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Special Issue "Plant Virus Ecology and Biodiversity"

A special issue of Viruses (ISSN 1999-4915). This special issue belongs to the section "Viruses of Plants, Fungi and Protozoa".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (28 February 2019)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Ulrich Melcher

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, USA
Website | E-Mail
Interests: previously unnoticed viruses; nucleotide polymorphisms in viral genomes; virus evolution; virus ecology and biodiversity

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,  

Plant virus ecology is the study of the interactions of four components: The viruses, their plant hosts, vectors that disseminate them, and the physical environment (radiation, atmosphere, moisture, nutrients) in which all exist. These interactions occur both in agricultural and natural lands and the interfaces between them. These interact through biodiversity at the virus, plant and vector levels, to create functioning ecosystems, both in managed and natural environments. Biodiversity, arising through processes of genome change by generation of mutations and rearrangement of genes and selection of variants, provides novel materials for well functioning ecosystems. Understanding such ecosystems is essential to guaranteeing continued generation of nutritious foodstuffs in the face of global climate change and its effect on plant health.

Yours sincerely, 

Prof. Dr. Ulrich Melcher
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • plant virus ecology
  • ecogenomics
  • virus evolution
  • plant-microbe interactions
  • virus ecology
  • biodiversity ecosystem functioning

Published Papers (11 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Modeling of Mutational Events in the Evolution of Viruses
Viruses 2019, 11(5), 418; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11050418
Received: 4 March 2019 / Revised: 27 April 2019 / Accepted: 2 May 2019 / Published: 5 May 2019
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Abstract
Diverse studies of viral evolution have led to the recognition that the evolutionary rates of viral taxa observed are dependent on the time scale being investigated—with short-term studies giving fast substitution rates, and orders of magnitude lower rates for deep calibrations. Although each [...] Read more.
Diverse studies of viral evolution have led to the recognition that the evolutionary rates of viral taxa observed are dependent on the time scale being investigated—with short-term studies giving fast substitution rates, and orders of magnitude lower rates for deep calibrations. Although each of these factors may contribute to this time dependent rate phenomenon, a more fundamental cause should be considered. We sought to test computationally whether the basic phenomena of virus evolution (mutation, replication, and selection) can explain the relationships between the evolutionary and phylogenetic distances. We tested, by computational inference, the hypothesis that the phylogenetic distances between the pairs of sequences are functions of the evolutionary path lengths between them. A Basic simulation revealed that the relationship between simulated genetic and mutational distances is non-linear, and can be consistent with different rates of nucleotide substitution at different depths of branches in phylogenetic trees. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Virus Ecology and Biodiversity)
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Open AccessCommunication
Tomato Twisted Leaf Virus: A Novel Indigenous New World Monopartite Begomovirus Infecting Tomato in Venezuela
Viruses 2019, 11(4), 327; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11040327
Received: 21 February 2019 / Revised: 22 March 2019 / Accepted: 2 April 2019 / Published: 4 April 2019
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Abstract
Begomoviruses are one of the major groups of plant viruses with an important economic impact on crop production in tropical and subtropical regions. The global spread of its polyphagous vector, the whitefly Bemisia tabaci, has contributed to the emergence and diversification of [...] Read more.
Begomoviruses are one of the major groups of plant viruses with an important economic impact on crop production in tropical and subtropical regions. The global spread of its polyphagous vector, the whitefly Bemisia tabaci, has contributed to the emergence and diversification of species within this genus. In this study, we found a putative novel begomovirus infecting tomato plants in Venezuela without a cognate DNA-B component. This begomovirus was genetically characterized and compared with related species. Furthermore, its infectivity was demonstrated by agroinoculation of infectious clones in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) and Nicotiana benthamiana plants. The name Tomato twisted leaf virus (ToTLV) is proposed. ToTLV showed the typical genome organization of the DNA-A component of New World bipartite begomoviruses. However, the single DNA component of ToTLV was able to develop systemic infection in tomato and N. benthamiana plants, suggesting a monopartite nature of its genome. Interestingly, an additional open reading frame ORF was observed in ToTLV encompassing the intergenic region and the coat protein gene, which is not present in other closely related begomoviruses. A putative transcript from this region was amplified by strand-specific reverse transcription-PCR. Along with recent studies, our results showed that the diversity of monopartite begomoviruses from the New World is greater than previously thought. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Virus Ecology and Biodiversity)
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Open AccessArticle
Metagenomes of a Freshwater Charavirus from British Columbia Provide a Window into Ancient Lineages of Viruses
Viruses 2019, 11(3), 299; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11030299
Received: 3 March 2019 / Revised: 19 March 2019 / Accepted: 21 March 2019 / Published: 25 March 2019
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Abstract
Charophyte algae, not chlorophyte algae, are the ancestors of ‘higher plants’; hence, viruses infecting charophytes may be related to those that first infected higher plants. Streamwaters from British Columbia, Canada, yielded single-stranded RNA metagenomes of Charavirus canadensis (CV-Can), that are similar in genomic [...] Read more.
