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Viruses, Volume 11, Issue 7 (July 2019)

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Cover Story (view full-size image) Sin Nombre (SNV) and Andes (ANDV) viruses cause severe hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS), [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle
Δccr5 Genotype Is Associated with Mild Form of Nephropathia Epidemica
Viruses 2019, 11(7), 675; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11070675
Received: 24 May 2019 / Revised: 22 June 2019 / Accepted: 17 July 2019 / Published: 23 July 2019
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Abstract
Nephropathia Epidemica (NE), a mild form of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) and linked to hantavirus infection, is endemic in the Republic of Tatarstan. Several genetic markers of HFRS severity have been identified previously, including human leukocyte antigen (HLA) complexes and nucleotide [...] Read more.
Nephropathia Epidemica (NE), a mild form of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) and linked to hantavirus infection, is endemic in the Republic of Tatarstan. Several genetic markers of HFRS severity have been identified previously, including human leukocyte antigen (HLA) complexes and nucleotide polymorphism in the tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) gene. Still, our understanding of the genetic markers of NE severity remains incomplete. The frequency of the C–C chemokine receptor type 5 (CCR5) gene wild type and gene with 32-base-pair deletion (Δ32CCR5) genotypes in 98 NE samples and 592 controls was analyzed using PCR. Along with the serum levels of 94 analytes, a lack of differences in the CCR5 genotype distribution between NE cases and the general population suggests that the CCR5 genotype does not affect susceptibility to hantavirus infection. However, in NE cases, significant variation in the serum levels of the host matrix metalloproteases between functional CCR5 homozygous and Δ32CCR5 heterozygous patients was detected. Also, the oliguric phase was longer, while thrombocyte counts were lower in functional CCR5 homozygous as compared to heterozygous NE cases. Our data, for the first time, presents the potential role of the CCR5 receptor genotype in NE pathogenesis. Our data suggests that NE pathogenesis in functional CCR5 homozygous and heterozygous NE patients differs, where homozygous cases may have more disintegration of the extracellular matrix and potentially more severe disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hantaviruses)
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Open AccessArticle
Evidence for West Nile Virus and Usutu Virus Infections in Wild and Resident Birds in Germany, 2017 and 2018
Viruses 2019, 11(7), 674; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11070674
Received: 27 June 2019 / Revised: 18 July 2019 / Accepted: 19 July 2019 / Published: 23 July 2019
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Abstract
Wild birds play an important role as reservoir hosts and vectors for zoonotic arboviruses and foster their spread. Usutu virus (USUV) has been circulating endemically in Germany since 2011, while West Nile virus (WNV) was first diagnosed in several bird species and horses [...] Read more.
Wild birds play an important role as reservoir hosts and vectors for zoonotic arboviruses and foster their spread. Usutu virus (USUV) has been circulating endemically in Germany since 2011, while West Nile virus (WNV) was first diagnosed in several bird species and horses in 2018. In 2017 and 2018, we screened 1709 live wild and zoo birds with real-time polymerase chain reaction and serological assays. Moreover, organ samples from bird carcasses submitted in 2017 were investigated. Overall, 57 blood samples of the live birds (2017 and 2018), and 100 organ samples of dead birds (2017) were positive for USUV-RNA, while no WNV-RNA-positive sample was found. Phylogenetic analysis revealed the first detection of USUV lineage Europe 2 in Germany and the spread of USUV lineages Europe 3 and Africa 3 towards Northern Germany. USUV antibody prevalence rates were high in Eastern Germany in both years. On the contrary, in Northern Germany, high seroprevalence rates were first detected in 2018, with the first emergence of USUV in this region. Interestingly, high WNV-specific neutralizing antibody titers were observed in resident and short-distance migratory birds in Eastern Germany in 2018, indicating the first signs of a local WNV circulation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue West Nile Virus 2019)
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Open AccessReview
Catch Me If You Can! RNA Silencing-Based Improvement of Antiviral Plant Immunity
Viruses 2019, 11(7), 673; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11070673
Received: 4 April 2019 / Revised: 11 July 2019 / Accepted: 17 July 2019 / Published: 23 July 2019
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Abstract
Viruses are obligate parasites which cause a range of severe plant diseases that affect farm productivity around the world, resulting in immense annual losses of yield. Therefore, control of viral pathogens continues to be an agronomic and scientific challenge requiring innovative and ground-breaking [...] Read more.
Viruses are obligate parasites which cause a range of severe plant diseases that affect farm productivity around the world, resulting in immense annual losses of yield. Therefore, control of viral pathogens continues to be an agronomic and scientific challenge requiring innovative and ground-breaking strategies to meet the demands of a growing world population. Over the last decade, RNA silencing has been employed to develop plants with an improved resistance to biotic stresses based on their function to provide protection from invasion by foreign nucleic acids, such as viruses. This natural phenomenon can be exploited to control agronomically relevant plant diseases. Recent evidence argues that this biotechnological method, called host-induced gene silencing, is effective against sucking insects, nematodes, and pathogenic fungi, as well as bacteria and viruses on their plant hosts. Here, we review recent studies which reveal the enormous potential that RNA-silencing strategies hold for providing an environmentally friendly mechanism to protect crop plants from viral diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Virus Ecology and Biodiversity)
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Open AccessReview
Bluetongue Virus in France: An Illustration of the European and Mediterranean Context since the 2000s
Viruses 2019, 11(7), 672; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11070672
Received: 30 April 2019 / Revised: 5 July 2019 / Accepted: 19 July 2019 / Published: 23 July 2019
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Abstract
Bluetongue (BT) is a non-contagious animal disease transmitted by midges of the Culicoides genus. The etiological agent is the BT virus (BTV) that induces a variety of clinical signs in wild or domestic ruminants. BT is included in the notifiable diseases list of [...] Read more.
