aspect angles, and greatly simplifies data acquisition. Furthermore, both simulation analysis and actual data experiment have verified the effectiveness of the proposed method. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Synthetic Aperture Radar Data Processing and Application)
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27 pages, 6641 KiB  
Article
Biomass Estimation and Saturation Value Determination Based on Multi-Source Remote Sensing Data
by Rula Sa, Yonghui Nie, Sergey Chumachenko and Wenyi Fan
Remote Sens. 2024, 16(12), 2250; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs16122250 - 20 Jun 2024
Viewed by 362
Abstract
Forest biomass estimation is undoubtedly one of the most pressing research subjects at present. Combining multi-source remote sensing information can give full play to the advantages of different remote sensing technologies, providing more comprehensive and rich information for aboveground biomass (AGB) estimation research. [...] Read more.
Forest biomass estimation is undoubtedly one of the most pressing research subjects at present. Combining multi-source remote sensing information can give full play to the advantages of different remote sensing technologies, providing more comprehensive and rich information for aboveground biomass (AGB) estimation research. Based on Landsat 8, Sentinel-2A, and ALOS2 PALSAR data, this paper takes the artificial coniferous forests in the Saihanba Forest of Hebei Province as the object of study, fully explores and establishes remote sensing factors and information related to forest structure, gives full play to the advantages of spectral signals in detecting the horizontal structure and multi-dimensional synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data in detecting the vertical structure, and combines environmental factors to carry out multivariate synergistic methods of estimating the AGB. This paper uses three variable selection methods (Pearson correlation coefficient, random forest significance, and the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO)) to establish the variable sets, combining them with three typical non-parametric models to estimate AGB, namely, random forest (RF), support vector regression (SVR), and artificial neural network (ANN), to analyze the effect of forest structure on biomass estimation, explore the suitable AGB of artificial coniferous forests estimation of machine learning models, and develop the method of quantifying saturation value of the combined variables. The results show that the horizontal structure is more capable of explaining the AGB compared to the vertical structure information, and that combining the multi-structure information can improve the model results and the saturation value to a great extent. In this study, different sets of variables can produce relatively superior results in different models. The variable set selected using LASSO gives the best results in the SVR model, with an R2 values of 0.9998 and 0.8792 for the training and the test set, respectively, and the highest saturation value obtained is 185.73 t/ha, which is beyond the range of the measured data. The problem of saturation in biomass estimation in boreal medium- and high-density forests was overcome to a certain extent, and the AGB of the Saihanba area was better estimated. Full article
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23 pages, 2885 KiB  
Article
Exploring Spatial Patterns of Tropical Peatland Subsidence in Selangor, Malaysia Using the APSIS-DInSAR Technique
by Betsabé de la Barreda-Bautista, Martha J. Ledger, Sofie Sjögersten, David Gee, Andrew Sowter, Beth Cole, Susan E. Page, David J. Large, Chris D. Evans, Kevin J. Tansey, Stephanie Evers and Doreen S. Boyd
Remote Sens. 2024, 16(12), 2249; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs16122249 - 20 Jun 2024
Viewed by 412
Abstract
Tropical peatlands in Southeast Asia have experienced widespread subsidence due to forest clearance and drainage for agriculture, oil palm and pulp wood production, causing concerns about their function as a long-term carbon store. Peatland drainage leads to subsidence (lowering of peatland surface), an [...] Read more.
Tropical peatlands in Southeast Asia have experienced widespread subsidence due to forest clearance and drainage for agriculture, oil palm and pulp wood production, causing concerns about their function as a long-term carbon store. Peatland drainage leads to subsidence (lowering of peatland surface), an indicator of degraded peatlands, while stability/uplift indicates peatland accumulation and ecosystem health. We used the Advanced Pixel System using the Intermittent SBAS (ASPIS-DInSAR) technique with biophysical and geographical data to investigate the impact of peatland drainage and agriculture on spatial patterns of subsidence in Selangor, Malaysia. Results showed pronounced subsidence in areas subjected to drainage for agricultural and oil palm plantations, while stable areas were associated with intact forests. The most powerful predictors of subsidence rates were the distance from the drainage canal or peat boundary; however, other drivers such as soil properties and water table levels were also important. The maximum subsidence rate detected was lower than that documented by ground-based methods. Therefore, whilst the APSIS-DInSAR technique may underestimate absolute subsidence rates, it gives valuable information on the direction of motion and spatial variability of subsidence. The study confirms widespread and severe peatland degradation in Selangor, highlighting the value of DInSAR for identifying priority zones for restoration and emphasising the need for conservation and restoration efforts to preserve Selangor peatlands and prevent further environmental impacts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biogeosciences Remote Sensing)
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18 pages, 5061 KiB  
Article
Generating 10-Meter Resolution Land Use and Land Cover Products Using Historical Landsat Archive Based on Super Resolution Guided Semantic Segmentation Network
by Dawei Wen, Shihao Zhu, Yuan Tian, Xuehua Guan and Yang Lu
Remote Sens. 2024, 16(12), 2248; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs16122248 - 20 Jun 2024
Viewed by 335
Abstract
Generating high-resolution land cover maps using relatively lower-resolution remote sensing images is of great importance for subtle analysis. However, the domain gap between real lower-resolution and synthetic images has not been permanently resolved. Furthermore, super-resolution information is not fully exploited in semantic segmentation [...] Read more.
Generating high-resolution land cover maps using relatively lower-resolution remote sensing images is of great importance for subtle analysis. However, the domain gap between real lower-resolution and synthetic images has not been permanently resolved. Furthermore, super-resolution information is not fully exploited in semantic segmentation models. By solving the aforementioned issues, a deeply fused super resolution guided semantic segmentation network using 30 m Landsat images is proposed. A large-scale dataset comprising 10 m Sentinel-2, 30 m Landsat-8 images, and 10 m European Space Agency (ESA) Land Cover Product is introduced, facilitating model training and evaluation across diverse real-world scenarios. The proposed Deeply Fused Super Resolution Guided Semantic Segmentation Network (DFSRSSN) combines a Super Resolution Module (SRResNet) and a Semantic Segmentation Module (CRFFNet). SRResNet enhances spatial resolution, while CRFFNet leverages super-resolution information for finer-grained land cover classification. Experimental results demonstrate the superior performance of the proposed method in five different testing datasets, achieving 68.17–83.29% and 39.55–75.92% for overall accuracy and kappa, respectively. When compared to ResUnet with up-sampling block, increases of 2.16–34.27% and 8.32–43.97% were observed for overall accuracy and kappa, respectively. Moreover, we proposed a relative drop rate of accuracy metrics to evaluate the transferability. The model exhibits improved spatial transferability, demonstrating its effectiveness in generating accurate land cover maps for different cities. Multi-temporal analysis reveals the potential of the proposed method for studying land cover and land use changes over time. In addition, a comparison of the state-of-the-art full semantic segmentation models indicates that spatial details are fully exploited and presented in semantic segmentation results by the proposed method. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue AI-Driven Mapping Using Remote Sensing Data)
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21 pages, 11309 KiB  
Article
LiDAR Point Cloud Augmentation for Adverse Conditions Using Conditional Generative Model
by Yuxiao Zhang, Ming Ding, Hanting Yang, Yingjie Niu, Maoning Ge, Kento Ohtani, Chi Zhang and Kazuya Takeda
Remote Sens. 2024, 16(12), 2247; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs16122247 - 20 Jun 2024
Viewed by 277
Abstract
The perception systems of autonomous vehicles face significant challenges under adverse conditions, with issues such as obscured objects and false detections due to environmental noise. Traditional approaches, which typically focus on noise removal, often fall short in such scenarios. Addressing the lack of [...] Read more.