Charophyte algae, not chlorophyte algae, are the ancestors of ‘higher plants’; hence, viruses infecting charophytes may be related to those that first infected higher plants. Streamwaters from British Columbia, Canada, yielded single-stranded RNA metagenomes of Charavirus canadensis (CV-Can), that are similar in genomic architecture, length (9593 nt), nucleotide identity (63.4%), and encoded amino-acid sequence identity (53.0%) to those of Charavirus australis (CV-Aus). The sequences of their RNA-dependent RNA-polymerases (RdRp) resemble those found in benyviruses, their helicases those of hepaciviruses and hepegiviruses, and their coat-proteins (CP) those of tobamoviruses; all from the alphavirus/flavivirus branch of the ‘global RNA virome’. The 5’-terminus of the CV-Can genome, but not that of CV-Aus, is complete and encodes a methyltransferase domain. Comparisons of CP sequences suggests that Canadian and Australian charaviruses diverged 29–46 million years ago (mya); whereas, the CPs of charaviruses and tobamoviruses last shared a common ancestor 212 mya, and the RdRps of charaviruses and benyviruses 396 mya. CV-Can is sporadically abundant in low-nutrient freshwater rivers in British Columbia, where Chara braunii, a close relative of C. australis, occurs, and which may be its natural host. Charaviruses, like their hosts, are ancient and widely distributed, and thus provide a window to the viromes of early eukaryotes and, even, Archaea. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Virus Ecology and Biodiversity)
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Open AccessArticle
Tomato Chlorotic Spot Virus (TCSV) Putatively Incorporated a Genomic Segment of Groundnut Ringspot Virus (GRSV) Upon a Reassortment Event
Viruses 2019, 11(2), 187; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11020187
Received: 17 January 2019 / Revised: 14 February 2019 / Accepted: 21 February 2019 / Published: 22 February 2019
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Abstract
Tomato chlorotic spot virus (TCSV) and groundnut ringspot virus (GRSV) share several genetic and biological traits. Both of them belong to the genus Tospovirus (family Peribunyaviridae), which is composed by viruses with tripartite RNA genome that infect plants and are transmitted by [...] Read more.
Tomato chlorotic spot virus (TCSV) and groundnut ringspot virus (GRSV) share several genetic and biological traits. Both of them belong to the genus Tospovirus (family Peribunyaviridae), which is composed by viruses with tripartite RNA genome that infect plants and are transmitted by thrips (order Thysanoptera). Previous studies have suggested several reassortment events between these two viruses, and some speculated that they may share one of their genomic segments. To better understand the intimate evolutionary history of these two viruses, we sequenced the genomes of the first TCSV and GRSV isolates ever reported. Our analyses show that TCSV and GRSV isolates indeed share one of their genomic segments, suggesting that one of those viruses may have emerged upon a reassortment event. Based on a series of phylogenetic and nucleotide diversity analyses, we conclude that the parental genotype of the M segment of TCSV was either eliminated due to a reassortment with GRSV or it still remains to be identified. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Virus Ecology and Biodiversity)
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Open AccessArticle
Molecular Characterization of a Novel Endornavirus Conferring Hypovirulence in Rice Sheath Blight Fungus Rhizoctonia solani AG-1 IA Strain GD-2
Viruses 2019, 11(2), 178; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11020178
Received: 4 February 2019 / Revised: 17 February 2019 / Accepted: 18 February 2019 / Published: 20 February 2019
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Abstract
The complete sequence and genome organization of a novel Endornavirus from the hypovirulent strain GD-2 of Rhizoctonia solani AG-1 IA, the causal agent of rice sheath blight, were identified using a deep sequencing approach and it was tentatively named as Rhizoctonia solani endornavirus [...] Read more.