Bluetongue (BT) is a non-contagious animal disease transmitted by midges of the Culicoides genus. The etiological agent is the BT virus (BTV) that induces a variety of clinical signs in wild or domestic ruminants. BT is included in the notifiable diseases list of the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) due to its health impact on domestic ruminants. A total of 27 BTV serotypes have been described and additional serotypes have recently been identified. Since the 2000s, the distribution of BTV has changed in Europe and in the Mediterranean Basin, with continuous BTV incursions involving various BTV serotypes and strains. These BTV strains, depending on their origin, have emerged and spread through various routes in the Mediterranean Basin and/or in Europe. Consequently, control measures have been put in place in France to eradicate the virus or circumscribe its spread. These measures mainly consist of assessing virus movements and the vaccination of domestic ruminants. Many vaccination campaigns were first carried out in Europe using attenuated vaccines and, in a second period, using exclusively inactivated vaccines. This review focuses on the history of the various BTV strain incursions in France since the 2000s, describing strain characteristics, their origins, and the different routes of spread in Europe and/or in the Mediterranean Basin. The control measures implemented to address this disease are also discussed. Finally, we explain the circumstances leading to the change in the BTV status of France from BTV-free in 2000 to an enzootic status since 2018. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Virus-Vector-Host Interactions of Culicoides-Borne Diseases)
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Open AccessArticle
The Ecology and Phylogeny of Hosts Drive the Enzootic Infection Cycles of Hantaviruses
Viruses 2019, 11(7), 671; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11070671
Received: 4 June 2019 / Revised: 17 July 2019 / Accepted: 19 July 2019 / Published: 23 July 2019
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Abstract
Hantaviruses (Family: Hantaviridae; genus: Orthohantavirus) and their associated human diseases occur globally and differ according to their geographic distribution. The structure of small mammal assemblages and phylogenetic relatedness among host species are suggested as strong drivers for the maintenance and spread of [...] Read more.
Hantaviruses (Family: Hantaviridae; genus: Orthohantavirus) and their associated human diseases occur globally and differ according to their geographic distribution. The structure of small mammal assemblages and phylogenetic relatedness among host species are suggested as strong drivers for the maintenance and spread of hantavirus infections in small mammals. We developed predictive models for hantavirus infection prevalence in rodent assemblages using defined ecological correlates from our current knowledge of hantavirus-host distributions to provide predictive models at the global and continental scale. We utilized data from published research between 1971–2014 and determined the biological and ecological characteristics of small mammal assemblages to predict the prevalence of hantavirus infections. These models are useful in predicting hantavirus disease outbreaks based on environmental and biological information obtained through the surveillance of rodents. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hantaviruses)
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Open AccessReview
A New Era for Mild Strain Cross-Protection
Viruses 2019, 11(7), 670; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11070670
Received: 19 June 2019 / Revised: 12 July 2019 / Accepted: 14 July 2019 / Published: 23 July 2019
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Abstract
Societal and environmental pressures demand high-quality and resilient cropping plants and plant-based foods grown with the use of low or no synthetic chemical inputs. Mild strain cross-protection (MSCP), the pre-immunization of a plant using a mild strain of a virus to protect against [...] Read more.
Societal and environmental pressures demand high-quality and resilient cropping plants and plant-based foods grown with the use of low or no synthetic chemical inputs. Mild strain cross-protection (MSCP), the pre-immunization of a plant using a mild strain of a virus to protect against subsequent infection by a severe strain of the virus, fits with future-proofing of production systems. New examples of MSCP use have occurred recently. New technologies are converging to support the discovery and mechanism(s) of action of MSCP strains thereby accelerating the popularity of their use. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Immunity to Virus Infections)
Open AccessReview
Exploring the Reservoir Hosts of Tick-Borne Encephalitis Virus
Viruses 2019, 11(7), 669; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11070669
Received: 10 May 2019 / Revised: 17 July 2019 / Accepted: 19 July 2019 / Published: 22 July 2019
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Abstract
Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) is an important arbovirus, which is found across large parts of Eurasia and is considered to be a major health risk for humans. Like any other arbovirus, TBEV relies on complex interactions between vectors, reservoir hosts, and the environment [...] Read more.
Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) is an important arbovirus, which is found across large parts of Eurasia and is considered to be a major health risk for humans. Like any other arbovirus, TBEV relies on complex interactions between vectors, reservoir hosts, and the environment for successful virus circulation. Hard ticks are the vectors for TBEV, transmitting the virus to a variety of animals. The importance of these animals in the lifecycle of TBEV is still up for debate. Large woodland animals seem to have a positive influence on virus circulation by providing a food source for adult ticks; birds are suspected to play a role in virus distribution. Bank voles and yellow-necked mice are often referred to as classical virus reservoirs, but this statement lacks strong evidence supporting their highlighted role. Other small mammals (e.g., insectivores) may also play a crucial role in virus transmission, not to mention the absence of any suspected reservoir host for non-European endemic regions. Theories highlighting the importance of the co-feeding transmission route go as far as naming ticks themselves as the true reservoir for TBEV, and mammalian hosts as a mere bridge for transmission. A deeper insight into the virus reservoir could lead to a better understanding of the development of endemic regions. The spatial distribution of TBEV is constricted to certain areas, forming natural foci that can be restricted to sizes of merely 500 square meters. The limiting factors for their occurrence are largely unknown, but a possible influence of reservoir hosts on the distribution pattern of TBE is discussed. This review aims to give an overview of the multiple factors influencing the TBEV transmission cycle, focusing on the role of virus reservoirs, and highlights the questions that are waiting to be further explored. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Flavivirus Replication and Pathogenesis)
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Open AccessArticle
Transport via Macropinocytic Vesicles Is Crucial for Productive Infection with Bombyx Mori Nucleopolyhedrovirus
Viruses 2019, 11(7), 668; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11070668
Received: 2 July 2019 / Revised: 18 July 2019 / Accepted: 19 July 2019 / Published: 20 July 2019
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Abstract
Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) is a serious viral pathogen in the sericulture industry and enters host cells via macropinocytic endocytosis; however, the current understanding of the BmNPV entry mechanism remains limited. To confirm whether direct membrane fusion (DMF) results in productive BmNPV infection, [...] Read more.
Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) is a serious viral pathogen in the sericulture industry and enters host cells via macropinocytic endocytosis; however, the current understanding of the BmNPV entry mechanism remains limited. To confirm whether direct membrane fusion (DMF) results in productive BmNPV infection, DMF infectivity induced by low pH during BmNPV infection was investigated, and the infectious viral particle was traced using an eGFP-labeled virion. We found that BmNPV infection efficiently induced fluid uptake, which allowed BmNPV to bypass the cell membrane barrier via macropinocytosis. However, DMF induced by a low pH abolished the infection. While low pH is an essential condition for membrane fusion triggering, it is not sufficient for productive BmNPV infection, and DMF results in failure to transport the nucleocapsid into the nucleus. These results indicate that transport via macropinocytic vesicles facilitates BmNPV entry into the nucleus and contribute to our understanding of the BmNPV entry mechanism. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Transmission Dynamics of Insect Viruses)
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Open AccessArticle
A Protocol for Extraction of Infective Viromes Suitable for Metagenomics Sequencing from Low Volume Fecal Samples
Viruses 2019, 11(7), 667; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11070667
Received: 11 June 2019 / Revised: 10 July 2019 / Accepted: 18 July 2019 / Published: 20 July 2019
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Abstract
The human gut microbiome (GM) plays an important role in human health and diseases. However, while substantial progress has been made in understanding the role of bacterial inhabitants of the gut, much less is known regarding the viral component of the GM. Bacteriophages [...] Read more.
The human gut microbiome (GM) plays an important role in human health and diseases. However, while substantial progress has been made in understanding the role of bacterial inhabitants of the gut, much less is known regarding the viral component of the GM. Bacteriophages (phages) are viruses attacking specific host bacteria and likely play important roles in shaping the GM. Although metagenomic approaches have led to the discoveries of many new viruses, they remain largely uncultured as their hosts have not been identified, which hampers our understanding of their biological roles. Existing protocols for isolation of viromes generally require relatively high input volumes and are generally more focused on extracting nucleic acids of good quality and purity for down-stream analysis, and less on purifying viruses with infective capacity. In this study, we report the development of an efficient protocol requiring low sample input yielding purified viromes containing phages that are still infective, which also are of sufficient purity for genome sequencing. We validated the method through spiking known phages followed by plaque assays, qPCR, and metagenomic sequencing. The protocol should facilitate the process of culturing novel viruses from the gut as well as large scale studies on gut viromes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diversity and Evolution of Phage Genomes)
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Open AccessArticle
Reverse Genetics of RNA Viruses: ISA-Based Approach to Control Viral Population Diversity without Modifying Virus Phenotype
Viruses 2019, 11(7), 666; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11070666
Received: 19 June 2019 / Revised: 11 July 2019 / Accepted: 18 July 2019 / Published: 20 July 2019
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Abstract
Reverse genetic systems are essential for the study of RNA viruses. Infectious clones remain the most widely used systems to manipulate viral genomes. Recently, a new PCR-based method called ISA (infectious subgenomic amplicons) has been developed. This approach has resulted in greater genetic [...] Read more.
Reverse genetic systems are essential for the study of RNA viruses. Infectious clones remain the most widely used systems to manipulate viral genomes. Recently, a new PCR-based method called ISA (infectious subgenomic amplicons) has been developed. This approach has resulted in greater genetic diversity of the viral populations than that observed using infectious clone technology. However, for some studies, generation of clonal viral populations is necessary. In this study, we used the tick-borne encephalitis virus as model to demonstrate that utilization of a very high-fidelity, DNA-dependent DNA polymerase during the PCR step of the ISA procedure gives the possibility to reduce the genetic diversity of viral populations. We also concluded that the fidelity of the polymerase is not the only factor influencing this diversity. Studying the impact of genotype modification on virus phenotype is a crucial step for the development of reverse genetic methods. Here, we also demonstrated that the utilization of different PCR polymerases did not affect the phenotype (replicative fitness in cellulo and virulence in vivo) compared to the initial ISA procedure and the use of an infectious clone. In conclusion, we provide here an approach to control the genetic diversity of RNA viruses without modifying their phenotype. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Arboviruses)
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Open AccessArticle
Generation of a Reassortant Influenza A Subtype H3N2 Virus Expressing Gaussia Luciferase
Viruses 2019, 11(7), 665; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11070665
Received: 5 July 2019 / Revised: 19 July 2019 / Accepted: 19 July 2019 / Published: 20 July 2019
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Abstract
Reporter influenza A viruses (IAVs) carrying fluorescent or luminescent genes provide a powerful tool for both basic and translational research. Most reporter IAVs are based on the backbone of either subtype H1N1 viruses, A/Puerto Rico/8/1934 (PR8) or A/WSN/1933, but no reporter subtype H3N2 [...] Read more.
Reporter influenza A viruses (IAVs) carrying fluorescent or luminescent genes provide a powerful tool for both basic and translational research. Most reporter IAVs are based on the backbone of either subtype H1N1 viruses, A/Puerto Rico/8/1934 (PR8) or A/WSN/1933, but no reporter subtype H3N2 virus is currently available to our knowledge. Since the IAV subtype H3N2 co-circulates with H1N1 among humans causing annual epidemics, a reporter influenza A subtype H3N2 virus would be highly valuable. In this study, the segments of A/Wyoming/3/03 (NY, H3N2) virus encoding hemagglutinin and neuraminidase, respectively, were reassorted with the six internal genes of PR8 where the NS gene was fused with a Gaussia luciferase (Gluc) gene. Using reverse genetics, NY-r19-Gluc, a replication competent reassortant influenza A subtype H3N2 virus expressing reporter Gluc was successfully generated. This reporter virus is stable during replication in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells, and preliminary studies demonstrated it as a useful tool to evaluate antivirals. In addition, NY-r19-Gluc virus will be a powerful tool in other studies including the application of diagnostic and therapeutic antibodies as well as the evaluation of novel vaccines. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Animal Viruses)
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Open AccessReview
The Needs for Developing Experiments on Reservoirs in Hantavirus Research: Accomplishments, Challenges and Promises for the Future
Viruses 2019, 11(7), 664; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11070664
Received: 27 June 2019 / Revised: 9 July 2019 / Accepted: 18 July 2019 / Published: 19 July 2019
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Abstract
Due to their large geographic distribution and potential high mortality rates in human infections, hantaviruses constitute a worldwide threat to public health. As such, they have been the subject of a large array of clinical, virological and eco-evolutionary studies. Many experiments have been [...] Read more.
