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Open AccessReview

A New Era for Mild Strain Cross-Protection

The New Zealand Institute for Plant and Food Research Limited, Auckland 1142, New Zealand
School of Biological Sciences, University of Auckland, Auckland 1142, New Zealand
Department of Plant Pathology, Washington, State University, Prosser, WA 99350, USA
Julius Kühn Institute, Institute for Epidemiology and Pathogen Diagnostics, Messeweg 11-12, 38104 Braunschweig, Germany
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally.
Viruses 2019, 11(7), 670;
Received: 19 June 2019 / Revised: 12 July 2019 / Accepted: 14 July 2019 / Published: 23 July 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Immunity to Virus Infections)
PDF [280 KB, uploaded 23 July 2019]


Societal and environmental pressures demand high-quality and resilient cropping plants and plant-based foods grown with the use of low or no synthetic chemical inputs. Mild strain cross-protection (MSCP), the pre-immunization of a plant using a mild strain of a virus to protect against subsequent infection by a severe strain of the virus, fits with future-proofing of production systems. New examples of MSCP use have occurred recently. New technologies are converging to support the discovery and mechanism(s) of action of MSCP strains thereby accelerating the popularity of their use. View Full-Text
Keywords: cross-protection; mild strain cross-protection; plant protection cross-protection; mild strain cross-protection; plant protection
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Pechinger, K.; Chooi, K.M.; MacDiarmid, R.M.; Harper, S.J.; Ziebell, H. A New Era for Mild Strain Cross-Protection. Viruses 2019, 11, 670.

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