The complete sequence and genome organization of a novel Endornavirus from the hypovirulent strain GD-2 of Rhizoctonia solani AG-1 IA, the causal agent of rice sheath blight, were identified using a deep sequencing approach and it was tentatively named as Rhizoctonia solani endornavirus 1 (RsEV1). It was composed of only one segment that was 19,936 bp in length and was found to be the longest endornavirus genome that has been reported so far. The RsEV1 genome contained two open reading frames (ORFs): ORF1 and ORF2. ORF1 contained a glycosyltransferase 1 domain and a conserved RNA-dependent RNA polymerase domain, whereas ORF2 encoded a conserved hypothetical protein. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that RsEV1 was phylogenetically a new endogenous RNA virus. A horizontal transmission experiment indicated that RsEV1 could be transmitted from the host fungal strain GD-2 to a virulent strain GD-118P and resulted in hypovirulence in the derivative isogenic strain GD-118P-V1. Metabolomic analysis showed that 32 metabolites were differentially expressed between GD-118P and its isogenic hypovirulent strain GD-118P-V1. The differential metabolites were mainly classified as organic acids, amino acids, carbohydrates, and the intermediate products of energy metabolism. Pathway annotation revealed that these 32 metabolites were mainly involved in pentose and glucuronate interconversions and glyoxylate, dicarboxylate, starch, and sucrose metabolism, and so on. Taken together, our results showed that RsEV1 is a novel Endornavirus, and the infection of virulent strain GD-118P by RsEV1 caused metabolic disorders and resulted in hypovirulence. The results of this study lay a foundation for the biocontrol of rice sheath blight caused by R. solani AG1-IA. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Virus Ecology and Biodiversity)
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Open AccessArticle
Subterranean Clover Stunt Virus Revisited: Detection of Two Missing Genome Components
Viruses 2019, 11(2), 138; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11020138
Received: 14 January 2019 / Revised: 28 January 2019 / Accepted: 1 February 2019 / Published: 4 February 2019
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Abstract
Subterranean clover stunt virus (SCSV) is a type species of the genus Nanovirus in the family Nanoviridae. It was the first single-stranded DNA plant virus with a multipartite genome, of which genomic DNA sequences had been determined. All nanoviruses have eight genome [...] Read more.
Subterranean clover stunt virus (SCSV) is a type species of the genus Nanovirus in the family Nanoviridae. It was the first single-stranded DNA plant virus with a multipartite genome, of which genomic DNA sequences had been determined. All nanoviruses have eight genome components except SCSV, for which homologs of two genome components present in all other nanovirus genomes, DNA-U2 and DNA-U4, were lacking. We analysed archived and more recent samples from SCSV-infected legume plants to verify its genome composition and found the missing genome components. These results indicated that SCSV also has eight genome components and is a typical member of the genus Nanovirus. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Virus Ecology and Biodiversity)
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Open AccessArticle
Double-Stranded RNA High-Throughput Sequencing Reveals a New Cytorhabdovirus in a Bean Golden Mosaic Virus-Resistant Common Bean Transgenic Line
Viruses 2019, 11(1), 90; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11010090
Received: 31 December 2018 / Revised: 17 January 2019 / Accepted: 18 January 2019 / Published: 21 January 2019
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Abstract
Using double-strand RNA (dsRNA) high-throughput sequencing, we identified five RNA viruses in a bean golden mosaic virus (BGMV)-resistant common bean transgenic line with symptoms of viral infection. Four of the identified viruses had already been described as infecting common bean (cowpea mild mottle [...] Read more.