Due to their large geographic distribution and potential high mortality rates in human infections, hantaviruses constitute a worldwide threat to public health. As such, they have been the subject of a large array of clinical, virological and eco-evolutionary studies. Many experiments have been conducted in vitro or on animal models to identify the mechanisms leading to pathogenesis in humans and to develop treatments of hantavirus diseases. Experimental research has also been dedicated to the understanding of the relationship between hantaviruses and their reservoirs. However, these studies remain too scarce considering the diversity of hantavirus/reservoir pairs identified, and the wide range of issues that need to be addressed. In this review, we present a synthesis of the experimental studies that have been conducted on hantaviruses and their reservoirs. We aim at summarizing the knowledge gathered from this research, and to emphasize the gaps that need to be filled. Despite the many difficulties encountered to carry hantavirus experiments, we advocate for the need of such studies in the future, at the interface of evolutionary ecology and virology. They are critical to address emerging areas of research, including hantavirus evolution and the epidemiological consequences of individual variation in infection outcomes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hantaviruses)
Open AccessEditorial
MERS Coronavirus: An Emerging Zoonotic Virus
Viruses 2019, 11(7), 663; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11070663
Received: 16 July 2019 / Accepted: 17 July 2019 / Published: 19 July 2019
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Abstract
Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is an emerging virus that was first reported in humans in June 2012 [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue MERS-CoV)
Open AccessArticle
Feline Foamy Virus Infection: Characterization of Experimental Infection and Prevalence of Natural Infection in Domestic Cats with and without Chronic Kidney Disease
Viruses 2019, 11(7), 662; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11070662
Received: 25 June 2019 / Revised: 11 July 2019 / Accepted: 13 July 2019 / Published: 19 July 2019
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Abstract
Foamy viruses (FVs) are globally prevalent retroviruses that establish apparently apathogenic lifelong infections. Feline FV (FFV) has been isolated from domestic cats with concurrent diseases, including urinary syndromes. We experimentally infected five cats with FFV to study viral kinetics and tropism, peripheral blood [...] Read more.
Foamy viruses (FVs) are globally prevalent retroviruses that establish apparently apathogenic lifelong infections. Feline FV (FFV) has been isolated from domestic cats with concurrent diseases, including urinary syndromes. We experimentally infected five cats with FFV to study viral kinetics and tropism, peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) phenotype, urinary parameters, and histopathology. A persistent infection of primarily lymphoid tropism was detected with no evidence of immunological or hematologic perturbations. One cat with a significant negative correlation between lymphocytes and PBMC proviral load displayed an expanded FFV tissue tropism. Significantly increased blood urea nitrogen and ultrastructural kidney changes were noted in all experimentally infected cats, though chemistry parameters were not outside of normal ranges. Histopathological changes were observed in the brain, large intestine, and other tissues. In order to determine if there is an association of FFV with Chronic Kidney Disease, we additionally screened 125 Australian pet cats with and without CKD for FFV infection and found that FFV is highly prevalent in older cats, particularly in males with CKD, though this difference was not statistically significant compared to controls. Acute FFV infection was clinically silent, and while some measures indicated mild changes, there was no overt association of FFV infection with renal disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Spumaretroviruses)
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Open AccessArticle
Evaluation of Real-Time RT-PCR for Diagnostic Use in Detection of Puumala Virus
Viruses 2019, 11(7), 661; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11070661
Received: 31 May 2019 / Revised: 4 July 2019 / Accepted: 12 July 2019 / Published: 19 July 2019
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Abstract
Puumala virus (PUUV) is the most common cause of hantavirus infection in Europe, with thousands of cases occurring particularly in Northern, Central and Eastern Europe and Russia. It causes a mild form of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome also known as nephropathia epidemica [...] Read more.
Puumala virus (PUUV) is the most common cause of hantavirus infection in Europe, with thousands of cases occurring particularly in Northern, Central and Eastern Europe and Russia. It causes a mild form of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome also known as nephropathia epidemica (NE) with clinical picture ranging from mild to severe. Currently, the laboratory diagnosis of NE is mainly based on serology. Here, we evaluated a real-time one-step qRT-PCR (PUUV-qRT-PCR) for detection of PUUV with 238 consecutive diagnostic serum samples from patients with suspected PUUV infection. The PUUV-qRT-PCR was both specific and sensitive for PUUV RNA. The analytical sensitivity (limit of detection) was estimated to be four copies of PUUV per reaction. Altogether 28 out of 30 (93%) PUUV IgM positive samples were positive also for PUUV RNA. No false positives were detected and the specificity was thus 100%. Interestingly, one sample was found positive in PUUV-qRT-PCR prior to subsequent IgM and IgG seroconversion. PUUV-qRT-PCR could be used for diagnostics in the early phase of NE infection and might be helpful especially in the rare severe cases when the patient’s condition may deteriorate rapidly. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hantaviruses)
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Open AccessArticle
Genetic Variation and Biological Activity of Two Closely Related Alphabaculoviruses during Serial Passage in Permissive and Semi-Permissive Heterologous Hosts
Viruses 2019, 11(7), 660; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11070660
Received: 14 June 2019 / Revised: 16 July 2019 / Accepted: 17 July 2019 / Published: 18 July 2019
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Abstract
Phylogenetic analyses suggest that Mamestra brassicae multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (MbMNPV) and Helicoverpa armigera multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (HearMNPV) may be strains of the same virus species. Most of the studies comparing their biological activities have been performed in their homologous hosts. A comparison of host range [...] Read more.