The perception systems of autonomous vehicles face significant challenges under adverse conditions, with issues such as obscured objects and false detections due to environmental noise. Traditional approaches, which typically focus on noise removal, often fall short in such scenarios. Addressing the lack of diverse adverse weather data in existing automotive datasets, we propose a novel data augmentation method that integrates realistically simulated adverse weather effects into clear condition datasets. This method not only addresses the scarcity of data but also effectively bridges domain gaps between different driving environments. Our approach centers on a conditional generative model that uses segmentation maps as a guiding mechanism to ensure the authentic generation of adverse effects, which greatly enhances the robustness of perception and object detection systems in autonomous vehicles, operating under varied and challenging conditions. Besides the capability of accurately and naturally recreating over 90% of the adverse effects, we demonstrate that this model significantly improves the performance and accuracy of deep learning algorithms for autonomous driving, particularly in adverse weather scenarios. In the experiments employing our augmented approach, we achieved a 2.46% raise in the 3D average precision, a marked enhancement in detection accuracy and system reliability, substantiating the model’s efficacy with quantifiable improvements in 3D object detection compared to models without augmentation. This work not only serves as an enhancement of autonomous vehicle perception systems under adverse conditions but also marked an advancement in deep learning models in adverse condition research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remote Sensing Advances in Urban Traffic Monitoring)
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25 pages, 11675 KiB  
Article
An Ensemble Machine Learning Model to Estimate Urban Water Quality Parameters Using Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Multispectral Imagery
by Xiangdong Lei, Jie Jiang, Zifeng Deng, Di Wu, Fangyi Wang, Chengguang Lai, Zhaoli Wang and Xiaohong Chen
Remote Sens. 2024, 16(12), 2246; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs16122246 - 20 Jun 2024
Viewed by 490
Abstract
Urban reservoirs contribute significantly to human survival and ecological balance. Machine learning-based remote sensing techniques for monitoring water quality parameters (WQPs) have gained increasing prominence in recent years. However, these techniques still face challenges such as inadequate band selection, weak machine learning model [...] Read more.
Urban reservoirs contribute significantly to human survival and ecological balance. Machine learning-based remote sensing techniques for monitoring water quality parameters (WQPs) have gained increasing prominence in recent years. However, these techniques still face challenges such as inadequate band selection, weak machine learning model performance, and the limited retrieval of non-optical active parameters (NOAPs). This study focuses on an urban reservoir, utilizing unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) multispectral remote sensing and ensemble machine learning (EML) methods to monitor optically active parameters (OAPs, including Chla and SD) and non-optically active parameters (including CODMn, TN, and TP), exploring spatial and temporal variations of WQPs. A framework of Feature Combination and Genetic Algorithm (FC-GA) is developed for feature band selection, along with two frameworks of EML models for WQP estimation. Results indicate FC-GA’s superiority over popular methods such as the Pearson correlation coefficient and recursive feature elimination, achieving higher performance with no multicollinearity between bands. The EML model demonstrates superior estimation capabilities for WQPs like Chla, SD, CODMn, and TP, with an R2 of 0.72–0.86 and an MRE of 7.57–42.06%. Notably, the EML model exhibits greater accuracy in estimating OAPs (MRE ≤ 19.35%) compared to NOAPs (MRE ≤ 42.06%). Furthermore, spatial and temporal distributions of WQPs reveal nitrogen and phosphorus nutrient pollution in the upstream head and downstream tail of the reservoir due to human activities. TP, TN, and Chla are lower in the dry season than in the rainy season, while clarity and CODMn are higher in the dry season than in the rainy season. This study proposes a novel approach to water quality monitoring, aiding in the identification of potential pollution sources and ecological management. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remote Sensing in Natural Resource and Water Environment II)
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26 pages, 8482 KiB  
Article
Adaptive Background Endmember Extraction for Hyperspectral Subpixel Object Detection
by Lifeng Yang, Xiaorui Song, Bin Bai and Zhuo Chen
Remote Sens. 2024, 16(12), 2245; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs16122245 - 20 Jun 2024
Viewed by 471
Abstract
Subpixel object detection presents a significant challenge within the domain of hyperspectral image (HSI) processing, primarily due to the inherently limited spatial resolution of imaging spectrometers. For subpixel object detection, the dimensional extent of the object of interest is smaller than an individual [...] Read more.
Subpixel object detection presents a significant challenge within the domain of hyperspectral image (HSI) processing, primarily due to the inherently limited spatial resolution of imaging spectrometers. For subpixel object detection, the dimensional extent of the object of interest is smaller than an individual pixel, which significantly diminishes the utility of spatial information pertaining to the object. Therefore, the efficacy of detection algorithms depends heavily on the spectral data inherent in the image. The detection of subpixel objects in hyperspectral imagery primarily relies on the suppression of the background and the enhancement of the object of interest. Hence, acquiring accurate background information from HSI images is a crucial step. In this study, an adaptive background endmember extraction for hyperspectral subpixel object detection is proposed. An adaptive scale constraint is incorporated into the background spectral endmember learning process to improve the adaptability of background endmember extraction, thus further enhancing the algorithm’s generalizability and applicability in diverse analytical scenarios. Experimental results demonstrate that the adaptive endmember extraction-based subpixel object detection algorithm consistently outperforms existing state-of-the-art algorithms in terms of detection efficacy on both simulated and real-world datasets. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Hyperspectral Remote Sensing Image Processing)
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18 pages, 5290 KiB  
Article
Assessing Ice Break-Up Trends in Slave River Delta through Satellite Observations and Random Forest Modeling
by Ida Moalemi, Homa Kheyrollah Pour and K. Andrea Scott
Remote Sens. 2024, 16(12), 2244; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs16122244 - 20 Jun 2024
Viewed by 439
Abstract
The seasonal temperature trends and ice phenology in the Great Slave Lake (GSL) are significantly influenced by inflow from the Slave River. The river undergoes a sequence of mechanical break-ups all the way to the GSL, initiating the GSL break-up process. Additionally, upstream [...] Read more.
