Next Article in Journal
Identification of Multiple Replication Stages and Origins in the Nucleopolyhedrovirus of Anticarsia gemmatalis
Next Article in Special Issue
Evaluation of Diagnostic Performance of Three Indirect Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assays for the Detection of IgG Antibodies to Ebola Virus in Human Sera
Previous Article in Journal
The Emergence of Avian Orthoavulavirus 13 in Wild Migratory Waterfowl in China Revealed the Existence of Diversified Trailer Region Sequences and HN Gene Lengths within this Serotype
Previous Article in Special Issue
Animal Models for Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Human Disease
Article Menu
Issue 7 (July) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle

Haemostatic Changes in Five Patients Infected with Ebola Virus

Chemical Biological & Radiological Division, Dstl, Porton Down SP4 0JQ, UK
Royal Centre for Defence Medicine, Birmingham Research Park, Birmingham B15 2SQ, UK
Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Liverpool L3 5QA, UK
St Thomas’ Hospital Thrombosis & Haemophilia Centre & Thrombosis and Vascular Biology Group, London SE1 7EH, UK
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Viruses 2019, 11(7), 647;
Received: 11 June 2019 / Revised: 3 July 2019 / Accepted: 11 July 2019 / Published: 15 July 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Medical Advances in Viral Hemorrhagic Fever Research)
PDF [1050 KB, uploaded 24 July 2019]


Knowledge on haemostatic changes in humans infected with Ebola virus is limited due to safety concerns and access to patient samples. Ethical approval was obtained to collect plasma samples from patients in Sierra Leone infected with Ebola virus over time and samples were analysed for clotting time, fibrinogen, and D-dimer levels. Plasma from healthy volunteers was also collected by two methods to determine effect of centrifugation on test results as blood collected in Sierra Leone was not centrifuged. Collecting plasma without centrifugation only affected D-dimer values. Patients with Ebola virus disease had higher PT and APTT and D-dimer values than healthy humans with plasma collected in the same manner. Fibrinogen levels in patients with Ebola virus disease were normal or lower than values measured in healthy people. Clotting times and D-dimer levels were elevated during infection with Ebola virus but return to normal over time in patients that survived and therefore could be considered prognostic. Informative data can be obtained from plasma collected without centrifugation which could improve patient monitoring in hazardous environments. View Full-Text
Keywords: Ebola virus; haemostasis; clotting; D-dimers; fibrinogen; PT; APTT Ebola virus; haemostasis; clotting; D-dimers; fibrinogen; PT; APTT

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Smither, S.J.; O’Brien, L.M.; Eastaugh, L.; Woolley, T.; Lever, M.; Fletcher, T.; Parmar, K.; Hunt, B.J.; Watts, S.; Kirkman, E. Haemostatic Changes in Five Patients Infected with Ebola Virus. Viruses 2019, 11, 647.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Viruses EISSN 1999-4915 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top