Phylogenetic analyses suggest that Mamestra brassicae multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (MbMNPV) and Helicoverpa armigera multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (HearMNPV) may be strains of the same virus species. Most of the studies comparing their biological activities have been performed in their homologous hosts. A comparison of host range and stability in alternative hosts was performed. The host range of these viruses was compared using high concentrations of inoculum to inoculate second instars of six species of Lepidoptera. One semi-permissive host (Spodoptera littoralis) and one permissive host (S. exigua) were then selected and used to perform six serial passages involving a concentration corresponding to the ~25% lethal concentration for both viruses. Restriction endonuclease analysis showed fragment length polymorphisms in every host-virus system studied. In S. littoralis, serial passage of MbMNPV resulted in decreased pathogenicity and an increase in speed-of-kill, whereas no significant changes were detected for HearMNPV with respect to the initial inoculum. In contrast, both viruses showed a similar trend in S. exigua. These results highlight the low genetic diversity and a high phenotypic stability of HearMNPV with respect to the original inoculum after six successive passages in both insect hosts. This study concludes that host-baculovirus interactions during serial passage are complex and the process of adaptation to a novel semi-permissive host is far from predictable. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Insect Viruses and Pest Management)
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Open AccessReview
Advances in the Development of Antiviral Strategies against Parvovirus B19
Viruses 2019, 11(7), 659; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11070659
Received: 25 June 2019 / Revised: 16 July 2019 / Accepted: 17 July 2019 / Published: 18 July 2019
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Abstract
Parvovirus B19 (B19V) is a human pathogenic virus, responsible for an ample range of clinical manifestations. Infections are usually mild, self-limiting, and controlled by the development of a specific immune response, but in many cases clinical situations can be more complex and require [...] Read more.
Parvovirus B19 (B19V) is a human pathogenic virus, responsible for an ample range of clinical manifestations. Infections are usually mild, self-limiting, and controlled by the development of a specific immune response, but in many cases clinical situations can be more complex and require therapy. Presently available treatments are only supportive, symptomatic, or unspecific, such as administration of intravenous immunoglobulins, and often of limited efficacy. The development of antiviral strategies against B19V should be considered of highest relevance for increasing the available options for more specific and effective therapeutic treatments. This field of research has been explored in recent years, registering some achievements as well as interesting future perspectives. In addition to immunoglobulins, some compounds have been shown to possess inhibitory activity against B19V. Hydroxyurea is an antiproliferative drug used in the treatment of sickle-cell disease that also possesses inhibitory activity against B19V. The nucleotide analogues Cidofovir and its lipid conjugate Brincidofovir are broad-range antivirals mostly active against dsDNA viruses, which showed an antiviral activity also against B19V. Newly synthesized coumarin derivatives offer possibilities for the development of molecules with antiviral activity. Identification of some flavonoid molecules, with direct inhibitory activity against the viral non-structural (NS) protein, indicates a possible line of development for direct antiviral agents. Continuing research in the field, leading to better knowledge of the viral lifecycle and a precise understanding of virus–cell interactions, will offer novel opportunities for developing more efficient, targeted antiviral agents, which can be translated into available therapeutic options. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Insights into Parvovirus Research)
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Open AccessCommunication
Genome Analysis of A Novel South African Cydia pomonella granulovirus (CpGV-SA) with Resistance-Breaking Potential
Viruses 2019, 11(7), 658; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11070658
Received: 31 May 2019 / Revised: 20 June 2019 / Accepted: 24 June 2019 / Published: 18 July 2019
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Abstract
The complete genome of an endemic South African Cydia pomonella granulovirus isolate was sequenced and analyzed. Several missing or truncated open reading frames (ORFs) were identified, including a 24 bp deletion in the pe38 gene which is reported to be associated with type [...] Read more.
The complete genome of an endemic South African Cydia pomonella granulovirus isolate was sequenced and analyzed. Several missing or truncated open reading frames (ORFs) were identified, including a 24 bp deletion in the pe38 gene which is reported to be associated with type I resistance-breaking potential. Comparison of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with five other fully sequenced CpGV isolates identified 67 unique events, 47 of which occurred within ORFs, leading to several amino acid changes. Further analysis of single nucleotide variations (SNVs) within CpGV-SA revealed that this isolate consists of mixed genotypes. Phylogenetic analysis using complete genome sequences placed CpGV-SA basal to M, I12 and E2 and distal to S and I07 but with no distinct classification into any of the previously defined CpGV genogroups. These results suggest that CpGV-SA is a novel and genetically distinct isolate with significant potential as a biopesticide for management of codling moth (CM), not only in South Africa, but potentially in other pome fruit producing countries, particularly where CM resistance to CpGV has been reported. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Insect Viruses and Pest Management)
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Open AccessArticle
Ts2631 Endolysin from the Extremophilic Thermus scotoductus Bacteriophage vB_Tsc2631 as an Antimicrobial Agent against Gram-Negative Multidrug-Resistant Bacteria
Viruses 2019, 11(7), 657; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11070657
Received: 5 June 2019 / Revised: 12 July 2019 / Accepted: 15 July 2019 / Published: 18 July 2019
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Abstract
Bacteria that thrive in extreme conditions and the bacteriophages that infect them are sources of valuable enzymes resistant to denaturation at high temperatures. Many of these heat-stable proteins are useful for biotechnological applications; nevertheless, none have been utilized as antibacterial agents. Here, we [...] Read more.
Bacteria that thrive in extreme conditions and the bacteriophages that infect them are sources of valuable enzymes resistant to denaturation at high temperatures. Many of these heat-stable proteins are useful for biotechnological applications; nevertheless, none have been utilized as antibacterial agents. Here, we demonstrate the bactericidal potential of Ts2631 endolysin from the extremophilic bacteriophage vB_Tsc2631, which infects Thermus scotoductus, against the alarming multidrug-resistant clinical strains of Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and pathogens from the Enterobacteriaceae family. A 2–3.7 log reduction in the bacterial load was observed in antibacterial tests against A. baumannii and P. aeruginosa after 1.5 h. The Ts2631 activity was further enhanced by ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), a metal ion chelator (4.2 log reduction in carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii) and, to a lesser extent, by malic acid and citric acid (2.9 and 3.3 log reductions, respectively). The EDTA/Ts2631 combination reduced all pathogens of the Enterobacteriaceae family, particularly multidrug-resistant Citrobacter braakii, to levels below the detection limit (>6 log); these results indicate that Ts2631 endolysin could be useful to combat Gram-negative pathogens. The investigation of A. baumannii cells treated with Ts2631 endolysin variants under transmission electron and fluorescence microscopy demonstrates that the intrinsic antibacterial activity of Ts2631 endolysin is dependent on the presence of its N-terminal tail. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Concepts in Virology)
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Open AccessReview
Human Virome and Disease: High-Throughput Sequencing for Virus Discovery, Identification of Phage-Bacteria Dysbiosis and Development of Therapeutic Approaches with Emphasis on the Human Gut
Viruses 2019, 11(7), 656; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11070656
Received: 19 June 2019 / Revised: 14 July 2019 / Accepted: 15 July 2019 / Published: 18 July 2019
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Abstract
The virome is comprised of endogenous retroviruses, eukaryotic viruses, and bacteriophages and is increasingly being recognized as an essential part of the human microbiome. The human virome is associated with Type-1 diabetes (T1D), Type-2 diabetes (T2D), Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD), Human Immunodeficiency Virus [...] Read more.