The seasonal temperature trends and ice phenology in the Great Slave Lake (GSL) are significantly influenced by inflow from the Slave River. The river undergoes a sequence of mechanical break-ups all the way to the GSL, initiating the GSL break-up process. Additionally, upstream water management practices impact the discharge of the Slave River and, consequently, the ice break-up of the GSL. Therefore, monitoring the break-up process at the Slave River Delta (SRD), where the river meets the lake, is crucial for understanding the cascading effects of upstream activities on GSL ice break-up. This research aimed to use Random Forest (RF) models to monitor the ice break-up processes at the SRD using a combination of satellite images with relatively high spatial resolution, including Landsat-5, Landsat-8, Sentinel-2a, and Sentinel-2b. The RF models were trained using selected training pixels to classify ice, open water, and cloud. The onset of break-up was determined by data-driven thresholds on the ice fraction in images with less than 20% cloud coverage. Analysis of break-up timing from 1984 to 2023 revealed a significant earlier trend using the Mann–Kendall test with a p-value of 0.05. Furthermore, break-up data in recent years show a high degree of variability in the break-up rate using images in recent years with better temporal resolution. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances of Remote Sensing and GIS Technology in Surface Water Bodies)
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18 pages, 9615 KiB  
Article
Multi-Scale Window Spatiotemporal Attention Network for Subsurface Temperature Prediction and Reconstruction
by Jiawei Jiang, Jun Wang, Yiping Liu, Chao Huang, Qiufu Jiang, Liqiang Feng, Liying Wan and Xiangguang Zhang
Remote Sens. 2024, 16(12), 2243; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs16122243 - 20 Jun 2024
Viewed by 386
Abstract
In this study, we investigate the feasibility of using historical remote sensing data to predict the future three-dimensional subsurface ocean temperature structure. We also compare the performance differences between predictive models and real-time reconstruction models. Specifically, we propose a multi-scale residual spatiotemporal window [...] Read more.
In this study, we investigate the feasibility of using historical remote sensing data to predict the future three-dimensional subsurface ocean temperature structure. We also compare the performance differences between predictive models and real-time reconstruction models. Specifically, we propose a multi-scale residual spatiotemporal window ocean (MSWO) model based on a spatiotemporal attention mechanism, to predict changes in the subsurface ocean temperature structure over the next six months using satellite remote sensing data from the past 24 months. Our results indicate that predictions made using historical remote sensing data closely approximate those made using historical in situ data. This finding suggests that satellite remote sensing data can be used to predict future ocean structures without relying on valuable in situ measurements. Compared to future predictive models, real-time three-dimensional structure reconstruction models can learn more accurate inversion features from real-time satellite remote sensing data. This work provides a new perspective for the application of artificial intelligence in oceanography for ocean structure reconstruction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Artificial Intelligence for Ocean Remote Sensing)
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31 pages, 62358 KiB  
Article
Comprehensive Ecological Risk Changes and Their Relationship with Ecosystem Services of Alpine Grassland in Gannan Prefecture from 2000–2020
by Zhanping Ma, Jinlong Gao, Tiangang Liang, Zhibin He, Senyao Feng, Xuanfan Zhang and Dongmei Zhang
Remote Sens. 2024, 16(12), 2242; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs16122242 - 20 Jun 2024
Viewed by 491
Abstract
Alpine grassland is one of the most fragile and sensitive ecosystems, and it serves as a crucial ecological security barrier on the Tibetan Plateau. Due to the combined influence of climate change and human activities, the degradation of the alpine grassland in Gannan [...] Read more.
Alpine grassland is one of the most fragile and sensitive ecosystems, and it serves as a crucial ecological security barrier on the Tibetan Plateau. Due to the combined influence of climate change and human activities, the degradation of the alpine grassland in Gannan Prefecture has been increasing recent years, causing increases in ecological risk (ER) and leading to the grassland ecosystem facing unprecedented challenges. In this context, it is particularly crucial to construct a potential grassland damage index (PGDI) and assessment framework that can be used to effectively characterize the damage and risk to the alpine grassland ecosystem. This study comprehensively uses multi-source data to construct a PGDI based on the grassland resilience index, landscape ER index, and grass–livestock balance index. Thereafter, we proposed a feasible framework for assessing the comprehensive ER of alpine grassland and analyzed the responsive relationship between the comprehensive ER and comprehensive ecosystem services (ESs) of the grassland. There are four findings. The first is that the comprehensive ER of the alpine grassland in Gannan Prefecture from 2000–2020 had a low distribution in the southeast and a high distribution trend in the northwest, with medium risk (29.27%) and lower risk (27.62%) dominating. The high-risk area accounted for 4.58% and was mainly in Lintan County, the border between Diebu and Zhuoni Counties, the eastern part of Xiahe County, and the southwest part of Hezuo. Second, the comprehensive ESs showed a pattern of low distribution in the northwest and high distribution in the southeast. The low and lower services accounted for only 9.30% of the studied area and were mainly distributed in the west of Maqu County and central Lintan County. Third, the Moran’s index values for comprehensive ESs and ER for 2000, 2005, 2010, 2015, and 2020 were −0.246, −0.429, −0.348, −0.320, and −0.285, respectively, thereby indicating significant negative spatial autocorrelation for all aspects. Fourth, ER was caused by the combined action of multiple factors. There are significant differences in the driving factors that affect ER. Landscape index is the first dominant factor affecting ER, with q values greater than 0.25, followed by DEM and NDVI. In addition, the interaction between diversity index and NDVI had the greatest impact on ER. Overall, this study offers a new methodological framework for the quantification of comprehensive ER in alpine grasslands. Full article
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20 pages, 6070 KiB  
Article
An Improved Propagation Prediction Method of Low-Frequency Skywave Fusing Fine Channel Parameters
by Jian Wang, Chengsong Duan, Yu Chen, Yafei Shi and Cheng Yang
Remote Sens. 2024, 16(12), 2241; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs16122241 - 20 Jun 2024
Viewed by 410
Abstract
Low-frequency communication constitutes a vital component of essential communication systems, serving a pivotal role in remote radio communication, navigation, timing, and seismic analysis. To enhance the predictive precision of low-frequency skywave propagation and address the demands of engineering applications, we propose a high-precision [...] Read more.
