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Feline Foamy Virus Infection: Characterization of Experimental Infection and Prevalence of Natural Infection in Domestic Cats with and without Chronic Kidney Disease

1
Department of Microbiology, Immunology, and Pathology, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523, USA
2
Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, 12700 E. 19th Ave., Aurora, CO 80045, USA
3
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Western Ontario, 1151 Richmond St., London, ON N6A 5C1, Canada
4
Department of Veterinary Pathobiology, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK 74075, USA
5
Department of Veterinary Biosciences, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, USA
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Sydney School of Veterinary Science, Faculty of Science, University of Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia
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Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523, USA
8
Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, The Ohio State University Veterinary Medical Center, 601 Vernon Tharpe Street, Columbus, OH 43210, USA
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Department of Viral Transformation Mechanisms, Research Program Infection, Inflammation and Cancer, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Im Neuenheimer Feld 242, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Viruses 2019, 11(7), 662; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11070662
Received: 25 June 2019 / Revised: 11 July 2019 / Accepted: 13 July 2019 / Published: 19 July 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Spumaretroviruses)
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PDF [7445 KB, uploaded 19 July 2019]
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Abstract

Foamy viruses (FVs) are globally prevalent retroviruses that establish apparently apathogenic lifelong infections. Feline FV (FFV) has been isolated from domestic cats with concurrent diseases, including urinary syndromes. We experimentally infected five cats with FFV to study viral kinetics and tropism, peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) phenotype, urinary parameters, and histopathology. A persistent infection of primarily lymphoid tropism was detected with no evidence of immunological or hematologic perturbations. One cat with a significant negative correlation between lymphocytes and PBMC proviral load displayed an expanded FFV tissue tropism. Significantly increased blood urea nitrogen and ultrastructural kidney changes were noted in all experimentally infected cats, though chemistry parameters were not outside of normal ranges. Histopathological changes were observed in the brain, large intestine, and other tissues. In order to determine if there is an association of FFV with Chronic Kidney Disease, we additionally screened 125 Australian pet cats with and without CKD for FFV infection and found that FFV is highly prevalent in older cats, particularly in males with CKD, though this difference was not statistically significant compared to controls. Acute FFV infection was clinically silent, and while some measures indicated mild changes, there was no overt association of FFV infection with renal disease. View Full-Text
Keywords: foamy virus; spumavirus; retrovirus; viral tropism; infection; kidney; cats; chronic kidney disease; chronic renal disease foamy virus; spumavirus; retrovirus; viral tropism; infection; kidney; cats; chronic kidney disease; chronic renal disease
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Ledesma-Feliciano, C.; Troyer, R.M.; Zheng, X.; Miller, C.; Cianciolo, R.; Bordicchia, M.; Dannemiller, N.; Gagne, R.; Beatty, J.; Quimby, J.; Löchelt, M.; VandeWoude, S. Feline Foamy Virus Infection: Characterization of Experimental Infection and Prevalence of Natural Infection in Domestic Cats with and without Chronic Kidney Disease. Viruses 2019, 11, 662.

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