The virome is comprised of endogenous retroviruses, eukaryotic viruses, and bacteriophages and is increasingly being recognized as an essential part of the human microbiome. The human virome is associated with Type-1 diabetes (T1D), Type-2 diabetes (T2D), Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD), Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection, and cancer. Increasing evidence also supports trans-kingdom interactions of viruses with bacteria, small eukaryotes and host in disease progression. The present review focuses on virus ecology and biology and how this translates mostly to human gut virome research. Current challenges in the field and how the development of bioinformatic tools and controls are aiding to overcome some of these challenges are also discussed. Finally, the present review also focuses on how human gut virome research could result in translational and clinical studies that may facilitate the development of therapeutic approaches. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Viromics: Approaches, Advances, and Applications)
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Open AccessArticle
Hepatitis B Virus X Gene Differentially Modulates Subgenotype F1b and F4 Replication
Viruses 2019, 11(7), 655; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11070655
Received: 19 June 2019 / Revised: 12 July 2019 / Accepted: 16 July 2019 / Published: 18 July 2019
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Abstract
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is classified into ten genotypes and numerous subgenotypes (sgt). In particular, sgt F1b and sgt F4, native of Latin America, have been associated with differences in clinical and virological characteristics. Hepatitis B virus X protein (HBx) is a multifunctional [...] Read more.
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is classified into ten genotypes and numerous subgenotypes (sgt). In particular, sgt F1b and sgt F4, native of Latin America, have been associated with differences in clinical and virological characteristics. Hepatitis B virus X protein (HBx) is a multifunctional regulatory protein associated with the modulation of viral transcription and replication. In this work, we analyzed the role of the X gene and the encoded X protein in sgtF1b and sgtF4 replication. Transfection with HBx deficient genomes revealed remarkable differences in the replicative capacity of sgtF1b and sgtF4 mutants. The silencing of HBx increased sgtF1b X(-) transcription and replication by more than 2.5 fold compared to the wild type variant, while it decreased sgtF4 X(-) transcription and replication by more than 3 fold. Trans-complementation of HBx restore sgtF1b and sgtF4 wild type transcription and replication levels. In addition, transfection with chimeric variants, carrying wild type (F1b/XF4 and F4/XF1b) or mutated (F1b/X(-)F4 and F4/X(-)F1b) X gene of one sgt in the backbone of the other sgt, showed that the nucleotide sequence of the X gene, that includes regulatory elements that modulate pgRNA transcription, was responsible for the disparity observed between sgtF1b X(-) and sgtF4 X(-). These results showed that sgtF1b and sgtF4 X gene play a central role in regulating HBV transcription and replication, which eventually lead to a common purpose, to reach wild type replication levels of sgtF1b and sgtF4 viruses. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Evidence of Intragenic Recombination in African Horse Sickness Virus
Viruses 2019, 11(7), 654; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11070654
Received: 29 March 2019 / Revised: 6 May 2019 / Accepted: 7 May 2019 / Published: 18 July 2019
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Abstract
Intragenic recombination has been described in various RNA viruses as a mechanism to increase genetic diversity, resulting in increased virulence, expanded host range, or adaptability to a changing environment. Orbiviruses are no exception to this, with intragenic recombination previously detected in the type [...] Read more.
Intragenic recombination has been described in various RNA viruses as a mechanism to increase genetic diversity, resulting in increased virulence, expanded host range, or adaptability to a changing environment. Orbiviruses are no exception to this, with intragenic recombination previously detected in the type species, bluetongue virus (BTV). African horse sickness virus (AHSV) is a double-stranded RNA virus belonging to the Oribivirus genus in the family Reoviridae. Genetic recombination through reassortment has been described in AHSV, but not through homologous intragenic recombination. The influence of the latter on the evolution of AHSV was investigated by analyzing the complete genomes of more than 100 viruses to identify evidence of recombination. Segment-1, segment-6, segment-7, and segment-10 showed evidence of intragenic recombination, yet only one (Segment-10) of these events was manifested in subsequent lineages. The other three hybrid segments were as a result of recombination between field isolates and the vaccine derived live attenuated viruses (ALVs). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Virus-Vector-Host Interactions of Culicoides-Borne Diseases)
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Open AccessArticle
Long-Term Circulation of Atypical Porcine Pestivirus (APPV) within Switzerland
Viruses 2019, 11(7), 653; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11070653
Received: 3 July 2019 / Revised: 12 July 2019 / Accepted: 16 July 2019 / Published: 17 July 2019
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Abstract
In 2015, a new pestivirus was described in pig sera in the United States. This new “atypical porcine pestivirus” (APPV) was later associated with congenital tremor (CT) in newborn piglets. The virus appears to be distributed worldwide, but the limited knowledge of virus [...] Read more.
In 2015, a new pestivirus was described in pig sera in the United States. This new “atypical porcine pestivirus” (APPV) was later associated with congenital tremor (CT) in newborn piglets. The virus appears to be distributed worldwide, but the limited knowledge of virus diversity and the use of various diagnostic tests prevent direct comparisons. Therefore, we developed an APPV-specific real-time RT-PCR assay in the 5′UTR of the viral genome to investigate both retro- and prospectively the strains present in Switzerland and their prevalence in domestic pigs. Overall, 1080 sera obtained between 1986 and 2018 were analyzed, revealing a virus prevalence of approximately 13% in pigs for slaughter, whereas it was less than 1% in breeding pigs. In the prospective study, APPV was also detected in piglets displaying CT. None of the samples could detect the Linda virus, which is another new pestivirus recently reported in Austria. Sequencing and phylogenetic analysis revealed a broad diversity of APP viruses in Switzerland that are considerably distinct from sequences reported from other isolates in Europe and overseas. This study indicates that APPV has already been widely circulating in Switzerland for many years, mainly in young animals, with 1986 being the earliest report of APPV worldwide. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Porcine Viruses 2019)
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Open AccessReview
Wild Rats, Laboratory Rats, Pet Rats: Global Seoul Hantavirus Disease Revisited
Viruses 2019, 11(7), 652; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11070652
Received: 31 May 2019 / Revised: 28 June 2019 / Accepted: 9 July 2019 / Published: 17 July 2019
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Abstract
Recent reports from Europe and the USA described Seoul orthohantavirus infection in pet rats and their breeders/owners, suggesting the potential emergence of a “new” public health problem. Wild and laboratory rat-induced Seoul infections have, however, been described since the early eighties, due to [...] Read more.