Using double-strand RNA (dsRNA) high-throughput sequencing, we identified five RNA viruses in a bean golden mosaic virus (BGMV)-resistant common bean transgenic line with symptoms of viral infection. Four of the identified viruses had already been described as infecting common bean (cowpea mild mottle virus, bean rugose mosaic virus, Phaseolus vulgaris alphaendornavirus 1, and Phaseolus vulgaris alphaendornavirus 2) and one is a putative new plant rhabdovirus (genus Cytorhabdovirus), tentatively named bean-associated cytorhabdovirus (BaCV). The BaCV genome presented all five open reading frames (ORFs) found in most rhabdoviruses: nucleoprotein (N) (ORF1) (451 amino acids, aa), phosphoprotein (P) (ORF2) (445 aa), matrix (M) (ORF4) (287 aa), glycoprotein (G) (ORF5) (520 aa), and an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (L) (ORF6) (114 aa), as well as a putative movement protein (P3) (ORF3) (189 aa) and the hypothetical small protein P4. The predicted BaCV proteins were compared to homologous proteins from the closest cytorhabdoviruses, and a low level of sequence identity (15–39%) was observed. The phylogenetic analysis shows that BaCV clustered with yerba mate chlorosis-associated virus (YmCaV) and rice stripe mosaic virus (RSMV). Overall, our results provide strong evidence that BaCV is indeed a new virus species in the genus Cytorhabdovirus (family Rhabdoviridae), the first rhabdovirus to be identified infecting common bean. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Virus Ecology and Biodiversity)
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Open AccessArticle
Detection and Characterization of Cucumis melo Cryptic Virus, Cucumis melo Amalgavirus 1, and Melon Necrotic Spot Virus in Cucumis melo
Viruses 2019, 11(1), 81; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11010081
Received: 6 November 2018 / Revised: 6 January 2019 / Accepted: 11 January 2019 / Published: 18 January 2019
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Abstract
Three RNA viruses—Cucumis melo cryptic virus (CmCV), Cucumis melo amalgavirus 1 (CmAV1), and melon necrotic spot virus (MNSV)—were identified from a melon (Cucumis melo) transcriptome dataset. CmCV has two dsRNA genome segments; dsRNA-1 is 1592 bp in size, containing a [...] Read more.
Three RNA viruses—Cucumis melo cryptic virus (CmCV), Cucumis melo amalgavirus 1 (CmAV1), and melon necrotic spot virus (MNSV)—were identified from a melon (Cucumis melo) transcriptome dataset. CmCV has two dsRNA genome segments; dsRNA-1 is 1592 bp in size, containing a conserved RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), and dsRNA-2 is 1715 bp in size, and encodes a coat protein (CP). The sequence alignment and phylogenetic analyses of the CmCV RdRp and CP indicated CmCV clusters with approved or putative deltapartitiviruses in well-supported monophyletic clade. The RdRp of CmCV shared an amino acid sequence identity of 60.7% with the closest RdRp of beet cryptic virus 3, and is <57% identical to other partitiviruses. CmAV1 is a nonsegmented dsRNA virus with a genome of 3424 bp, including two partially overlapping open reading frames (ORFs) encoding a putative CP and RdRp. The sequence alignment and phylogenetic analyses of CmAV1 RdRp revealed that it belongs to the genus Amalgavirus in the family Amalgaviridae. The RdRp of CmAV1 shares 57.7% of its amino acid sequence identity with the most closely related RdRp of Phalaenopsis equestris amalgavirus 1, and is <47% identical to the other reported amalgaviruses. These analyses suggest that CmCV and CmAV1 are novel species in the genera Amalgavirus and Deltapartitivirus, respectively. These findings enrich our understanding of new plant dsRNA virus species. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Virus Ecology and Biodiversity)
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Open AccessCommunication
High-Throughput Sequencing Reveals Cyclamen persicum Mill. as a Natural Host for Fig Mosaic Virus
Viruses 2018, 10(12), 684; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10120684
Received: 24 October 2018 / Revised: 28 November 2018 / Accepted: 29 November 2018 / Published: 3 December 2018
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Abstract
In a search for viral infections, double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) were recovered from a diseased cyclamen (Cyclamen persicum Mill.) accession (Cic) and analyzed by high-throughput sequencing (HTS) technology. Analysis of the HTS data showed the presence of Fig mosaic emaravirus (FMV) in this [...] Read more.