Low-frequency communication constitutes a vital component of essential communication systems, serving a pivotal role in remote radio communication, navigation, timing, and seismic analysis. To enhance the predictive precision of low-frequency skywave propagation and address the demands of engineering applications, we propose a high-precision prediction method based on the ITU-R P.684 wave-hop theory and real-time environmental parameter forecasts. This method features several distinctive attributes. Firstly, it employs real-time ionospheric prediction data instead of relying on long-term ionospheric model predictions. Secondly, it utilizes a detailed map of land–sea surface electrical characteristics, surpassing the simplistic land–sea dichotomy previously employed. Compared with measured data, the findings demonstrate that we attained a reasonable propagation pattern and achieved high-precision field strength predictions. Comparatively, the improved method exhibits an improvement in the time and spatial domains over the ITU-R P.684 standard. Finally, the improved method balances computational efficiency with enhanced prediction accuracy, supporting the advancement of low-frequency communication system design and performance evaluation. Full article
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28 pages, 13295 KiB  
Article
Optimized Parameters for Detecting Multiple Forest Disturbance and Recovery Events and Spatiotemporal Patterns in Fast-Regrowing Southern China
by Yuwei Tu, Kaiping Liao, Yuxuan Chen, Hongbo Jiao and Guangsheng Chen
Remote Sens. 2024, 16(12), 2240; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs16122240 - 20 Jun 2024
Viewed by 471
Abstract
The timing, location, intensity, and drivers of forest disturbance and recovery are crucial for developing effective management strategies and policies for forest conservation and ecosystem resilience. Although many algorithms and improvement methods have been developed, it is still difficult to guarantee the detection [...] Read more.
The timing, location, intensity, and drivers of forest disturbance and recovery are crucial for developing effective management strategies and policies for forest conservation and ecosystem resilience. Although many algorithms and improvement methods have been developed, it is still difficult to guarantee the detection accuracy for forest disturbance and recovery patterns in southern China due to the complex climate and topography, faster forest recovery after disturbance, and the low availability of noise-free Landsat images. Here, we improved the LandTrendr parameters for different provinces to detect forest disturbances and recovery trajectories based on the LandTrendr change detection algorithm and time-series Landsat images on the GEE platform, and then applied the secondary random forest classifier to classify the forest disturbance and recovery patterns in southern China during 1990–2020. The accuracy evaluation indicated that our approach and improved parameters of the LandTrendr algorithm can increase the detection accuracy for both the spatiotemporal patterns and multiple events of forest disturbance and recovery, with an overall accuracy greater than 86% and a Kappa coefficient greater than 0.91 for different provinces. The total forest loss area was 1.54 × 105 km2 during 1990–2020 (4931 km2/year); however, most of these disturbed forests were recovered and only 6.39 × 104 km2 was a net loss area (converted to other land cover types). The area with two or more times of disturbance events accounted for 11.50% of the total forest loss area. The total forest gain area (including gain after loss and the afforestation area) was 5.44 × 105 km2, among which, the forest gain area after loss was 8.94 × 104 km2, and the net gain area from afforestation was 4.55 × 105 km2. The timing of the implementation of forestry policies significantly affected the interannual variations in forest disturbance and recovery, with large variations among different provinces. The detected forest loss and gain area was further compared against with inventory and other geospatial products, and proved the effectiveness of our method. Our study suggests that parameter optimization in the LandTrendr algorithm could greatly increase the accuracy for detecting the multiple and lower rate disturbance/recovery events in the fast-regrowing forested areas. Our findings also offer a long-term, moderate spatial resolution, and precise forest dynamic data for achieving sustainable forest management and the carbon neutrality goal in southern China. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Hazard Mapping with Google Earth Engine)
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19 pages, 1380 KiB  
Article
Highlighting the Use of UAV to Increase the Resilience of Native Hawaiian Coastal Cultural Heritage
by Kainalu K. Steward, Brianna K. Ninomoto, Haunani H. Kane, John H. R. Burns, Luke Mead, Kamala Anthony, Luka Mossman, Trisha Olayon, Cybil K. Glendon-Baclig and Cherie Kauahi
Remote Sens. 2024, 16(12), 2239; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs16122239 - 20 Jun 2024
Viewed by 639
Abstract
The use of Uncrewed Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) is becoming a preferred method for supporting integrated coastal zone management, including cultural heritage sites. Loko i′a, traditional Hawaiian fishponds located along the coastline, have historically provided sustainable seafood sources. These coastal cultural heritage sites are [...] Read more.
The use of Uncrewed Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) is becoming a preferred method for supporting integrated coastal zone management, including cultural heritage sites. Loko i′a, traditional Hawaiian fishponds located along the coastline, have historically provided sustainable seafood sources. These coastal cultural heritage sites are undergoing revitalization through community-driven restoration efforts. However, sea level rise (SLR) poses a significant climate-induced threat to coastal areas globally. Loko i′a managers seek adaptive strategies to address SLR impacts on flooding, water quality, and the viability of raising native fish species. This study utilizes extreme tidal events, known as King Tides, as a proxy to estimate future SLR scenarios and their impacts on loko i′a along the Keaukaha coastline in Hilo, Hawai′i. In situ water level sensors were deployed at each site to assess flooding by the loko i′a type and location. We also compare inundation modeled from UAV-Structure from Motion (SfM) Digital Elevation Models (DEM) to publicly available Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) DEMs, alongside observed flooding documented by UAV imagery in real time. The average water levels (0.64 m and 0.88 m) recorded in this study during the 2023 King Tides are expected to reflect the average sea levels projected for 2060–2080 in Hilo, Hawai′i. Our findings indicate that high-resolution UAV-derived DEMs accurately model observed flooding (with 89% or more agreement), whereas LiDAR-derived flood models significantly overestimate observed flooding (by 2–5 times), outlining a more conservative approach. To understand how UAV datasets can enhance the resilience of coastal cultural heritage sites, we looked into the cost, spatial resolution, accuracy, and time necessary for acquiring LiDAR- and UAV-derived datasets. This study ultimately demonstrates that UAVs are effective tools for monitoring and planning for the future impacts of SLR on coastal cultural heritage sites at a community level. Full article
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17 pages, 5035 KiB  
Article
CLIP-Driven Few-Shot Species-Recognition Method for Integrating Geographic Information
by Lei Liu, Linzhe Yang, Feng Yang, Feixiang Chen and Fu Xu
Remote Sens. 2024, 16(12), 2238; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs16122238 - 20 Jun 2024
Viewed by 328
Abstract
Automatic recognition of species is important for the conservation and management of biodiversity. However, since closely related species are visually similar, it is difficult to distinguish them by images alone. In addition, traditional species-recognition models are limited by the size of the dataset [...] Read more.