Recent reports from Europe and the USA described Seoul orthohantavirus infection in pet rats and their breeders/owners, suggesting the potential emergence of a “new” public health problem. Wild and laboratory rat-induced Seoul infections have, however, been described since the early eighties, due to the omnipresence of the rodent reservoir, the brown rat Rattus norvegicus. Recent studies showed no fundamental differences between the pathogenicity and phylogeny of pet rat-induced Seoul orthohantaviruses and their formerly described wild or laboratory rat counterparts. The paucity of diagnosed Seoul virus-induced disease in the West is in striking contrast to the thousands of cases recorded since the 1980s in the Far East, particularly in China. This review of four continents (Asia, Europe, America, and Africa) puts this “emerging infection” into a historical perspective, concluding there is an urgent need for greater medical awareness of Seoul virus-induced human pathology in many parts of the world. Given the mostly milder and atypical clinical presentation, sometimes even with preserved normal kidney function, the importance of simple but repeated urine examination is stressed, since initial but transient proteinuria and microhematuria are rarely lacking. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hantaviruses)
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of Moloney Leukemia Virus 10 Protein on Hepatitis B Virus Infection and Viral Replication
Viruses 2019, 11(7), 651; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11070651
Received: 7 June 2019 / Revised: 9 July 2019 / Accepted: 11 July 2019 / Published: 17 July 2019
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Abstract
Moloney leukemia virus 10 (MOV10) is an RNA helicase that has been shown to affect the replication of several viruses. The effect of MOV10 on Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is not known and its role on the replication of this virus is [...] Read more.
Moloney leukemia virus 10 (MOV10) is an RNA helicase that has been shown to affect the replication of several viruses. The effect of MOV10 on Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is not known and its role on the replication of this virus is poorly understood. We investigated the effect of MOV10 down-regulation and MOV10 over-expression on HBV in a variety of cell lines, as well as in an infection system using a replication competent virus. We report that MOV10 down-regulation, using siRNA, shRNA, and CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing technology, resulted in increased levels of HBV DNA, HBV pre-genomic RNA, and HBV core protein. In contrast, MOV10 over-expression reduced HBV DNA, HBV pre-genomic RNA, and HBV core protein. These effects were consistent in all tested cell lines, providing strong evidence for the involvement of MOV10 in the HBV life cycle. We demonstrated that MOV10 does not interact with HBV-core. However, MOV10 binds HBV pgRNA and this interaction does not affect HBV pgRNA decay rate. We conclude that the restriction of HBV by MOV10 is mediated through effects at the level of viral RNA. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Animal Viruses)
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Open AccessCommunication
Transmission of Porcine Circovirus 3 (PCV3) by Xenotransplantation of Pig Hearts into Baboons
Viruses 2019, 11(7), 650; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11070650
Received: 5 June 2019 / Revised: 8 July 2019 / Accepted: 9 July 2019 / Published: 16 July 2019
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Abstract
Porcine circovirus 3 (PCV3) is a newly described member of the virus family Circoviridae. PCV3 is highly distributed among pigs and wild boars worldwide. A sudden introduction of PCV3 was recently observed in a herd of triple genetically modified pigs generated for xenotransplantation. [...] Read more.
Porcine circovirus 3 (PCV3) is a newly described member of the virus family Circoviridae. PCV3 is highly distributed among pigs and wild boars worldwide. A sudden introduction of PCV3 was recently observed in a herd of triple genetically modified pigs generated for xenotransplantation. These animals were used as donor pigs for orthotopic heart transplantation into baboons. In four cases, PCV3-positive hearts were transplanted, and transmission of PCV3 to the recipient was observed. PCV3 was found in all organs of the recipient baboons and a higher virus load was found in animals with a longer survival time of the transplant, indicating replication of the virus. This is the first report showing trans-species transmission of PCV3 to baboons by transplantation of a heart from a PCV3-positive donor pig. Sequence analysis showed that PCV3a and PCV3b were present in the infected pigs and were transmitted. Experiments to infect human 293 cells with PCV3 failed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Animal Viruses)
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Open AccessArticle
Evaluation of an Immunochromatographic Assay as a Canine Rabies Surveillance Tool in Goa, India
Viruses 2019, 11(7), 649; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11070649
Received: 15 June 2019 / Revised: 5 July 2019 / Accepted: 8 July 2019 / Published: 15 July 2019
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Abstract
Rabies is a fatal zoonotic disease transmitted by the bite of a rabid animal. More than 95% of the human rabies cases in India are attributed to exposure to rabid dogs. This study evaluated the utility of a lateral flow immunochromatographic assay (LFA) [...] Read more.