In a search for viral infections, double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) were recovered from a diseased cyclamen (Cyclamen persicum Mill.) accession (Cic) and analyzed by high-throughput sequencing (HTS) technology. Analysis of the HTS data showed the presence of Fig mosaic emaravirus (FMV) in this accession. The complete sequences of six FMV-Cic RNA genomic segments were determined from the HTS data and using Sanger sequencing. All FMV-Cic RNA segments are similar in size to those of FMV from fig (FMV-Gr10), with the exception of RNA-6 that is one nucleotide longer. The occurrence of FMV in cyclamen was investigated through a small-scale survey, from which four plants (out of 18 tested) were found RT-PCR positive. To study sequence variations of cyclamen isolates of FMV, RT-PCR products generated through the amplification of the partially RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp, RNA-1), glycoprotein (GP, RNA-2), and nucleocapsid (NCP, RNA-3) genes were explored. The nucleotide sequence identities for cyclamen isolates ranged between 86% and 99% in RNA-1, 93% and 99% in RNA-2, and 98% and 99% in RNA-3, while lower identity levels were observed with the sequences of fig isolates. Based on the phylogenetic tree obtained with a 304-nt fragment of RNA3, all FMV isolates from cyclamens were assigned to a single cluster close to fig isolates from the Mediterranean. FMV was graft-transmitted to healthy cyclamens eliciting symptoms similar to those observed in the Cic accession, thus suggesting a causal role of FMV in the symptoms that prompted the investigation. This is the first report of FMV in a non-fig host, Cyclamen persicum, a finding that may help in the control of the mosaic and mosaic-like diseases of fig and cyclamen, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Virus Ecology and Biodiversity)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Chickpea chlorotic dwarf virus: An Emerging Monopartite Dicot Infecting Mastrevirus
Viruses 2019, 11(1), 5; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11010005
Received: 8 November 2018 / Revised: 26 November 2018 / Accepted: 4 December 2018 / Published: 21 December 2018
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Abstract
Chickpea stunt disease (CSD), caused by Chickpea chlorotic dwarf virus (CpCDV) is a threat to chickpea production leading to yield losses of 75–95%. Chickpea chlorotic dwarf virus is a monopartite, single-stranded circular DNA virus in the genus Mastrevirus and family Geminiviridae. It [...] Read more.
Chickpea stunt disease (CSD), caused by Chickpea chlorotic dwarf virus (CpCDV) is a threat to chickpea production leading to yield losses of 75–95%. Chickpea chlorotic dwarf virus is a monopartite, single-stranded circular DNA virus in the genus Mastrevirus and family Geminiviridae. It is transmitted by Orosius albicinctus in a circulative (persistent) and nonpropagative manner. Symptoms of CSD include very small leaves, intense discoloration (yellowing (kabuli type) and reddening (desi type)), and bushy stunted appearance of the plant. Presently, CpCDVs occurs in Africa, Asia, Australia, and the Middle East, causing extensive losses on economically important crops in in the families Fabaceae, Asteraceae, Amaranthaceae, Brassicaceae, Cucurbitaceae, Caricaceae, Chenopodiaceae, Leguminosae, Malvaceae, Pedaliaceae, and Solanaceae. High frequency of recombinations has played a significant role in the wide host range, diversification, and rapid evolution of CpCDVs. This review highlights the extensive research on the CpCDV genome diversity, host range, plant–virus–insect interactions, and RNA interference-based resistance of CpCDV, providing new insights into the host adaptation and virus evolution. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Virus Ecology and Biodiversity)
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Other

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Open AccessBrief Report
Molecular and Biological Characterisation of Turnip mosaic virus Isolates Infecting Poppy (Papaver somniferum and P. rhoeas) in Slovakia
Viruses 2018, 10(8), 430; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10080430
Received: 19 June 2018 / Revised: 7 August 2018 / Accepted: 14 August 2018 / Published: 14 August 2018
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Abstract
In recent years, the accumulated molecular data of Turnip mosaic virus (TuMV) isolates from various hosts originating from different parts of the world considerably helped to understand the genetic complexity and evolutionary history of the virus. In this work, four complete TuMV genomes [...] Read more.
In recent years, the accumulated molecular data of Turnip mosaic virus (TuMV) isolates from various hosts originating from different parts of the world considerably helped to understand the genetic complexity and evolutionary history of the virus. In this work, four complete TuMV genomes (HC9, PK1, MS04, MS15) were characterised from naturally infected cultivated and wild-growing Papaver spp., hosts from which only very scarce data were available previously. Phylogenetic analyses showed the affiliation of Slovak Papaver isolates to the world-B and basal-B groups. The PK1 isolate showed a novel intra-lineage recombination pattern, further confirming the important role of recombination in the shaping of TuMV genetic diversity. Biological assays indicated that the intensity of symptoms in experimentally inoculated oilseed poppy are correlated to TuMV accumulation level in leaves. This is the first report of TuMV in poppy plants in Slovakia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Virus Ecology and Biodiversity)
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