Automatic recognition of species is important for the conservation and management of biodiversity. However, since closely related species are visually similar, it is difficult to distinguish them by images alone. In addition, traditional species-recognition models are limited by the size of the dataset and face the problem of poor generalization ability. Visual-language models such as Contrastive Language-Image Pretraining (CLIP), obtained by training on large-scale datasets, have excellent visual representation learning ability and demonstrated promising few-shot transfer ability in a variety of few-shot species recognition tasks. However, limited by the dataset on which CLIP is trained, the performance of CLIP is poor when used directly for few-shot species recognition. To improve the performance of CLIP for few-shot species recognition, we proposed a few-shot species-recognition method incorporating geolocation information. First, we utilized the powerful feature extraction capability of CLIP to extract image features and text features. Second, a geographic feature extraction module was constructed to provide additional contextual information by converting structured geographic location information into geographic feature representations. Then, a multimodal feature fusion module was constructed to deeply interact geographic features with image features to obtain enhanced image features through residual connection. Finally, the similarity between the enhanced image features and text features was calculated and the species recognition results were obtained. Extensive experiments on the iNaturalist 2021 dataset show that our proposed method can significantly improve the performance of CLIP’s few-shot species recognition. Under ViT-L/14 and 16-shot training species samples, compared to Linear probe CLIP, our method achieved a performance improvement of 6.22% (mammals), 13.77% (reptiles), and 16.82% (amphibians). Our work provides powerful evidence for integrating geolocation information into species-recognition models based on visual-language models. Full article
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17 pages, 2403 KiB  
Article
Estimating Pavement Condition by Leveraging Crowdsourced Data
by Yangsong Gu, Mohammad Khojastehpour, Xiaoyang Jia and Lee D. Han
Remote Sens. 2024, 16(12), 2237; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs16122237 - 20 Jun 2024
Viewed by 389
Abstract
Monitoring pavement conditions is critical to pavement management and maintenance. Traditionally, pavement distress is mainly identified via accelerometers, videos, and laser scanning. However, the geographical coverage and temporal frequency are constrained by the limited amount of equipment and labor, which sometimes may delay [...] Read more.
Monitoring pavement conditions is critical to pavement management and maintenance. Traditionally, pavement distress is mainly identified via accelerometers, videos, and laser scanning. However, the geographical coverage and temporal frequency are constrained by the limited amount of equipment and labor, which sometimes may delay road maintenance. By contrast, crowdsourced data, in a manner of crowdsensing, can provide real-time and valuable roadway information for extensive coverage. This study exploited crowdsourced Waze pothole and weather reports for pavement condition evaluation. Two surrogate measures are proposed, namely, the Pothole Report Density (PRD) and the Weather Report Density (WRD). They are compared with the Pavement Quality Index (PQI), which is calculated using laser truck data from the Tennessee Department of Transportation (TDOT). A geographically weighted random forest (GWRF) model was developed to capture the complicated relationships between the proposed measures and PQI. The results show that the PRD is highly correlated with the PQI, and the correlation also varies across the routes. It is also found to be the second most important factor (i.e., followed by pavement age) affecting the PQI values. Although Waze weather reports contribute to PQI values, their impact is significantly smaller compared to that of pothole reports. This paper demonstrates that surrogate pavement condition measures aggregated by crowdsourced data could be integrated into the state decision-making process by establishing nuanced relationships between the surrogated performance measures and the state pavement condition indices. The endeavor of this study also has the potential to enhance the granularity of pavement condition evaluation. Full article
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22 pages, 17559 KiB  
Article
Assessing Ecological Impacts and Recovery in Coal Mining Areas: A Remote Sensing and Field Data Analysis in Northwest China
by Deyun Song, Zhenqi Hu, Yi Yu, Fan Zhang and Huang Sun
Remote Sens. 2024, 16(12), 2236; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs16122236 - 19 Jun 2024
Viewed by 431
Abstract
In the coal-rich provinces of Shanxi, Shaanxi, and Inner Mongolia, the landscape bears the scars of coal extraction—namely subsidence and deformation—that disrupt both the terrain and the delicate ecological balance. This research delves into the transformative journey these mining regions undergo, from pre-mining [...] Read more.
In the coal-rich provinces of Shanxi, Shaanxi, and Inner Mongolia, the landscape bears the scars of coal extraction—namely subsidence and deformation—that disrupt both the terrain and the delicate ecological balance. This research delves into the transformative journey these mining regions undergo, from pre-mining equilibrium, through the tumultuous phase of extraction, to the eventual restoration of stability post-reclamation. By harnessing a suite of analytical tools, including sophisticated remote sensing, UAV aerial surveys, and the meticulous ground-level sampling of flora and soil, the study meticulously measures the environmental toll of mining activities and charts the path to ecological restoration. The results are promising, indicating that the restoration initiatives are effectively healing the landscapes, with proactive interventions such as seeding, afforestation, and land rehabilitation proving vital in the swift ecological turnaround. Remote sensing technology, in particular, emerges as a robust ally in tracking ecological shifts, supporting sustainable practices and guiding ecological management strategies. This study offers a promising framework for assessing geological environmental shifts, which may guide policymakers in shaping the future of mining rehabilitation in arid and semi-arid regions. Full article
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18 pages, 14154 KiB  
Article
Three-Dimensional Rockslide Analysis Using Unmanned Aerial Vehicle and LiDAR: The Castrocucco Case Study, Southern Italy
by Antonio Minervino Amodio, Giuseppe Corrado, Ilenia Graziamaria Gallo, Dario Gioia, Marcello Schiattarella, Valentino Vitale and Gaetano Robustelli
Remote Sens. 2024, 16(12), 2235; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs16122235 - 19 Jun 2024
Viewed by 398
Abstract
Rockslides are one of the most dangerous hazards in mountainous and hilly areas. In this study, a rockslide that occurred on 30 November 2022 in Castrocucco, a district located in the Italian municipality of Maratea (Potenza province) in the Basilicata region, was investigated [...] Read more.
Rockslides are one of the most dangerous hazards in mountainous and hilly areas. In this study, a rockslide that occurred on 30 November 2022 in Castrocucco, a district located in the Italian municipality of Maratea (Potenza province) in the Basilicata region, was investigated by using pre- and post-event high-resolution 3D models. The event caused a great social alarm as some infrastructures were affected. The main road to the tourist hub of Maratea was, in fact, destroyed and made inaccessible. Rock debris also affected a beach club and important boat storage for sea excursions to Maratea. This event was investigated by using multiscale and multisensor close-range remote sensing (LiDAR and SfM) to determine rockslide characteristics. The novelty of this work lies in how these data, although not originally acquired for rockslide analysis, have been integrated and utilized in an emergency at an almost inaccessible site. The event was analyzed both through classical geomorphological analysis and through a quantitative comparison of multi-temporal DEMs (DoD) in order to assess (i) all the morphological features involved, (ii) detached volume (approximately 8000 m3), and (iii) the process of redistributing and reworking the landslide deposit in the depositional area. Full article
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20 pages, 6499 KiB  
Article
Tracking Loop Current Eddies in the Gulf of Mexico Using Satellite-Derived Chlorophyll-a
by Corinne B. Trott, Bulusu Subrahmanyam, Luna Hiron and Olmo Zavala-Romero
Remote Sens. 2024, 16(12), 2234; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs16122234 - 19 Jun 2024
Viewed by 380
Abstract
During the period of 2018–2022, there were six named Loop Current Eddy (LCE) shedding events in the central Gulf of Mexico (GoM). LCEs form when a large anticyclonic eddy (AE) separates from the main Loop Current (LC) and propagates westward. In doing so, [...] Read more.