Rabies is a fatal zoonotic disease transmitted by the bite of a rabid animal. More than 95% of the human rabies cases in India are attributed to exposure to rabid dogs. This study evaluated the utility of a lateral flow immunochromatographic assay (LFA) (Anigen Rapid Rabies Ag Test Kit, Bionote, Hwaseong-si, Korea) for rapid post mortem diagnosis of rabies in dogs. Brain tissue was collected from 202 animals that were screened through the Government of Goa rabies surveillance system. The brain tissue samples were obtained from 188 dogs, nine cats, three bovines, one jackal and one monkey. In addition, 10 dogs that died due to trauma from road accidents were included as negative controls for the study. The diagnostic performance of LFA was evaluated using results from direct fluorescence antibody test (dFT); the current gold standard post mortem test for rabies infection. Three samples were removed from the analysis as they were autolysed and not fit for testing by dFT. Of the 209 samples tested, 117 tested positive by LFA and 92 tested negative, while 121 tested positive by dFT and 88 tested negative. Estimates of LFA sensitivity and specificity were 0.96 (95% CI 0.91–0.99) and 0.99 (95% CI 0.94–1.00), respectively. The LFA is a simple and low-cost assay that aids in the rapid diagnosis of rabies in the field without the need for expensive laboratory equipment or technical expertise. This study found that Bionote LFA has potential as a screening tool in rabies endemic countries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Rabies Virus: Knowledge Gaps and Challenges to Elimination)
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Open AccessArticle
Identification of Multiple Replication Stages and Origins in the Nucleopolyhedrovirus of Anticarsia gemmatalis
Viruses 2019, 11(7), 648; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11070648
Received: 31 May 2019 / Revised: 10 July 2019 / Accepted: 12 July 2019 / Published: 15 July 2019
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Abstract
To understand the mechanism of replication used by baculoviruses, it is essential to describe all the factors involved, including virus and host proteins and the sequences where DNA synthesis starts. A lot of work on this topic has been done, but there is [...] Read more.
To understand the mechanism of replication used by baculoviruses, it is essential to describe all the factors involved, including virus and host proteins and the sequences where DNA synthesis starts. A lot of work on this topic has been done, but there is still confusion in defining what sequence/s act in such functions, and the mechanism of replication is not very well understood. In this work, we performed an AgMNPV replication kinetics into the susceptible UFL-Ag-286 cells to estimate viral genome synthesis rates. We found that the viral DNA exponentially increases in two different phases that are temporally separated by an interval of 5 h, probably suggesting the occurrence of two different mechanisms of replication. Then, we prepared a plasmid library containing virus fragments (0.5–2 kbp), which were transfected and infected with AgMNPV in UFL-Ag-286 cells. We identified 12 virus fragments which acted as origins of replication (ORI). Those fragments are in close proximity to core genes. This association to the core genome would ensure vertical transmission of ORIs. We also predict the presence of common structures on those fragments that probably recruit the replication machinery, a structure also present in previously reported ORIs in baculoviruses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Insect Viruses and Pest Management)
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Open AccessArticle
Haemostatic Changes in Five Patients Infected with Ebola Virus
Viruses 2019, 11(7), 647; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11070647
Received: 11 June 2019 / Revised: 3 July 2019 / Accepted: 11 July 2019 / Published: 15 July 2019
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Abstract
Knowledge on haemostatic changes in humans infected with Ebola virus is limited due to safety concerns and access to patient samples. Ethical approval was obtained to collect plasma samples from patients in Sierra Leone infected with Ebola virus over time and samples were [...] Read more.
Knowledge on haemostatic changes in humans infected with Ebola virus is limited due to safety concerns and access to patient samples. Ethical approval was obtained to collect plasma samples from patients in Sierra Leone infected with Ebola virus over time and samples were analysed for clotting time, fibrinogen, and D-dimer levels. Plasma from healthy volunteers was also collected by two methods to determine effect of centrifugation on test results as blood collected in Sierra Leone was not centrifuged. Collecting plasma without centrifugation only affected D-dimer values. Patients with Ebola virus disease had higher PT and APTT and D-dimer values than healthy humans with plasma collected in the same manner. Fibrinogen levels in patients with Ebola virus disease were normal or lower than values measured in healthy people. Clotting times and D-dimer levels were elevated during infection with Ebola virus but return to normal over time in patients that survived and therefore could be considered prognostic. Informative data can be obtained from plasma collected without centrifugation which could improve patient monitoring in hazardous environments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Medical Advances in Viral Hemorrhagic Fever Research)
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Open AccessBrief Report
The Emergence of Avian Orthoavulavirus 13 in Wild Migratory Waterfowl in China Revealed the Existence of Diversified Trailer Region Sequences and HN Gene Lengths within this Serotype
Viruses 2019, 11(7), 646; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11070646
Received: 18 June 2019 / Revised: 9 July 2019 / Accepted: 10 July 2019 / Published: 13 July 2019
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Abstract
Avian orthoavulavirus 13 (AOAV-13), also named avian paramyxovirus 13 (APMV-13), has been found sporadically in wild birds around the world ever since the discovery of AOAV-13 (AOAV-13/wild goose/Shimane/67/2000) in a wild goose from Japan in 2000. However, there are no reports of AOAV-13 [...] Read more.
Avian orthoavulavirus 13 (AOAV-13), also named avian paramyxovirus 13 (APMV-13), has been found sporadically in wild birds around the world ever since the discovery of AOAV-13 (AOAV-13/wild goose/Shimane/67/2000) in a wild goose from Japan in 2000. However, there are no reports of AOAV-13 in China. In the present study, a novel AOAV-13 virus (AOAV-13/wild goose/China/Hubei/V93-1/2015), isolated from a wild migratory waterfowl in a wetland of Hubei province of China, during active surveillance from 2013 to 2018, was biologically and genetically characterized. Phylogenetic analyses demonstrated a very close genetic relationship among all AOAV-13 strains, as revealed by very few genetic variations. Moreover, pathogenicity tests indicated that the V93-1 strain is a low virulent virus for chickens. However, the genome of the V93-1 virus was found to be 16,158 nucleotides (nt) in length, which is 12 nt or 162 nt longer than the other AOAV-13 strains that have been reported to date. The length difference of 12 nt in strain V93-1 is due to the existence of three repeats of the conserved sequence, “AAAAAT”, in the 5′-end trailer of the genome. Moreover, the HN gene of the V93-1 virus is 2070 nt in size, encoding 610 aa, which is the same size as the AOAV-13 strain from Japan, whereas that of two strains from Ukraine and Kazakhstan are 2080 nt in length, encoding 579 aa. We describe a novel AOAV-13 in migratory waterfowl in China, which suggests that diversified trailer region sequences and HN gene lengths exist within serotype AOAV-13, and highlight the need for its constant surveillance in poultry from live animal markets, and especially migratory birds. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Viruses: Surveillance, Prevention, Evolution and Control)
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