During the period of 2018–2022, there were six named Loop Current Eddy (LCE) shedding events in the central Gulf of Mexico (GoM). LCEs form when a large anticyclonic eddy (AE) separates from the main Loop Current (LC) and propagates westward. In doing so, each LCE traps and advects warmer, saltier waters with lower Chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) concentrations than the surrounding Gulf waters. This difference in water mass permits the study of the effectiveness of using Chl-a from satellite-derived ocean color to identify LCEs in the GoM. In this work, we apply an eddy-tracking algorithm to Chl-a to detect LCEs, which we have validated against the traditional sea surface height-(SSH) based eddy-tracking approach with three datasets. We apply a closed-contour eddy-tracking algorithm to the SSH of two model products (HYbrid Coordination Ocean Model; HYCOM and Nucleus for European Modelling of the Ocean; NEMO) and absolute dynamic topography (ADT) from altimetry, as well as satellite-derived Chl-a data to identify the six named LCEs from 2018 to 2022. We find that Chl-a best characterizes LCEs in the summertime due to a basin-wide increase in the horizontal gradient of Chl-a, which permits a more clearly defined eddy edge. This study demonstrates that Chl-a can be effectively used to identify and track LC and LCEs in the GoM, serving as a promising source of information for regional data assimilative models. Full article
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25 pages, 8813 KiB  
Article
MSSD-Net: Multi-Scale SAR Ship Detection Network
by Xi Wang, Wei Xu, Pingping Huang and Weixian Tan
Remote Sens. 2024, 16(12), 2233; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs16122233 - 19 Jun 2024
Viewed by 354
Abstract
In recent years, the development of neural networks has significantly advanced their application in Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) ship target detection for maritime traffic control and ship management. However, traditional neural network architectures are often complex and resource intensive, making them unsuitable for [...] Read more.
In recent years, the development of neural networks has significantly advanced their application in Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) ship target detection for maritime traffic control and ship management. However, traditional neural network architectures are often complex and resource intensive, making them unsuitable for deployment on artificial satellites. To address this issue, this paper proposes a lightweight neural network: the Multi-Scale SAR Ship Detection Network (MSSD-Net). Initially, the MobileOne network module is employed to construct the backbone network for feature extraction from SAR images. Subsequently, a Multi-Scale Coordinate Attention (MSCA) module is designed to enhance the network’s capability to process contextual information. This is followed by the integration of features across different scales using an FPN + PAN structure. Lastly, an Anchor-Free approach is utilized for the rapid detection of ship targets. To evaluate the performance of MSSD-Net, we conducted extensive experiments on the Synthetic Aperture Radar Ship Detection Dataset (SSDD) and SAR-Ship-Dataset. Our experimental results demonstrate that MSSD-Net achieves a mean average precision (mAP) of 98.02% on the SSDD while maintaining a compact model size of only 1.635 million parameters. This indicates that MSSD-Net effectively reduces model complexity without compromising its ability to achieve high accuracy in object detection tasks. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Computer Vision and Image Processing, 2nd Edition)
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21 pages, 5043 KiB  
Article
Using Sentinel-2 Imagery to Measure Spatiotemporal Changes and Recovery across Three Adjacent Grasslands with Different Fire Histories
by Annalise Taylor, Iryna Dronova, Alexii Sigona and Maggi Kelly
Remote Sens. 2024, 16(12), 2232; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs16122232 - 19 Jun 2024
Viewed by 356
Abstract
As a result of the advocacy of Indigenous communities and increasing evidence of the ecological importance of fire, California has invested in the restoration of intentional burning (the practice of deliberately lighting low-severity fires) in an effort to reduce the occurrence and severity [...] Read more.
As a result of the advocacy of Indigenous communities and increasing evidence of the ecological importance of fire, California has invested in the restoration of intentional burning (the practice of deliberately lighting low-severity fires) in an effort to reduce the occurrence and severity of wildfires. Recognizing the growing need to monitor the impacts of these smaller, low-severity fires, we leveraged Sentinel-2 imagery to reveal important inter- and intra-annual variation in grasslands before and after fires. Specifically, we explored three methodological approaches: (1) the complete time series of the normalized burn ratio (NBR), (2) annual summary metrics (mean, fifth percentile, and amplitude of NBR), and (3) maps depicting spatial patterns in these annual NBR metrics before and after fire. We also used a classification of pre-fire vegetation to stratify these analyses by three dominant vegetation cover types (grasses, shrubs, and trees). We applied these methods to a unique study area in which three adjacent grasslands had diverging fire histories and showed how grassland recovery from a low-severity intentional burn and a high-severity wildfire differed both from each other and from a reference site with no recent fire. On the low-severity intentional burn site, our results showed that the annual NBR metrics recovered to pre-fire values within one year, and that regular intentional burning on the site was promoting greater annual growth of both grass and shrub species, even in the third growing season following a burn. In the case of the high-severity wildfire, our metrics indicated that this grassland had not returned to its pre-fire phenological signals in at least three years after the fire, indicating that it may be undergoing a longer recovery or an ecological shift. These proposed methods address a growing need to study the effects of small, intentional burns in low-biomass ecosystems such as grasslands, which are an essential part of mitigating wildfires. Full article
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23 pages, 6378 KiB  
Article
Navigation Resource Allocation Algorithm for LEO Constellations Based on Dynamic Programming
by Sixin Wang, Xiaomei Tang, Jingyuan Li, Xinming Huang, Jiyang Liu and Jian Liu
Remote Sens. 2024, 16(12), 2231; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs16122231 - 19 Jun 2024
Viewed by 312
Abstract
Navigation resource allocation for low-earth-orbit (LEO) constellations refers to the optimal allocation of navigational assets when the number and allocation of satellites in the LEO constellation have been determined. LEO constellations can not only transmit navigation enhancement signals but also enable space-based monitoring [...] Read more.
Navigation resource allocation for low-earth-orbit (LEO) constellations refers to the optimal allocation of navigational assets when the number and allocation of satellites in the LEO constellation have been determined. LEO constellations can not only transmit navigation enhancement signals but also enable space-based monitoring (SBM) for real-time assessment of GNSS signal quality. However, proximity in the frequencies of LEO navigation signals and SBM can lead to significant interference, necessitating isolated transmission and reception. This separation requires that SBM and navigation signal transmission be carried out by different satellites within the constellation, thus demanding a strategic allocation of satellite resources. Given the vast number of satellites and their rapid movement, the visibility among LEO, medium-earth-orbit (MEO), and geostationary orbit (GEO) satellites is highly dynamic, presenting substantial challenges in resource allocation due to the computational intensity involved. Therefore, this paper proposes an optimal allocation algorithm for LEO constellation navigation resources based on dynamic programming. In this algorithm, a network model for the allocation of navigation resources in LEO constellations is initially established. Under the constraints of visibility time windows and onboard transmission and reception isolation, the objective is set to minimize the number of LEO satellites used while achieving effective navigation signal transmission and SBM. The constraints of resource allocation and the mathematical expression of the optimization objective are derived. A dynamic programming approach is then employed to determine the optimal resource allocation scheme. Analytical results demonstrate that compared to Greedy and Divide-and-Conquer algorithms, this algorithm achieves the highest resource utilization rate and the lowest computational complexity, making it highly valuable for future resource allocation in LEO constellations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Space-Geodetic Techniques (Third Edition))
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19 pages, 4057 KiB  
Article
Global Navigation Satellite System/Inertial Measurement Unit/Camera/HD Map Integrated Localization for Autonomous Vehicles in Challenging Urban Tunnel Scenarios
by Lu Tao, Pan Zhang, Kefu Gao and Jingnan Liu
Remote Sens. 2024, 16(12), 2230; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs16122230 - 19 Jun 2024
Viewed by 396
Abstract
Lane-level localization is critical for autonomous vehicles (AVs). However, complex urban scenarios, particularly tunnels, pose significant challenges to AVs’ localization systems. In this paper, we propose a fusion localization method that integrates multiple mass-production sensors, including Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSSs), Inertial Measurement [...] Read more.
Lane-level localization is critical for autonomous vehicles (AVs). However, complex urban scenarios, particularly tunnels, pose significant challenges to AVs’ localization systems. In this paper, we propose a fusion localization method that integrates multiple mass-production sensors, including Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSSs), Inertial Measurement Units (IMUs), cameras, and high-definition (HD) maps. Firstly, we use a novel electronic horizon module to assess GNSS integrity and concurrently load the HD map data surrounding the AVs. This map data are then transformed into a visual space to match the corresponding lane lines captured by the on-board camera using an improved BiSeNet. Consequently, the matched HD map data are used to correct our localization algorithm, which is driven by an extended Kalman filter that integrates multiple sources of information, encompassing a GNSS, IMU, speedometer, camera, and HD maps. Our system is designed with redundancy to handle challenging city tunnel scenarios. To evaluate the proposed system, real-world experiments were conducted on a 36-kilometer city route that includes nine consecutive tunnels, totaling near 13 km and accounting for 35% of the entire route. The experimental results reveal that 99% of lateral localization errors are less than 0.29 m, and 90% of longitudinal localization errors are less than 3.25 m, ensuring reliable lane-level localization for AVs in challenging urban tunnel scenarios. Full article
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30 pages, 12064 KiB  
Article
Inversion of Forest Aboveground Biomass in Regions with Complex Terrain Based on PolSAR Data and a Machine Learning Model: Radiometric Terrain Correction Assessment
by Yonghui Nie, Rula Sa, Sergey Chumachenko, Yifan Hu, Youzhu Wang and Wenyi Fan
Remote Sens. 2024, 16(12), 2229; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs16122229 - 19 Jun 2024
Viewed by 377
Abstract
The accurate estimation of forest aboveground biomass (AGB) in areas with complex terrain is very important for quantifying the carbon sequestration capacity of forest ecosystems and studying the regional or global carbon cycle. In our previous research, we proposed the radiometric terrain correction [...] Read more.
The accurate estimation of forest aboveground biomass (AGB) in areas with complex terrain is very important for quantifying the carbon sequestration capacity of forest ecosystems and studying the regional or global carbon cycle. In our previous research, we proposed the radiometric terrain correction (RTC) process for introducing normalized correction factors, which has strong effectiveness and robustness in terms of the backscattering coefficient of polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (PolSAR) data and the monadic model. However, the impact of RTC on the correctness of feature extraction and the performance of regression models requires further exploration in the retrieval of forest AGB based on a machine learning multiple regression model. In this study, based on PolSAR data provided by ALOS-2, 117 feature variables were accurately extracted using the RTC process, and then Boruta and recursive feature elimination with cross-validation (RFECV) algorithms were used to perform multi-step feature selection. Finally, 10 machine learning regression models and the Optuna algorithm were used to evaluate the effectiveness and robustness of RTC in improving the quality of the PolSAR feature set and the performance of the regression models. The results revealed that, compared with the situation without RTC treatment, RTC can effectively and robustly improve the accuracy of PolSAR features (the Pearson correlation R between the PolSAR features and measured forest AGB increased by 0.26 on average) and the performance of regression models (the coefficient of determination R2 increased by 0.14 on average, and the rRMSE decreased by 4.20% on average), but there is a certain degree of overcorrection in the RTC process. In addition, in situations where the data exhibit linear relationships, linear models remain a powerful and practical choice due to their efficient and stable characteristics. For example, the optimal regression model in this study is the Bayesian Ridge linear regression model (R2 = 0.82, rRMSE = 18.06%). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue SAR for Forest Mapping III)
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18 pages, 1739 KiB  
Article
Polar Stratospheric Cloud Observations at Concordia Station by Remotely Controlled Lidar Observatory
by Luca Di Liberto, Francesco Colao, Federico Serva, Alessandro Bracci, Francesco Cairo and Marcel Snels
Remote Sens. 2024, 16(12), 2228; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs16122228 - 19 Jun 2024
Viewed by 309
Abstract
Polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) form in polar regions, typically between 15 and 25 km above mean sea level, when the local temperature is sufficiently low. PSCs play an important role in the ozone chemistry and the dehydration and denitrification of the stratosphere. Lidars [...] Read more.
Polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) form in polar regions, typically between 15 and 25 km above mean sea level, when the local temperature is sufficiently low. PSCs play an important role in the ozone chemistry and the dehydration and denitrification of the stratosphere. Lidars with a depolarization channel may be used to detect and classify different classes of PSCs. The main PSC classes are water ice, nitric acid trihydrate (NAT), and supercooled ternary solutions (STSs), the latter being liquid droplets consisting of water, nitric acid, and sulfuric acid. PSCs have been observed at the lidar observatory at Concordia Station from 2014 onward. The harsh environmental conditions at Concordia during winter render successful lidar operation difficult. To facilitate the operation of the observatory, several measures have been put in place to achieve an almost complete remote control of the system. PSC occurrence is strongly correlated with local temperatures and is affected by dynamics, as the PSC coverage during the observation season shows. PSC observations in 2021 are shown as an example of the capability and functionality of the lidar observatory. A comparison of the observations with the satellite-borne CALIOP (Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization) lidar has been made to demonstrate the quality of the data and their representativeness for the Antarctic Plateau. Full article
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19 pages, 3232 KiB  
Article
Harmonic Source Depth Estimation by a Single Hydrophone under Unknown Seabed Geoacoustic Property
by Xiaolei Li, Yangjin Xu, Wei Gao, Haozhong Wang and Liang Wang
Remote Sens. 2024, 16(12), 2227; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs16122227 - 19 Jun 2024
Viewed by 327
Abstract
The passive estimation of harmonic sound source depth is of great significance for underwater target localization and identification. Passive source depth estimation using a single hydrophone with an unknown seabed geoacoustic property is a crucial challenge. To address this issue, a harmonic sound [...] Read more.
The passive estimation of harmonic sound source depth is of great significance for underwater target localization and identification. Passive source depth estimation using a single hydrophone with an unknown seabed geoacoustic property is a crucial challenge. To address this issue, a harmonic sound source depth estimation algorithm, seabed independent depth estimation (SIDE) algorithm, is proposed. This algorithm combines the estimated mode depth functions, modal amplitudes, and the sign of each modal to estimate the sound source depth. The performance of the SIDE algorithm is analyzed by simulations. Results show that the SIDE is insensitive to the initial range of the sound source, the source depth, the hydrophone depth, the source velocity, and the type of the seabed. Finally, the effectiveness of the SIDE algorithm is verified by the SWellEX-96 data. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advances in Underwater Acoustics and Aeroacoustics)
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16 pages, 15964 KiB  
Article
Quantifying the Impact of Aerosols on Geostationary Satellite Infrared Radiance Simulations: A Study with Himawari-8 AHI
by Haofei Sun, Deying Wang, Wei Han and Yunfan Yang
Remote Sens. 2024, 16(12), 2226; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs16122226 - 19 Jun 2024
Viewed by 340
Abstract
Aerosols exert a significant influence on the brightness temperature observed in the thermal infrared (IR) channels, yet the specific contributions of various aerosol types remain underexplored. This study integrated the Copernicus Atmosphere Monitoring Service (CAMS) atmospheric composition reanalysis data into the Radiative Transfer [...] Read more.
Aerosols exert a significant influence on the brightness temperature observed in the thermal infrared (IR) channels, yet the specific contributions of various aerosol types remain underexplored. This study integrated the Copernicus Atmosphere Monitoring Service (CAMS) atmospheric composition reanalysis data into the Radiative Transfer for TOVS (RTTOV) model to quantify the aerosol effects on brightness temperature (BT) simulations for the Advanced Himawari Imager (AHI) aboard the Himawari-8 geostationary satellite. Two distinct experiments were conducted: the aerosol-aware experiment (AER), which accounted for aerosol radiative effects, and the control experiment (CTL), in which aerosol radiative effects were omitted. The CTL experiment results reveal uniform negative bias (observation minus background (O-B)) across all six IR channels of the AHI, with a maximum deviation of approximately −1 K. Conversely, the AER experiment showed a pronounced reduction in innovation, which was especially notable in the 10.4 μm channel, where the bias decreased by 0.7 K. The study evaluated the radiative effects of eleven aerosol species, all of which demonstrated cooling effects in the AHI’s six IR channels, with dust aerosols contributing the most significantly (approximately 86%). In scenarios dominated by dust, incorporating the radiative effect of dust aerosols could correct the brightness temperature bias by up to 2 K, underscoring the substantial enhancement in the BT simulation for the 10.4 μm channel during dust events. Jacobians were calculated to further examine the RTTOV simulations’ sensitivity to aerosol presence. A clear temporal and spatial correlation between the dust concentration and BT simulation bias corroborated the critical role of the infrared channel data assimilation on geostationary satellites in capturing small-scale, rapidly developing pollution processes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remote Sensing for High Impact Weather and Extremes)
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22 pages, 49542 KiB  
Article
A Robust Target Detection Algorithm Based on the Fusion of Frequency-Modulated Continuous Wave Radar and a Monocular Camera
by Yanqiu Yang, Xianpeng Wang, Xiaoqin Wu, Xiang Lan, Ting Su and Yuehao Guo
Remote Sens. 2024, 16(12), 2225; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs16122225 - 19 Jun 2024
Viewed by 331
Abstract
Decision-level information fusion methods using radar and vision usually suffer from low target matching success rates and imprecise multi-target detection accuracy. Therefore, a robust target detection algorithm based on the fusion of frequency-modulated continuous wave (FMCW) radar and a monocular camera is proposed [...] Read more.
Decision-level information fusion methods using radar and vision usually suffer from low target matching success rates and imprecise multi-target detection accuracy. Therefore, a robust target detection algorithm based on the fusion of frequency-modulated continuous wave (FMCW) radar and a monocular camera is proposed to address these issues in this paper. Firstly, a lane detection algorithm is used to process the image to obtain lane information. Then, two-dimensional fast Fourier transform (2D-FFT), constant false alarm rate (CFAR), and density-based spatial clustering of applications with noise (DBSCAN) are used to process the radar data. Furthermore, the YOLOv5 algorithm is used to process the image. In addition, the lane lines are utilized to filter out the interference targets from outside lanes. Finally, multi-sensor information fusion is performed for targets in the same lane. Experiments show that the balanced score of the proposed algorithm can reach 0.98, which indicates that it has low false and missed detections. Additionally, the balanced score is almost unchanged in different environments, proving that the algorithm is robust. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remote Sensing: 15th Anniversary)
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39 pages, 5735 KiB  
Review
Potential of Earth Observation to Assess the Impact of Climate Change and Extreme Weather Events in Temperate Forests—A Review
by Marco Wegler and Claudia Kuenzer
Remote Sens. 2024, 16(12), 2224; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs16122224 - 19 Jun 2024
Viewed by 588
Abstract
Temperate forests are particularly exposed to climate change and the associated increase in weather extremes. Droughts, storms, late frosts, floods, heavy snowfalls, or changing climatic conditions such as rising temperatures or more erratic precipitation are having an increasing impact on forests. There is [...] Read more.
Temperate forests are particularly exposed to climate change and the associated increase in weather extremes. Droughts, storms, late frosts, floods, heavy snowfalls, or changing climatic conditions such as rising temperatures or more erratic precipitation are having an increasing impact on forests. There is an urgent need to better assess the impacts of climate change and extreme weather events (EWEs) on temperate forests. Remote sensing can be used to map forests at multiple spatial, temporal, and spectral resolutions at low cost. Different approaches to forest change assessment offer promising methods for a broad analysis of the impacts of climate change and EWEs. In this review, we examine the potential of Earth observation for assessing the impacts of climate change and EWEs in temperate forests by reviewing 126 scientific papers published between 1 January 2014 and 31 January 2024. This study provides a comprehensive overview of the sensors utilized, the spatial and temporal resolution of the studies, their spatial distribution, and their thematic focus on the various abiotic drivers and the resulting forest responses. The analysis indicates that multispectral, non-high-resolution timeseries were employed most frequently. A predominant proportion of the studies examine the impact of droughts. In all instances of EWEs, dieback is the most prevailing response, whereas in studies on changing trends, phenology shifts account for the largest share of forest response categories. The detailed analysis of in-depth forest differentiation implies that area-wide studies have so far barely distinguished the effects of different abiotic drivers at the species level. Full article
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